Archelaus I of Macedon
Archelaus I was a king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 413 to 399 BC. He was a capable and beneficent ruler, known for the sweeping changes he made in state administration, the military, commerce. By the time that he died, Archelaus had succeeded in converting Macedon into a stronger power. Thucydides credited Archelaus with doing more for his kingdom's military infrastructure than all of his predecessors together. Archelaus was a son of Perdiccas II by a slave woman, he obtained the throne by murdering his own uncle Alcetas II and cousin Alexander, such that his father became king, his half-brother, a child of seven years, the legitimate heir. After he took power, Archelaus was faced with a situation which allowed him to reverse Macedon's relationship with Athens, a major threat for the past half century; the Athenians experienced a crushing defeat at Syracuse in late 413 during which most of their ships were destroyed. This left the Athenians in desperate need of a huge amount of timber to build new ships and Archelaus in a position to set the price.
Archelaus generously supplied the Athenians with the timber. In recognition of this, the Athenians honored Archelaus and his children with the titles of proxenos and euergetes. Archelaus went on to institute many internal reforms, he issued an abundance of good quality coinage. He built strongholds, cut straight roads, improved the organization of the military the cavalry and hoplite infantry. Archelaus was known as a man of culture and extended cultural and artistic contacts with southern Greece. In his new palace at Pella, he hosted great poets, including Agathon and Euripides and painters, including Zeuxis. Archelaus reorganized the Olympia, a religious festival with musical and athletic competitions honoring Olympian Zeus and the Muses at Dion, the Olympia of Macedon; the greatest athletes and artists of Greece came to Macedon to participate in this event. In addition, Archelaus won in Tethrippon in both Olympic and Pythian Games. According to Aelian, Archelaus was killed in 399 BC during a hunt, by one of the royal pages, Crateuas.
According to Constantine Paparrigopoulos, there were three accomplices: two Thessalians and one Macedonian, Decamnichos. The latter used to be Archelaus' protégé; however Decamnichos once insulted, in front of Archelaus, the tragic poet Euripides for the smell of the poet's alleged bad breath. This outraged Archelaus. Decamnichos was permitted to remain in the court of Archelaus. Other versions of the king's death are reported by differing sources. Archelaus had several sons, including Orestes of Macedon and Archelaus II of Macedon; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Archelaus, King of Macedonia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. P. 362. Coinage of Archelaus Ancestry of Archelaus
In Greek mythology, Temenus was a son of Aristomachus and brother of Cresphontes and Aristodemus. Temenus was a great-great-grandson of Heracles and helped lead the fifth and final attack on Mycenae in the Peloponnese, he became King of Argos. He was the father of Ceisus, Káranos, Phalces and Hyrnetho. Káranos was the first king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia and founder of the royal Macedonian dynasty–the Temenid or Argead dynasty–which culminated in the sons of Alexander the Great five centuries later. Temenus and his brothers complained to the oracle that its instructions had proved fatal to those who had followed them, they received the answer that by the "third fruit" the "third generation" was meant, that the "narrow passage" was not the isthmus of Corinth, but the straits of Patras. They accordingly built a fleet at Naupactus, but before they set sail, Aristodemus was struck by lightning and the fleet destroyed, because one of the Heracleidae had slain an Acarnanian soothsayer.
The oracle, being again consulted by Temenus, bade him offer an expiatory sacrifice and banish the murderer for ten years, look out for a man with three eyes to act as guide. On his way back to Naupactus, Temenus fell in with Oxylus, an Aetolian, who had lost one eye, riding on a horse and pressed him into his service; the Heracleidae repaired their ships, sailed from Naupactus to Antirrhium, thence to Rhium in Peloponnesus. A decisive battle was fought with Tisamenus, son of Orestes, the chief ruler in the peninsula, defeated and slain; the Heracleidae, who thus became masters of the Peloponnese, proceeded to distribute its territory among themselves by lot. Argos fell to Lacedaemon to Procles and Eurysthenes, the twin sons of Aristodemus; the fertile district of Elis had been reserved by agreement for Oxylus. The Heracleidae ruled in Lacedaemon until 221 BC, but disappeared much earlier in the other countries; this conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians called the "Return of the Heracleidae", is represented as the recovery by the descendants of Heracles of the rightful inheritance of their hero ancestor and his sons.
The Dorians followed the custom of other Greek tribes in claiming as ancestor for their ruling families one of the legendary heroes, but the traditions must not on that account be regarded as mythical. They represent a joint invasion of Peloponnesus by Aetolians and Dorians, the latter having been driven southward from their original northern home under pressure from the Thessalians, it is noticeable that there is no dominate mention of these Heracleidae or their invasion in Homer or Hesiod. Herodotus speaks of poets who had celebrated their deeds, but these were limited to events succeeding the death of Heracles; the story was first amplified by the Greek tragedians, who drew their inspiration from local legends, which glorified the services rendered by Athens to the rulers of the Peloponnese. When Temenus, in the division of the Peloponnese, had obtained Argos as his share, he bestowed all his affections upon daughter Hyrnetho and her husband Deiphontes, for which he was murdered by his sons, who thought themselves neglected.
