Sphere of influence
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it. While there may be a formal alliance or other treaty obligations between the influenced and influencer, such formal arrangements are not necessary and the influence can be more of an example of soft power. A formal alliance does not mean that one country lies within another's sphere of influence. High levels of exclusivity have been associated with higher levels of conflict. In more extreme cases, a country within the "sphere of influence" of another may become a subsidiary of that state and serve in effect as a satellite state or de facto colony; the system of spheres of influence by which powerful nations intervene in the affairs of others continues to the present. It is analyzed in terms of superpowers, great powers, and/or middle powers.
Sometimes portions of a single country can fall into two distinct spheres of influence. In the colonial era the buffer states of Iran and Thailand, lying between the empires of Britain/Russia and Britain/France were divided between the spheres of influence of the imperial powers. After World War II, Germany was divided into four occupation zones, which consolidated into West Germany and East Germany, the former a member of NATO and the latter a member of the Warsaw Pact; the term is used to describe non-political situations, e.g. a shopping mall is said to have a sphere of influence which designates the geographical area where it dominates the retail trade. Many areas of the world are considered to have inherited culture from a previous sphere of influence, that while today halted, continues to share the same culture. Examples include the Anglosphere, Arab World, Francophonie, Françafrique, Indosphere, Latin Europe/Latin America, Turkosphere, Chinese cultural sphere, Hispanophone, Malay World, as well as many others.
An example of spheres of influence was China in the late 19th and early 20th Century, when Britain, France and Russia had de facto control over large swaths of territory. These were taken by means of military attacks or threats to force Chinese authorities to sign unequal treaties and long term "leases". In December 1897 German Kaiser Wilhelm II declared his intent to seize territory in China, precipitating the scramble to demarcate zones of influence in China; the German government acquired, in Shandong province, exclusive control over developmental loans and railway ownership, while Russia gained, in addition to the previous tax exemption for trade in Mongolia and Xinjiang, economic powers similar to Germany's over Fengtian and Heilongjiang provinces. France gained a sphere over Yunnan and Guangdong provinces, Japan over Fujian province, the British Empire over the whole Yangtze River Valley and Tibet. Only Italy's request for Zhejiang province was declined by the Chinese government; these do not include the lease and concession territories where the foreign powers had full authority.
In 1902, Winston Churchill gave a speech regarding the division of China by the great powers, where he declared that "we shall have to take the Chinese in hand and regulate them", "I believe in the ultimate partition of China" and "the Aryan stock is bound to triumph". The Russian government militarily occupied their zone, imposed their law and schools, seized mining and logging privileges, settled their citizens, established their municipal administration on several cities, the latter without Chinese consent; the powers might have their own courts, post offices, commercial institutions and gunboats in what was on paper Chinese territory. However, the foreign powers and their control in some cases could have been exaggerated; the system ended after the Second World War. On September 6, 1899, U. S. Secretary of State John Hay sent notes to the major powers, asking them to declare formally that they would uphold Chinese territorial and administrative integrity and would not interfere with the free use of the treaty ports within their spheres of influence in China, as the US felt threatened by other powers' much larger spheres of influence in China and worried that it might lose access to the Chinese market should the country be partitioned.
Although treaties made after 1900 refer to this "Open Door Policy", competition among the various powers for special concessions within China for railroad rights, mining rights, foreign trade ports, so forth, continued unabated, with the US itself contradicting the policy by agreeing to recognise the Japanese sphere in the Lansing-Ishii Agreement. In 1910, the great powers, France, United States, Russia and Japan, ignored the Open Door Policy to form a banking consortium, consisting of national banking groups backed by respective governments, through which all foreign loans to China were monopolised, granting the powers political influence over China and reducing economic competition between foreigners; this organisation controlled the majority of Chinese tax revenue in a "trust", utilised a small portion to bolster the rule of Yuan Shikai, to great effect. The renewed consortium of UK, Japan and US in 1920 vetoed all developmental loans to China, ruling over the Chinese government by aiming to control all rails and highways in China.
