Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p
Modern Greek is the form of the Greek language spoken in the modern era. The end of the Medieval Greek period and the beginning of Modern Greek is symbolically assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 though that date marks no clear linguistic boundary and many characteristic modern features of the language arose centuries earlier, between the fourth and the fifteenth centuries AD. During most of the period, the language existed in a situation of diglossia, with regional spoken dialects existing side by side with learned, more archaic written forms, as with the demotic and learned varieties that co-existed throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries. Varieties of Modern Greek include several varieties, including Demotic, Pontic, Mariupolitan, Southern Italian and Tsakonian. Speaking, Demotic refers to all popular varieties of Modern Greek that followed a common evolutionary path from Koine and have retained a high degree of mutual intelligibility to the present; as shown in Ptochoprodromic and Acritic poems, Demotic Greek was the vernacular before the 11th century and called the "Roman" language of the Byzantine Greeks, notably in peninsular Greece, the Greek islands, coastal Asia Minor and Cyprus.
Today, a standardised variety of Demotic Greek is the official language of the Hellenic Republic and Cyprus, is referred to as "Standard Modern Greek", or less simply as "Modern Greek" or "Demotic". Demotic Greek comprises various regional varieties with minor linguistic differences in phonology and vocabulary. Due to the high degree of mutual intelligibility of these varieties, Greek linguists refer to them as "idioms" of a wider "Demotic dialect", known as "Koine Modern Greek". Most English-speaking linguists however refer to them as "dialects", emphasising degrees of variation only when necessary. Demotic Greek varieties are divided into two main groups and Southern; the main distinguishing feature common to Northern variants is a set of standard phonological shifts in unaccented vowel phonemes: becomes and and are dropped. The dropped vowels' existence is implicit, may affect surrounding phonemes: for example, a dropped palatalizes preceding consonants, just like an, pronounced. Southern variants do not exhibit these phonological shifts.
Examples of Northern dialects are Rumelian, Macedonian, Thracian, Northern Euboean, Samos and Sarakatsanika. The Southern category is divided into groups that include: Old Athenian-Maniot: Megara, Athens and Mani Peninsula Ionian-Peloponnesian: Peloponnese, Ionian Islands, Attica and Southern Euboea Cretan-Cycladian: Cyclades and several enclaves in Syria and Lebanon Southeastern: Chios, Ikaria and Cyprus. Demotic Greek has been taught in monotonic Greek script since 1982. Polytonic script remains popular in intellectual circles. Katharevousa is a semi-artificial sociolect promoted in the 19th century at the foundation of the modern Greek state, as a compromise between Classical Greek and modern Demotic, it was the official language of modern Greece until 1976. Katharevousa is written in polytonic Greek script. While Demotic Greek contains loanwords from Turkish, Italian and other languages, these have for the most part been purged from Katharevousa. See the Greek language question. Pontic was spoken along the mountainous Black Sea coast of Turkey, the so-called Pontus region, until most of its speakers were killed or displaced to modern Greece during the Pontic genocide, followed by the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923.
It hails from Hellenistic and Medieval Koine and preserves characteristics of Ionic due to ancient colonizations of the region. Pontic evolved as a separate dialect from Demotic Greek as a result of the region's isolation from the Greek mainstream after the Fourth Crusade fragmented the Byzantine Empire into separate kingdoms. Cappadocian is a Greek dialect of central Turkey of the same fate as Pontic. Cappadocian Greek diverged from the other Byzantine Greek dialects earlier, beginning with the Turkish conquests of central Asia Minor in the 11th and 12th centuries, so developed several radical features, such as the loss of the gender for nouns. Having been isolated from the crusader conquests and the Venetian influence of the Greek coast, it retained the Ancient Greek terms for many words that were replaced with Romance ones in Demotic Greek; the poet Rumi, whose name means "Roman", referring to his residence amongst the "Roman" Greek speakers of Cappadocia, wrote a few poems in Cappadocian Greek, one of the earliest attestations of the dialect.