According to Apollodorus, after the death of Temenus the army declared Deiphontes and Hyrnetho his rightful successors. Pausanias, reports a different story. According to him, after Temenus's death it was not Deiphontes that Ceisus. Deiphontes on the other hand is said to have lived at Epidaurus, whither he went with the army, attached to him, whence he expelled the Ionian king, Pityreus, his brothers-in-law, who begrudged him the possession of their sister Hyrnetho, went to Epidaurus and tried to persuade her to leave her husband. Deiphontes pursued them, after having killed one of them, Cerynes, he wrestled with the other, who held his sister in his arms. In this struggle, Hyrnetho was killed by her own brother, who escaped. Deiphontes carried her body back to Epidaurus, there erected a sanctuary to her. Temenus had a son named Archelaus. Bibliotheca ii. 8. Diodorus Siculus, iv. 57, 58. Pausanias, i. 32, 41, ii. 13, 18, iii. I, iv. 3, v. 3. Euripides, Heracleidae. Pindar, Pythia, ix. 137. Herodotus, ix. 27.
Karl Otfried Müller. Dorians, Part I, Chapter 3. Thirlwall. History of Greece, Chapter VII. Grote. History of Greece, Part I, Chapter XVIII. Georg Busolt. Griechische Geschichte, Part I, Chapter 11, Section 7, where a list of authorities is given
Perdiccas became a general in Alexander the Great's army and participated in Alexander's campaign against Achaemenid Persia. Following Alexander's death, he rose to become supreme commander of the imperial army and regent for Alexander's half brother and intellectually disabled successor, Philip Arridaeus, he was the first of the Diadochi who fought for control over Alexander's empire but in his attempts to establish a power base and stay in control of the empire, he managed to make enemies of key generals in the Macedonian army, Antipater and Antigonus Monophtalmus, who decided to revolt against the regent. In response to this formidable coalition and a provocation from another general, Perdiccas invaded Egypt, but when the invasion floundered his soldiers revolted and killed him. According to Arrian, Perdiccas was a son of the Macedonian nobleman, Orontes, a descendant of the independent princes of the Macedonian province of Orestis. While his actual date of birth is unknown, he would seem to have been of a similar age to Alexander.
He had a brother called a sister, Atalantê, who married Attalus. As the commander of a battalion of the Macedonian phalanx, Perdiccas distinguished himself during the conquest of Thebes, where he was wounded. Subsequently, he held an important command in the Indian campaigns of Alexander. In 324 BC, at the nuptials celebrated at Susa, Perdiccas married the daughter of the satrap of Media, a Persian named Atropates; when Hephaestion unexpectedly died the same year, Perdiccas was appointed his successor as commander of the Companion cavalry and chiliarch. As Alexander lay dying on 11 June 323 BC, he gave his ring to Perdiccas. Following the death of Alexander the Great, his generals met to discuss what should be their next steps. Perdiccas proposed that a final decision wait until Alexander's wife Roxana, pregnant, had given birth. If the child was a boy Perdiccas proposed that the child would be chosen as the new king; this meant that Perdiccas would be the regent and the ruler of Alexander's empire until the boy was old enough to rule on his own.
Despite misgivings amongst the other generals, most accepted Perdiccas' proposal. However, the infantry commander, disagreed with Perdiccas' plans. Meleager argued in favour of Alexander's half brother, who he considered to be first in line of succession; the infantry supported this proposal with Meleagar's troops willing to fight in favour of Arridaeus. Through the Partition of Babylon a compromise was reached under which Perdiccas was to serve as "Regent of the Empire" and supreme commander of the imperial army. Arridaeus and the unborn child of Alexander's wife Roxana were recognized as joint kings. While the general Craterus was declared "Guardian of the Royal Family", Perdiccas held this position, as the joint kings were with him in Babylon. Perdiccas soon showed himself intolerant of any rivals, acting in the name of the two kings, sought to hold the empire together under his own hand. Alexander the Great's second wife, was murdered. Perdiccas had Meleager murdered. Perdiccas' authority as regent and his control over the royal family were challenged.
Perdiccas appointed Leonnatus, one of Alexander's bodyguards or somatophylakes, as satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia on the western coast of Asia Minor. However, instead of assuming that position, Leonnatus sailed to Macedonia when Alexander's sister, widow of King Alexander I of Epirus, offered her hand to him. Upon learning of this, in spring 322 BC Perdiccas marched the imperial army towards Asia Minor to reassert his dominance as regent. Perdiccas ordered Leonnatus to appear before him to stand trial for disobedience, but Leonnatus died during the Lamian War before the order reached him. At around the same time, Alexander's half-sister, arranged for her daughter, Eurydice II, to marry the joint king, Arridaeus. Fearful of Cynane's influence, Perdiccas ordered his brother Alcetas to murder her; the discontent expressed by the army at the plan to murder her and their respect for Eurydice as a member of royal family persuaded Perdiccas not only to spare her life but to approve of the marriage to Philip III.
