Percy Cox

Major-General Sir Percy Zachariah Cox was a British Indian Army officer and Colonial Office administrator in the Middle East. He was one of the major figures in the creation of the current Middle East. Cox was born in Harwood Hall, Essex, the son of Julienne Emily and cricketer Arthur Zachariah Cox, he was educated at Harrow School where he developed interests in natural history and travel. In February 1884, being his father's third son and therefore without significant inheritance, Cox joined the Royal Military College and was commissioned as a Lieutenant into the Cameronians, joining their 2nd Battalion in India. In November 1889, an outstanding planner, he transferred to the Bengal Staff Corps. On 14 November 1889 he married Louisa Belle, youngest daughter of Irish-born surgeon-general John Butler Hamilton. After holding minor administrative appointments in Kolhapur and Savantvadi in India, Cox was posted to British Somaliland, administered from India, as Assistant Political Resident at Zeila.

He transferred to Berbera in 1894. He was promoted to captain in February 1895. In May 1895 he was given command of an expedition against the Rer Hared clan, which had blocked trade routes and was raiding the coast. With only 52 Indian and Somali regulars and 1,500 poor quality, untrained local irregulars, he defeated the Rer Hared in six weeks; that year 1895, he was promoted to be assistant to the Viceroy of India's agent in Baroda. For 1899 he had intended to join the US expedition under A Donaldson Smith between the River Nile and Lake Rudolf, but in October 1899, the new Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon appointed Cox Political Agent and consul at Muscat, inheriting a tense situation between the British and Arabs who regarded the area as under their influence; the French had leased a coaling station from the local ruler, for the French Navy. The French gave protection to the local slave trade, which the British opposed. Feisal was ordered by the British under Cox to board the British merchantman SS Eclipse, whose guns were trained on his palace and reprimanded and informed that his annual subsidy could be withdrawn by the British government.

Cox managed to end French influence in the area. When Lord Curzon, visited Muscat in 1903, he judged that Cox ran the place. Cox was promoted to the rank of major on 6 February 1902, was invested CIE. In June 1904, Major Cox was appointed first British Acting Political Resident in the Persian Gulf and Consul-General for Fars Province and Khuzestan and the district of Lingah, residing in the Persian side of the gulf at the city of Bushehr, he began a remarkable correspondence and friendship with Captain William Shakespear, appointed Cox's deputy Political Resident to Persia. Their frank exchange of views at Bandar Abbas was a major element of pre-war policy in the near east. Cox considered peace the priority, in the maintenance of good relations with the Ottomans, who held all the tribal loyalties, whilst prompting India to change policy towards Ibn Saud, the Wahhabi ruler of Nejd and king of Saudi Arabia, from 1906. One of the few allies was Shaikh Mubarak of Kuwait, whose shared intelligence aided the desert war.

Cox was assiduous with his briefs: he prepared in great detail, in fluent Arabic, when he wrote Shaikhs. Warned by the former ambassador to Constantinople of Turkish escalation. British forces were called into Bushehr in 1909, again to Shiraz in 1911. Cox promised Sheikh Khazal of Muhammarah that troops would protect when the Turks threatened to invade. Khazaal leased the Shatt al-Arab waterway on the Euphrates to the Anglo-Persian Oil company for the construction of refineries. In 1910 Cox wrote a full report on Shakespear's findings to India, passed to London, he was promoted to Lieutenant-colonel in February 1910. Cox promoted trade in the Persian Gulf which doubled between 1904 and 1914, suppressed the illegal arms trade. In 1911 he was created KBE. In 1908 oil fields were discovered in the region of Abadan. On 16 July 1909, after secret negotiation with Cox, assisted by Arnold Wilson, Sheik Khaz'al agreed to a rental agreement for the island including Abadan, he was confirmed as Resident, a post which he occupied successfully until 1914, when he was appointed Secretary to the British Raj.

Cox feared. But the Foreign Office was engrossed with events in Europe. Among his other achievements while at Bushire was the establishment of the state of Kuwait as an autonomous kaza within the Ottoman Empire by the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, where he improved relations with local ruler, Mubarak, by opening negotiations with Ibn Saud; the Turks signed a treaty in London on 29 July 1913 concerning Royal Navy patrols in the Persian Gulf littoral, when Cox met at the Port of Uqair on 15 December 1913. Cox noted their "intractability" and warned the Foreign and Commonwealth Office about Ibn Saud. Captain Shakespear's letter had passed via Riyadh to the Suez Canal in which his secret War-camp negotiations with Ibn Sa'ud, had revealed the latter's deep hatred of the Turks, who brutalised his people and threatened his ancestral rights. Shortly after his return to India, Sir Percy was sent back to the Persian Gulf as Chief Political Officer with the Indian Expeditionary Force when World War I broke out in August 1914, still with a brief to prevent Turkish e

Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate

Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate is a fixed combination of the synthetic vitamin D3 analog calcipotriol and the synthetic corticosteroid betamethasone dipropionate for the treatment of plaque psoriasis in adults and adolescents. It is used in the form of ointment, topical suspension, foam. Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate is a topical medication for the treatment of trunk and scalp plaque psoriasis; this medication is available in formulations. The ointment formulation was FDA approved in 2004 and is indicated for the once daily topical treatment of plaque-type psoriasis vulgaris amenable to topical therapy; the foam formulation was approved by the FDA in 2015 and is indicated for the topical treatment of plaque psoriasis in patients 18 years of age and older. In all pivotal trials of Cal/BD ointment, topical suspension, or foam, treatment success or achievement of'clear' or'almost clear' disease was defined by Investigator's Global Assessment, an alternative to the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score.