Rumeíka or Mariupolitan Greek is a dialect spoken in about 17 villages around the northern coast of the Sea of Azov in southern Ukraine and Russia. Mariupolitan Greek is related to Pontic Greek and evolved from the dialect of Greek spoken in Crimea, a part of the Byzantine Empire and the Pontic Empire of Trebizond, until that latter state fell to the Ottomans in 1461. Thereafter, the Crimean Greek state continued to exist as the independent Greek Principali
Merton College, Oxford
Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Its foundation can be traced back to the 1260s when Walter de Merton, chancellor to Henry III and to Edward I, first drew up statutes for an independent academic community and established endowments to support it. An important feature of Walter's foundation was that this "college" was to be self-governing and the endowments were directly vested in the Warden and Fellows. By 1274, when Walter retired from royal service and made his final revisions to the college statutes, the community was consolidated at its present site in the south east corner of the city of Oxford, a rapid programme of building commenced; the hall and the chapel and the rest of the front quad were complete before the end of the 13th century. Mob Quad, one of Merton's quadrangles, was constructed between 1288 and 1378, is claimed to be the oldest quadrangle in Oxford, while Merton College Library, located in Mob Quad and dating from 1373, is the oldest continuously functioning library for university academics and students in the world.
Like many of Oxford's colleges, Merton admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after over seven centuries as an institution for men only. Notable alumni and academics past and present include four Nobel laureates and writer J. R. R. Tolkien, Merton Professor of English Language and Literature from 1945 to 1959. Merton is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford and held funds totalling £272 million as of July 2017. Merton has a strong reputation for academic success, having ranked first in the Norrington Table in recent years. Merton College was founded in 1264 by Lord Chancellor and Bishop of Rochester, it has a claim to be the oldest college in Oxford, a claim, disputed between Merton College, Balliol College and University College. One argument for Merton's claim is that it was the first college to be provided with statutes, a constitution governing the college set out at its founding. Merton's statutes date back to 1264, whereas neither Balliol nor University College had statutes until the 1280s.
Additionally, Merton was the first college to be conceived as a community working to achieve academic ends, rather than just a place for the housing of scholars. Merton has an unbroken line of wardens dating back to 1264. Of these, many had great influence over the development of the college. Henry Savile was one notable leader who led the college to flourish in the early 17th century by extending its buildings and recruiting new fellows. St Alban Hall was an independent academic hall owned by the convent of Littlemore until it was purchased by Merton College in 1548 following the dissolution of the convent, it continued as a separate institution until it was annexed by the college in 1881. During the English Civil War, Merton was the only Oxford college to side with Parliament; this was due to an earlier dispute between the Warden, Nathaniel Brent, the Visitor of Merton and Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud. Brent had been Vicar-General to Laud, who had held a visitation of Merton College in 1638, insisted on many radical reforms: his letters to Brent were couched in haughty and decisive language.
Brent, a parliamentarian, moved to London at the start of the Civil War: the college's buildings were commandeered by the Royalists and used to house much of Charles I's court when Oxford was the Royalists' capital. This included the King's French wife, Queen Henrietta Maria, housed in or near what is now the Queen's Room, the room above the arch between Front and Fellows' Quads. A portrait of Charles I hangs near the Queen's Room as a reminder of the role it played in his court. Brent gave evidence against Laud in his trial in 1644. After Laud was executed on 10 January 1645, John Greaves, one of the subwardens of Merton and Savilian Professor of Astronomy, drew up a petition for Brent's removal from office. Thomas Fairfax captured Oxford for the Parliamentarians after its third siege in 1646 and Brent returned from London. However, in 1647, a parliamentary commission was set up by Parliament "for the correction of offences and disorders" in the University of Oxford. Nathaniel Brent was the president of the visitors.
