SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Perciformes

Perciformes called the Percomorpha or Acanthopteri, is an order or superorder of ray-finned fish. If considered a single order, they are the most numerous order of vertebrates, containing about 41% of all bony fish. Perciformes means "perch-like"; this group comprises over 10,000 species found in all aquatic ecosystems. The order contains about 160 families, the most of any order within the vertebrates, it is the most variably sized order of vertebrates, ranging from the 7-mm Schindleria brevipinguis to the 5-m marlin in the genus Makaira. They first diversified in the Late Cretaceous. Among the well-known members of this group are perch and darters, sea bass and groupers; the dorsal and anal fins are divided into anterior spiny and posterior soft-rayed portions, which may be or separated. The pelvic fins have one spine and up to five soft rays, positioned unusually far forward under the chin or under the belly. Scales are ctenoid, although sometimes they are cycloid or otherwise modified. Classification of this group is controversial.

As traditionally defined before the introduction of cladistics, the Perciformes are certainly paraphyletic. Other orders that should be included as suborders are the Scorpaeniformes, Tetraodontiformes, Pleuronectiformes. Of the presently recognized suborders, several may be paraphyletic, as well; these are grouped by suborder/superfamily following the text Fishes of the World

Dutch Reformed Church

The Dutch Reformed Church was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930. It was the foremost Protestant denomination, and—since 1892—one of the two major Reformed denominations along with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, it spread to the United States, South Africa, Sri Lanka and various other world regions through the Dutch colonization. It was the original denomination of the Dutch Royal Family until being merged into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands, a United church of both Reformed and Evangelical Lutheran theological orientations; the allegiance to the Dutch Reformed Church was a common feature among Dutch immigrant communities around the world, became a crucial part of Afrikaner nationalism in South Africa. It developed during the Protestant Reformation, being shaped theologically by John Calvin, but other major Reformed theologians, it was founded in 1571. The Dutch Reformed Church was shaped by various theological developments and controversies during its history, including Arminianism, the Nadere Reformatie and a number of splits in the 19th century that diversified Dutch Calvinism.

The church functioned until 2004, the year it merged with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands to form the Protestant Church in the Netherlands. At the time of the merger, the Church had 2 million members organised in 1,350 congregations. A minority of members of the church chose not to participate in the merger and instead formed the Restored Reformed Church. Before the demise of the Dutch Republic in 1795, the Dutch Reformed Church enjoyed the status of "public" or "privileged" church. Though it was never formally adopted as the state religion, the law demanded that every public official should be a communicant member; the Church had close relations with the Dutch government. A privilege of members of the Dutch Reformed Church was that they could have their businesses open on Sundays, otherwise considered a religious day and not one for business; the Dutch Reformed Church was disestablished in 1795 with the end of the Republic.

Although it remained endorsed by the Royal Family, the Netherlands never had any public church afterwards. The Reformation was a time of religious violence and persecution by the established Catholic Church and governments, in some cases. Efforts to form a Reformed church in the southern provinces stemmed from a secret meeting of Protestant leaders at Antwerp in 1566, despite Spanish repression, many nobles joined the Protestant movement. Two years in 1568, following an attack on the Netherlands by the forces of the Duke of Alba, many Netherlanders fled to the German city of Wesel, where a Synod was convened at which the Belgic Confession and Heidelberg Catechism were adopted, provisions were made for the offices of pastor, elder and deacon; the first Synod of 23 Dutch Reformed leaders was held in October 1571 in the German city of Emden. The Synod of Emden is considered to be the founding of the Dutch Reformed Church, the oldest of the Reformed churches in the Netherlands; the Synod both affirmed the actions of the earlier Synod of Wesel, as well as established presbyterian church government for the Dutch Reformed Church.