OintmentIn an international, double-blind, parallel group study of 1603 patients with psoriasis, more patients on once-daily Cal/BD ointment had controlled disease, defined as having absence or mild disease at 4 weeks compared with Cal 50 μg/g. In addition, a retrospective analysis of data from six phase 3, double-blind studies found that more patients treated with Cal/BD ointment achieved PASI 75 than patients treated with individual components, regardless of baseline disease severity. FoamThe foam formulation has been studied in two pivotal, double-blind trials in patients with mild to severe plaque psoriasis. In the first study of 302 patients with body and scalp psoriasis, more patients treated with Cal/BD foam achieved'clear' or' clear' disease according to the IGA by 4 weeks compared with Cal 50 mcg/g or BD 0.5 mg/g. In a second study of patients with psoriasis on the body, a greater proportion of patients treated with once-daily Cal/BD foam achieved'clear' or'almost clear' disease vs. those receiving the vehicle control.

Mean modified PASI score was significantly lower for patients treated with Cal/BD foam compared with vehicle, itch relief was greater in patients using the Cal/BD foam beginning at day 3. A recent study compared the Cal/BD foam formulation with the ointment formulation in patients with mild to severe psoriasis. At 4 weeks more patients achieved treatment success, defined as'clear' or'almost clear' disease according to the IGA with Cal/BD foam versus the ointment. However, pronounced itch relief occurred and was maintained throughout the 4-week study duration with both formulations. Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to either glucocorticoids or vitamin D or disorders in calcium metabolism; this drug is contraindicated for patients with erythrodermic, exfoliative, or pustular psoriasis. A number of clinical studies have been conducted to investigate possible adverse events of this fixed combination corticosteroid and vitamin D analog. Safety and tolerability of Cal/BD ointment has been assessed in a combined total of 2448 patients, exposed to treatment for 4 or 8 weeks.

The most common adverse events for patients receiving Cal/BD were pruritus and nasopharyngitis. Lesional/perilesional adverse events, defined as an adverse event located ≤2 cm from the lesional border, were reported by 8.7% of patients treated with Cal/BD ointment. Median time to onset of lesional/perilesional adverse events was 7 days. Adverse events during treatment with the foam formulation have been evaluated in three 4-week randomized, prospective vehicle- and/or active-controlled clinical trials of subjects with plaque psoriasis; the median weekly dose was 24.8 g. Application site irritation, application site pruritus, skin hypopigmentation, hypercalcemia and exacerbation of psoriasis were reported in <1% of subjects. Local long-term adverse effects of continuous steroid exposure may include skin atrophy, stretch marks, dryness, local infections, miliaria. A number of clinical studies have been conducted to research possible adverse effects of this drug combination, which can be expected from experiences with corticosteroids and vitamin D analogs.

In a small study of Cal/BD ointment once-daily for 4 weeks, no patients demonstrated adrenal suppression defined as 30-minute post-stimulation cortisol level ≤18 mcg/dL. In two other studies of Cal/BD ointment, 1 patient of 19 had adrenal suppression, as did 5 patients of 32 after 4 weeks of treatment. In the latter study, it may be noted that patients used Cal/BD ointment on the body in addition to Cal/BD topical suspension on the scalp. Potential effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function of the foam formulation were evaluated in a clinical trial of adults with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis covering a mean of 18% of the body surface area of the trunk and limbs and 50% of the scalp; the foam was applied once daily to all lesions on the trunk and scalp for 4 weeks. Mean weekly exposure was 62 g. After 4 weeks, no patient exhibited adrenal suppression, defined as a cortisol level ≤497 nmol

Gerd Grønvold Saue

Gerd Grønvold Saue is a Norwegian journalist, literary critic, novelist and peace activist. Her authorship comprises novels, many of which convey her Christian views, she grew up in Lillestrøm, holds a cand.mag. Degree, has worked many years as a journalist, she spent the years 1954 to 1966 in the weekly magazine Familien, has worked freelance for the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation and Arbeiderbladet. and been a literary critic in Arbeiderbladet, Vårt Land and Stavanger Aftenblad. For Familien she wrote several portrait interviews, some of which were collected and published in 1964, she made her literary fiction debut with the novel Algirsk vår. Her 2001 book Elsket og foraktet was about Jane Addams, her 1991 release Fredsfurien was a biographical novel of Bertha von Suttner. Saue was interested in Suttner's impact on the Nobel Peace Prize. Saue herself is a former president of the Norwegian Peace Council and a member of the board of the International Peace Bureau, she chaired the International Fellowship of Reconciliation, Norway from 1965 to 1982 and the Christian Socialists of Norway from 1985 to 1989.

She joined the latter organization as early as in 1949. She has written hymns, is one of the most prolific female hymn writers in Norway. In 1999 she won a millennial hymn competition organized by the Church of Norway, she has been a board member of the Norwegian Critics' Association. She resides in Ski