Greaves was accused of sequestrating the college's plate and funds for king Charles. Despite a deposition from his brother Thomas, Greaves had lost both his Merton fellowship and his Savilian chair by 9 November 1648; the "House of Scholars of Merton" had properties in Surrey as well as in Oxford, but it was not until the mid-1260s that Walter de Merton acquired the core of the present site in Oxford, along the south side of what was St John's Street. The college was consolidated on this site by 1274, when Walter made his final revisions to the college statutes; the initial acquisition included the parish church of St John and three houses to the east of the church which now form the north range of Front Quad. Walter obtained permission from the king to extend from these properties south to the old city wall to form an square site; the college continued to acquire other properties as they became available on both sides of Merton Street. At one time, the college owned all the land from the site, now Christ Church to the south-eastern corner of the city.
The land to the east became the current Fellows' garden, while the western end was leased by Warden Richard Rawlins in 1515 for the foundation of Corpus Christi. By the late 1280s the old church of St John
Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire, of the Byzantine Empire, of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire, until falling to the Ottoman Empire. It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, dedicated on 11 May 330; the city was located in what is now the core of modern Istanbul. From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe; the city was famed for its architectural masterpieces, such as the Greek Orthodox cathedral of Hagia Sophia, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the arcaded avenues and squares. The University of Constantinople was founded in the fifth century and contained numerous artistic and literary treasures before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453, including its vast Imperial Library which contained the remnants of the Library of Alexandria and had over 100,000 volumes of ancient texts.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times as the home of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and as the guardian of Christendom's holiest relics such as the Crown of Thorns and the True Cross. Constantinople was famed for its complex defences; the first wall of the city was erected by Constantine I, surrounded the city on both land and sea fronts. In the 5th century, the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius under the child emperor Theodosius II undertook the construction of the Theodosian Walls, which consisted of a double wall lying about 2 kilometres to the west of the first wall and a moat with palisades in front; this formidable complex of defences was one of the most sophisticated of Antiquity. The city was built intentionally to rival Rome, it was claimed that several elevations within its walls matched the'seven hills' of Rome; because it was located between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara the land area that needed defensive walls was reduced, this helped it to present an impregnable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces and towers, the result of the prosperity it achieved from being the gateway between two continents and two seas.
Although besieged on numerous occasions by various armies, the defences of Constantinople proved impregnable for nearly nine hundred years. In 1204, the armies of the Fourth Crusade took and devastated the city, its inhabitants lived several decades under Latin misrule. In 1261 the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos liberated the city, after the restoration under the Palaiologos dynasty, enjoyed a partial recovery. With the advent of the Ottoman Empire in 1299, the Byzantine Empire began to lose territories and the city began to lose population. By the early 15th century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople and its environs, along with Morea in Greece, making it an enclave inside the Ottoman Empire. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, the first known name of a settlement on the site of Constantinople was Lygos, a settlement of Thracian origin founded between the 13th and 11th centuries BC; the site, according to the founding myth of the city, was abandoned by the time Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara founded Byzantium in around 657 BC, across from the town of Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus.
The origins of the name of Byzantion, more known by the Latin Byzantium, are not clear, though some suggest it is of Thraco-Illyrian origin. The founding myth of the city has it told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian colonists, Byzas; the Byzantines of Constantinople themselves would maintain that the city was named in honour of two men and Antes, though this was more just a play on the word Byzantion. The city was renamed Augusta Antonina in the early 3rd century AD by the Emperor Septimius Severus, who razed the city to the ground in 196 for supporting a rival contender in the civil war and had it rebuilt in honour of his son Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, popularly known as Caracalla; the name appears to have been forgotten and abandoned, the city reverted to Byzantium/Byzantion after either the assassination of Caracalla in 217 or, at the latest, the fall of the Severan dynasty in 235. Byzantium took on the name of Kōnstantinoupolis after its refoundation under Roman emperor Constantine I, who transferred the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium in 330 and designated his new capital as Nova Roma'New Rome'.