In the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, Brit
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran known as the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the joint invasion of Iran in 1941 during the Second World War by the British Commonwealth and the Soviet Union. The invasion was codenamed Operation Countenance, its purpose was to secure Iranian oil fields and ensure Allied supply lines for the USSR, fighting against Axis forces on the Eastern Front. Though Iran was neutral, the Allies considered Reza Shah to be friendly to Germany, deposed him during the subsequent occupation and replaced him with his young son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. In 1925, after years of civil war and foreign intervention, Persia was unified under the rule of Reza Khan, who crowned himself to become Reza Shah that same year. In 1935, he asked foreign delegates to use the term Iran, the historical name of the country, used by its native people, in formal correspondence, he set on an ambitious program of economic and military modernisation. Iran, a divided and isolated country under the rule of the Qajar dynasty, was evolving into a modern industrial state.
Reza Shah made many improvements, such as building infrastructure, expanding cities and transportation networks, establishing schools. He set forth on a policy of neutrality, but to help finance and support his ambitious modernisation projects, he needed the help of the West. For many decades and the German Empire had cultivated ties as a counter to the imperial ambitions of Britain and Russia, the Soviet Union. Trading with Germany appealed to Iran because the Germans did not have a history of imperialism in the region, unlike the British and Russians; the Iranian government did not support the antisemitism of Nazis. Iranian embassies in European capitals occupied by the Germans, rescued over 1,500 Jews and secretly granted them Iranian citizenship, allowing them to move to Iran; the British began to accuse Iran of being pro-German. Although Reza Shah declared neutrality at an early stage of World War II, Iran assumed greater strategic importance to the British government, which feared that the Abadan Refinery might fall into German hands.
Tensions with Iran had been strained since 1931 when the Shah cancelled the D'Arcy Concession, which gave the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company the exclusive right to sell Iranian oil, with Iran receiving only 10 percent of the revenue or of the profits. Following Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Britain and the Soviet Union became formal Allies, providing further impetus for an Allied invasion. With the German Army advancing through the Soviet Union, the Persian Corridor formed by the Trans-Iranian Railway was one of the easiest ways for the Allies to get Lend-Lease supplies to the Soviets, sent by sea from the United States. British and Soviet planners sought to control it; as increasing U-boat attacks and winter ice made convoys to Arkhangelsk dangerous, the railway became an attractive route. The Soviets wanted Iranian Azerbaijan and the Turkmen Sahra to become part of the Soviet Union, to turn Iran into a communist state; the two Allied nations applied pressure on Iran and the Shah, which led only to increased tensions and anti-British rallies in Tehran.
The British described the protests as being "pro-German". Iran's strategic position threatened Soviet Caucasian oil and their armies' rear and a German advance would threaten British communications between India and the Mediterranean. Demands from the Allies for the expulsion of German residents in Iran were refused by the Shah. A British embassy report dated 1940 estimated there were 1,000 German nationals in Iran. According to Iran's Ettelaat newspaper, there were 690 German nationals in Iran. Jean Beaumont estimates that "probably no more than 3,000 Germans lived in Iran, but they were believed to have a disproportionate influence because of their employment in strategic government industries and in Iran's transport and communications network". However, the Iranians began to reduce their trade with the Germans under Allied demands. Reza Shah sought to remain neutral and anger neither side, becoming difficult with the British/Soviet demands on Iran. British forces were present in sizeable numbers in Iraq as a result of the Anglo-Iraqi War earlier in 1941.
Thus, British troops were stationed on the western border of Iran prior to the invasion. The invasion was a surprise attack, conducted with ease. Prior to the invasion, two diplomatic notes were delivered to the Iranian government on 19 July and 17 August, requiring the Iranian government to expel German nationals; the second of the notes was recognised by the prime minister Ali Mansur as a disguised ultimatum. General Archibald Wavell wrote in his despatch, "it was apparent that the Iranian Government expected an early British advance into Khuzistan and that reinforcements, including light and medium tanks, were being sent to Ahvaz". Following the invasion, Sir Reader Bullard and Andrey Andreyevich Smirnov, the British and Soviet ambassadors to Iran, were summoned; the Shah demanded to know why they had not declared war. Both answered; when the Shah asked if the Allies would stop their attack if he expelled the Germans, the ambassadors did not
Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1946)
The Kingdom of Hungary, sometimes referred to as the Regency, existed as a country from 1920 to 1946 under the rule of Regent Miklós Horthy. Horthy represented the Hungarian monarchy of Charles IV, Apostolic King of Hungary. Attempts by Charles IV to return to the throne were prevented by threats of war from neighbouring countries and by the lack of support from Horthy; some historians consider that the country was a client state of Germany from 1938 to 1944. The Kingdom of Hungary under Horthy was an Axis Power during most of World War II. In 1944, after Horthy's government negotiated secretly with the Allies, considered leaving the war, Hungary was occupied by Nazi Germany and Horthy was deposed; the Arrow Cross Party's leader Ferenc Szálasi established a new Nazi-backed government turning Hungary into a German-occupied puppet state. After World War II, Hungary fell within the Soviet Union's sphere of interest. In 1946, the Second Hungarian Republic was established under Soviet influence. In 1949, the communist Hungarian People's Republic was founded.