The first Synod to be located in the Dutch Republic was held in Dordrecht in 1578. This synodical meeting is not to be confused with the better known Second Synod of Dort of 1618. Large groups of Marranos converted to Christianity. All Marranos, many Jewish groups converted to Christianity around 1649 to the Nederduitsche, Niederdeutsche church on Dutch Reformed Church. In the latter meeting, the Church fathers expelled Arminians and added the Canons of Dort to the Confessions; the Canons of Dort, together with the adopted Belgic Confession and Heidelberg Catechism, were called the Drie formulieren van Enigheid. Most conflicts and splits in the Church arose because of disagreement over the substance and interpretation of these doctrinal documents; the government of the Dutch Republic, which had instigated the Arminians' expulsion, subsequently prohibited the Reformed Church from assembling synodically. No Synod was held in the Netherlands until after the end of the Republic in 1795; the 17th and early 18th centuries were the age of the Dutch Nadere Reformatie, led by Gisbertus Voetius and Wilhelmus à Brakel, influenced by English Puritanism.

In the 19th century, theological liberalism led to splits in the Dutch Reformed Church. King William I of the Netherlands imposed a new form of government for the church, in which the civil authorities selected the commissioners to the National Synod in 1816, making it difficult for ministers to speak out against perceived errors. In 1834, the minister Hendrik de Cock of the town of Ulrum was told by church leaders that he could not preach against certain colleagues, who he believed held erroneous views, he and his congregation seceded from the Dutch Reformed Church. In time, the Afscheiding led to the departure of 120 congregations from the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1886, another separation, the Doleantie, led by Dutch Reformed businessman and politician Abraham Kuyper; the Dutch Reformed Church remained the largest church body in the Netherlands until the middle of the 20th century, when it was overtaken by the Roman Catholic Church. The rapid secularisation of the Netherlands in the 1960s reduced participation in the mainstream Protestant church.

From the'60s onward, a number of attempts were made t

Hoƫrskool Wonderboom

Hoërskool Wonderboom is a public Afrikaans medium co-educational high school situated in the suburb of Wonderboom in Pretoria in the Gauteng province of South Africa, on the southern slopes of the Magaliesberg, The learners are known as the Wonnies In 1925 a commission headed by J. A. Friis started an action to establish a high school in the Moot; the former Department of Education was not inclined to an Afrikaans high school building. In 1928 the MEC for Education, Mr. Michael Brink, made a promise for a new Afrikaans high school. Up until 1943, the matter was still on ice. A new Afrikaans high school was not on the agenda of the Department of Education. Mr. Michael Brink again decided to undertake the matter further. On June 14, 1944, a site was recommended and approved on February 13, 1946; this area was the now famous, southern slope of the Magaliesberg east of Voortrekker Road. In November 1946 the first sod was dug by Mr. Michael Brink. Mr. J Dey was the architect, Mr.. J D Verhoewe the contractor and Mr. C.

Morgan, chairman of the action committee. After many years, the first Afrikaans High School was established in the Moot, under the name Michael Brink Hoër. A year on June 10, 1950, the Administrator of the Transvaal announced that: the school will from now on be known as Die Hoërskool Wonderboom, it was the first step in the direction of the rich traditions, beautiful grounds and outstanding features of Hoërskool Wonderboom, as it is known today. "Grow and Serve" is the motto of the school upheld throughout the past 58 years. This motto and badge were introduced at the end of 1950; the school song was the next milestone. Mr. J. A. van der Walt, a teacher was the author of the lyrics and the famous Stephan Eyssen wrote the music. The school song was inaugurated at the matric farewell in 1953; the school's number of pupils had increased and in 1955 new building additions were necessary. In 1964 construction started on the larger hall, and completed on 16 January 1967. This included some alterations to existing buildings including the media center.

In 1974 the new pavilion was built, with its roof was a big improvement. In addition, the sports fields underwent a metamorphosis. In January 1949 Mr. Van Vuuren, a retired former headmaster took the reins of the new school in his capable hands. In 1950 dr. J. C. Otto was appointed the first permanent headmaster, he was the Mayor of Pretoria. He was succeeded in 1962 by Mr. S. H. Friis, son of Mr. J. A. Friis under whose leadership the action began for a new Afrikaans high school. After 14 years, in 1976, Mr. C. Schutte was appointed his successor, only 10 years in 1986, D. J. Ferreira took up the reins. Dr. S. T. van Wyk was appointed on 1 November 1994, his career as headmaster of Hoërskool Wonderboom lasted for a fruitful 17 years. Dr S. T. van Wyk retired in 2016, with Mr. Marius Lezar taking his place and starting his first year as headmaster in 2017