During this time, the city was called'Second Rome','Eastern Rome', Roma Constantinopolitana. As the city became the sole remaining capital of the Roman Empire after the fall of the West, its wealth and influence grew, the city came to have a multitude of nicknames; as the largest and wealthiest city in Europe during the 4th–13th centuries and a centre of culture and education of the Mediterranean basin, Constantinople came to be known by prestigious titles such as Basileuousa and Megalopol
George Smythe, 7th Viscount Strangford
George Smythe, 7th Viscount Strangford, styled The Honourable George Smythe until 1855, was a British Conservative politician, best known for his association with Benjamin Disraeli and the Young England movement. He served as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 1846 under Sir Robert Peel. Smythe was born in Stockholm, the son of Percy Smythe, 6th Viscount Strangford, by Ellen Burke, daughter of Sir Thomas Burke, Bt, he attended Tonbridge School and Eton College, was admitted to St John's College, Cambridge. Smythe's father had been Disraeli's friend during the 1830s, had sponsored the latter for the Carlton Club; the younger Smythe believed in the sort of romantic Toryism espoused by Lord John Manners. Both of them were influenced by Frederick Faber, an apostle of John Henry Newman, leader of the Oxford Movement. Disraeli and Smythe had known each other through the latter's father since an early age, but it was in the House of Commons that the two became close. Smythe sat as a Member of Parliament for Canterbury from 1841 until 1852.
Along with Disraeli and Alexander Baillie-Cochrane, they comprised "Young England", a sect of the Conservative Party which, in espousing a romantic Toryism, was at odds with the moderate, business-like administration of then-Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel. Young England splintered over the Maynooth Grant. In 1845 Peel proposed to increase the annual subsidy granted to the Catholic seminary at Maynooth, in Ireland. Smythe under pressure from his father, supported Peel, as did Lord John Manners. Disraeli in open rebellion against Peel, opposed the grant. Lord Blake, Disraeli's biographer, noted that Disraeli's speech was "essentially ad hominem" and that Disraeli had a "poor case." In January 1846 Smythe accepted minor office in Peel's government as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Smythe and Disraeli remained close friends until the former's death; the title character in Disraeli's novel Coningsby was modeled after Smythe, Smythe wrote to Disraeli in 1852 that "you were of old the Cid and Captain of my boyish fanaticism."
Like his father, Smythe had literary tastes. In 1844 he wrote Historic Fancies, a collection of poems and essays, his novel Angelo Pisani was published posthumously, with a memoir of the author in 1875. Smythe's career was shattered in 1846 when he was caught in a summerhouse with the 21-year-old Lady Dorothy Walpole the daughter of Horatio Walpole, 3rd Earl of Orford. Newspaper gossip alleged that he got her pregnant, refused to marry her. Lady Dorothy was hastily married off to an elderly cousin. In the nineteenth century social and political ruin went hand-in-hand. At his last electoral appearance in 1852 Smythe fought a duel with his fellow MP, Colonel Romilly, lost election in a landslide. Smythe succeeded to his father's peerage in 1855 and died 27 November 1857 at the young age of 39 at Bradgate House, Leicestershire, his title passed to Percy Smythe, 8th Viscount Strangford. Blake, Robert. Disraeli. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-19-832903-2. OCLC 8047. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Strangford George Smythe, 7th Viscount Strangford at Find a Grave
Stratford Canning, 1st Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe
Stratford Canning, 1st Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe, a British diplomat and politician, became best known as the longtime British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. A member of the noble House of Stratford and cousin of George Canning, he served as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister-Plenipotentiary to the United States of America between 1820 and 1824 and held his first appointment as Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire between 1825 and 1828, he intermittently represented several constituencies in parliament between 1828 and 1842. In 1841 he was re-appointed as Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, a position he held for the next 17 years. Canning came to be seen as one of the leading figures in Constantinople, as British influence over the Porte increased and the Turks came to be seen more and more as British clients. In 1852 he was elevated to the peerage as Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe in reference to his supposed descent from the great 15th-century merchant family of Canynges of Redcliffe near Bristol.