Upon the dissolution and break-up of Austria-Hungary after World War I, the Hungarian Democratic Republic and the Hungarian Soviet Republic were proclaimed in 1918 and 1919, respectively. The short-lived communist government of Béla Kun launched what was known as the "Red Terror", involving Hungary in an ill-fated war with Romania. In 1920, the country fell into a period of civil conflict, with Hungarian anti-communists and monarchists violently purging the nation of communists, leftist intellectuals, others whom they felt threatened by Jews; this period was known as the "White Terror". In 1920, after the pullout of the last of the Romanian occupation forces, the Kingdom of Hungary was restored. On February 29, 1920, a coalition of right-wing political forces united and returned Hungary to being a constitutional monarchy. However, it was obvious that the Allies would not accept any return of Charles IV. With civil unrest too great to choose a new king, it was decided to select a regent to represent the monarchy.
Miklós Horthy, the last commanding admiral of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, was chosen for this position on 1 March. Sándor Simonyi-Semadam was the first Prime Minister of Horthy's regency. Horthy's rule as Regent possessed characteristics such; as a counterpoint, his powers were a continuation of the constitutional powers of the King of Hungary, adopted earlier during the federation with the Austrian Empire. As Regent, Horthy had the power to dissolve the Hungarian Diet at his own discretion; the succession after Horthy's death or abdication was never established. In January 1942, Parliament appointed Horthy's eldest son István as Deputy Regent and expected successor. Whether this represents an attempt to re-establish monarchy in Hungary is unclear. During his first ten years, Horthy led increased repression of Hungarian minorities. In 1920, the numerus clausus law formally placed limits on the number of minority students at university, legalized corporal punishment. Although the law applied in equal measure to all minorities, the ethnicity quota system was never introduced and the law acted to conceal anti-Jewish action from foreign observers.
Limitations were relaxed in 1928. Racial criteria in admitting new students were replaced by social criteria. Five categories were set up: civil servants, war veterans and army officers, small landowners and artisans and the merchant classes. Under István Bethlen as Prime Minister the electoral system was changed to reintroduce an open vote system outside Budapest and its vicinity and cities with county municipal rights, his political party, the Party of Unity, won repeated elections. Bethlen pushed for revision of the Treaty of Trianon. After the collapse of the Hungarian economy from 1929 to 1931, national turmoil pushed Bethlen to resign as Prime Minister. In 1938 the changes to the electoral system were reversed. Social conditions in the kingdom did not improve as time passed, as a small proportion of the population continued to control much of the country's wealth. Jews were continually pressured to assimilate into Hungarian mainstream culture; the desperate situation forced the Regent, Horthy, to accept the far-right politician Gyula Gömbös as Prime Minister.