However, despite his illustrious diplomatic career, Canning's hopes of high political office were dashed. Canning was the youngest of the five children of Stratford Canning, an Irish-born merchant based in London, by his wife Mehitabel, daughter of Robert Patrick, he was born at his father's house of business in the heart of London. When he was 6 months old Canning's father died in 1787 so his mother and siblings went to live in a cottage at Wanstead, where he would holiday for the rest of his life. Mehitabel Canning continued her husband's business, his eldest brother Henry Canning became British Consul in Hamburg in 1823, a posting he retained for the rest of his life. Henry Canning died at Hamburg in 1841. Another brother, William Canning was a Canon of Windsor from 1828 to 1860, while another brother, Charles Fox Canning, was at the time of his death a lieutenant colonel to the Guards, Aide-de-Camp to the Duke of Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo, he was a first cousin of prime minister George Canning and Lord Garvagh.
He was educated at King's College, Cambridge. Canning Stratford began his education at a Dame's school at the age of four. At the age of 6 he left to attend Mr. Newcome's school at Hackney. In 1807 Canning was given a minor role in the Foreign Office by his cousin, was sent with Anthony Merry on a mission to Denmark that year, his first trip to Constantinople came in 1808, when he accompanied the mission of Robert Adair that restored peace between Britain and the Turks. When Adair left Constantinople in 1810, Canning became Minister Plenipotentiary, it was Canning who helped mediate the Treaty of Bucharest between the Ottomans and Russia on 28 May 1812. Canning returned to London that year, helped to found the Quarterly Review. In June 1814 was appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister-Plenipotentiary to Switzerland, where he, along with the other allied representatives, helped negotiate Swiss neutrality and a new Swiss federal constitution. In October he went to Vienna, where he acted as an aid to Lord Castlereagh, the British representative at the Congress of Vienna.
After the negotiation of Swiss neutrality in 1815, Canning's role there became dull to him, but he stayed until 1819, when he was recalled and sent to Washington as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister-Plenipotentiary to the United States. Although he hoped for major accomplishments in Washington that would allow him to move up to a larger position, he was unsuccessful; the initiative of his cousin George, this time as Foreign Secretary, for a joint Anglo-American guarantee of Latin American independence, led to the promulgation of the Monroe Doctrine. In 1820 Canning was made a member of the Privy Council. Canning returned to London in 1823, the next year was sent on a mission to Russia, where he negotiated a treaty on the border between Russian and British North America, but failed to come to any agreement regarding the Greek Revolt. In February 1825 he concluded a treaty with Russia on the north-west American frontier. In 1825, Canning was returned to this time as Ambassador, he fled the city following the Battle of Navarino in 1827, but after a brief return to London he, along with the French and Russian ambassadors who had fled, set up camp at Poros.
In 1828 he and the other ambassadors participated in the Conference of Poros, which recommended to their respective governments the establishment of a separate Greek state, including the islands of Crete and Euboea. Although he had been encouraged in this generous position towards the Greeks by his superior, Lord Aberdeen, this move was disavowed by the government, Canning resigned. Following his return, Canning attempted to enter British politics, entering the House of Commons in 1831, but was not a notable figure in the Commons; when the Whigs entered office and the Canningite Lord Palmerston became British foreign secretary, Canning returned again to Constantinople in 1831, but returned in 1832, disapproving of Palmerston's lack of consultation with him and the choice of Prince Otto of Bavaria as King of Greece. That year, he was appointed Ambassador to Russia, but never took the office, as Tsar Nicholas I refused to receive him. Canning was, sent on a new diplomatic mission, to Madrid, where he was to deal with the rival claimants to the Portuguese throne, but was unsuccessful.
He turned again, attempting again to pursue a course in domestic politics, associating himself with Lord Stanley's band of renegade Whigs, but when Stanley's followers entered government with Sir Robert Peel