He pledged to retain the existing political system. Gömbös agreed to allow some Jews into the government. In power, Gömbös moved Hungary towards a one-party government like those of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Pressure by Nazi Germany for extreme anti-Semitism forced Gömbös out and Hungary pursued anti-Semitism under its “Jewish Laws”; the government passed laws restricting Jews to 20 percent in a number of professions. It scapegoated the Jews for the country's failing economy. In 1944, responding to the advancing Soviet forces, the Regent Miklós Horthy deposed the pro-German Prime Minister and installed a more balanced government in an effort to engage with the Allies and avoid occupation by the Soviet Union. Shortly afterward, German forces invaded Hungary, deposed Horthy as Regent, installed a puppet regime led by Ferenc Szálasi of the anti-Semitic and pro-Nazi Arrow Cross Party; the Arrow Cross Party never abolished the Monarchy as a form of government, Hungarian newspapers continued to refer to the country as the Kingdom o
Winston Churchill as writer
Winston Churchill, in addition to his careers of soldier and politician, was a prolific writer under the pen name "Winston S. Churchill". After being commissioned into the 4th Queen's Own Hussars in 1895, Churchill gained permission to observe the Cuban War of Independence, sent war reports to The Daily Graphic, he continued his war journalism in British India, at the Siege of Malakand in the Sudan during the Mahdist War and in southern Africa during the Second Boer War. Churchill's fictional output included one novel and a short story, but his main output comprised non-fiction. After he was elected as an MP, over 130 of his speeches or parliamentary answers were published in pamphlets or booklets. Churchill received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values". In 1895 Winston Churchill was commissioned cornet into the 4th Queen's Own Hussars, his annual pay was £300, he calculated he needed an additional £500 to support a style of life equal to that of other officers of the regiment.
To earn the required funds, he gained his colonel's agreement to observe the Cuban War of Independence. He was subsequently posted back to his regiment based in British India, where he took part in, reported on the Siege of Malakand; the reports formed the basis of his first book, The Story of the Malakand Field Force, published in 1898. To relax he wrote his only novel, published in 1898; that same year he was transferred to the Sudan to take part in the Mahdist War, where he participated in the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898. He published his recollections in The River War. In 1899 Churchill resigned his commission and travelled to South Africa as the correspondent with The Morning Post, on a salary of £250 a month plus all expenses, to report on the Second Boer War, he was captured by the Boers in November that year, but managed to escape. He remained in the country and continued to send in his reports to the newspaper, he subsequently published his despatches in two works, London to Ladysmith via Pretoria and Ian Hamilton's March.
He returned to Britain in 1900 and was elected as the Member of parliament for the Oldham constituency at that year's general election. As a serving MP he began publishing pamphlets containing his speeches or answers to key parliamentary questions. Beginning with Mr Winston Churchill on the Education Bill, over 135 such tracts were published over his career. Many of these were subsequently compiled into collections, several of which were edited by his son and others of which were edited by Charles Eade, the editor of the Sunday Dispatch. In addition to his parliamentary duties, Churchill wrote a two-volume biography of his father, Lord Randolph Churchill, published in 1906, in which he "presented his father as a tory with radical sympathies", according to the historian Paul Addison. In the 1923 general election Churchill lost his parliamentary seat and moved to the south of France where he wrote The World Crisis, a six-volume history of the First World War, published between 1923 and 1931; the book was well-received, although the former Prime Minister Arthur Balfour dismissed the work as "Winston's brilliant autobiography, disguised as world history".
At the 1924 general election Churchill returned to the Commons. In 1930 he wrote his first autobiography, My Early Life, after which he began his researches for Marlborough: His Life and Times, a four-volume biography of his ancestor, John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. Before the final volume was published, Churchill wrote a series of biographical profiles for newspapers, which were collected together and published as Great Contemporaries. In May 1940, eight months after the outbreak of the Second World War, Churchill became Prime Minister, he wrote no histories during his tenure, although several collections of his speeches were published. At the end of the war he was voted out of office at the 1945 election; the books became a best-seller in both the UK and US. Churchill served as Prime Minister for a second time between October 1951 and April 1955 before resigning the premiership, his final major work was the four-volume work A History of the English-Speaking Peoples. In 1953 Churchill was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values".
Churchill was always well paid as an author and, for most of his life, writing was his main source of income. He produced a huge portfolio of written work. John Gunther in 1939 estimated that he earned $100,000 a year from writing and lecturing, but that "of this he spends plenty"; when demand was high for his newspaper and magazine articles, Churchill employed a ghostwriter. During 1934, for example, Churchill was commissioned by Collier's, the News of the World, the Daily Mail - and, added that year, the Sunday Dispatch, for which the newspaper's editor, William Blackwood, employed Adam Marshal
Winston Churchill as painter
Winston Churchill was making landscape drawings inspired by places that saw all over the world but became more of an enthusiastic painter after resigning from the government in 1955. Though, he continued this hobby into his old age, painting over 500 pictures of subjects such as his goldfish pond at Chartwell and the landscapes and buildings of Marrakesh or other various Landscapes that he had the chance to view during his war trips. Coombs, David.