Despite the marriage, Perdiccas continued to hold control over the affairs of the royal family. As regent and commander-in-chief, Perdiccas saw it as important that he consolidate Alexander's empire. A key step in achieving this was to conquer Cappadocia. However, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, the Macedonian satrap of Pamphylia and Lycia, was unwilling to support Perdiccas when in 322 BC Perdiccas invaded Cappadocia; when Perdiccas ordered Antigonus to appear before his court, Antigonus fled to Antipater's court in Macedonia. To strengthen his control over the empire, Perdiccas agreed to marry Nicaea, the daughter of the satrap of Macedonia, Antipater. However, he broke off the engagement in 322 BC when Olympias, mother of Alexander the Great, offered him the hand of Alexander's full sister Cleopatra. Given the intellectual disability of Philip III and the limited acceptance of the boy, Alexander IV, due to his mother being a Persian, the marriage would have given Perdiccas a claim as Alexander's true successor, not as regent.
As a result of these events and actions, Perdiccas earned Antipater's animosity, while Antigonus had reason to fear Perdiccas. Another general, was unhappy at being ignored by Perdiccas despite his important position within the army when Alexander was alive. So Antipater and Antigonus agreed to revolt against Perdiccas. In late 321
Argos is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It is a major center for the area. Since the 2011 local government reform it has been part of the municipality of Argos-Mykines, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 138.138 km2. It is 11 kilometres from Nafplion, its historic harbour. A settlement of great antiquity, Argos has been continuously inhabited as at least a substantial village for the past 7,000 years; the city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network. A resident of the city of Argos is known as an Argive. However, this term is used to refer to those ancient Greeks who assaulted the city of Troy during the Trojan War. Numerous ancient monuments can be found in the city today. Agriculture is the mainstay of the local economy; the name of the city is ancient and several etymological theories have been proposed as an explanation to its meaning. The most popular one maintains that the name of the city is a remainder from the Pelasgian language, i.e. the one used by the people who first settled in the area, in which Argos meant "plain".
Alternatively, the name is associated with Argos, the third king of the city in ancient times, who renamed it after himself, thus replacing its older name Phoronikon Astu. It is believed that "Argos" is linked to the word "αργός", which meant "white". According to Strabo, the name could have originated from the word "αγρός" by antimetathesis of the consonants. Argos is traditionally considered to be the origins of the ancient Macedonian royal Greek house of the Argead dynasty; the most celebrated members were Philip II of Alexander the Great. As a strategic location on the fertile plain of Argolis, Argos was a major stronghold during the Mycenaean era. In classical times Argos was a powerful rival of Sparta for dominance over the Peloponnese, but was shunned by other Greek city-states after remaining neutral during the Greco-Persian Wars. There is evidence of continuous settlement in the area starting with a village about 7000 years ago in the late Neolithic, located on the foot of Aspida hill.
Since that time, Argos has been continually inhabited at the same geographical location. Its creation is attributed to Phoroneus, with its first name having been Phoronicon Asty, or the city of Phoroneus; the historical presence of the Pelasgian Greeks in the area can be witnessed in the linguistic remainders that survive up to today, such as the name of the city and "Larisa", the name of the city's castle located on the hill of the name. The city is located at a rather propitious area, among Nemea and Arcadia, it benefitted from its proximity to lake Lerna, which, at the time, was at a distance of one kilometre from the south end of Argos. Argos was a major stronghold of Mycenaean times, along with the neighbouring acropolis of Mycenae and Tiryns became a early settlement because of its commanding positions in the midst of the fertile plain of Argolis. Argos experienced its greatest period of expansion and power under the energetic 7th century BC ruler King Pheidon. Under Pheidon, Argos regained sway over the cities of the Argolid and challenged Sparta’s dominance of the Peloponnese.
Spartan dominance is thought to have been interrupted following the Battle of Hyssiae in 669-668 BC, in which Argive troops defeated the Spartans in a hoplite battle. During this time of its greatest power, the city boasted a pottery and bronze sculpturing school, pottery workshops and clothes producers. Moreover, at least 25 celebrations took place in the city, in addition to a regular local products exhibition. A sanctuary dedicated to Hera was found at the same spot where the monastery of Panagia Katekrymeni is located today. Pheidon extended Argive influence throughout Greece, taking control of the Olympic Games away from the citizens of Elis and appointing himself organizer during his reign. Pheidon is thought to have introduced reforms for standard weight and measures in Argos, a theory further reinforced with the unearthing of six "spits" of iron in an Argive Heraion remainders of a dedication from Pheidon. Argos remained neutral or the ineffective ally of Athens during the 5th century BC struggles between Sparta and Athens.
This, led to its weakening and loss of power, which in turn led to the shift of commercial focus from the Ancient Agora to the eastern side of the city, delimited by Danaou and Agiou Konstadinou streets. Argos played a minor role in the Corinthian Wars against Sparta, for a short period of time considered uniting with Corinth to form an expanded Argolid state. However, this plan never came to fruition, Argos continued to remain a minor power in Greek affairs. Argos was a democracy for most of the classical period, with only a brief hiatus between 418 and 416. Democracy was first established after a disastrous defeat by the Spartans at the Battle of Sepeia in 494. So many Argives were killed in the battle that a revolution ensued, in which disenfranchised outsiders were included in the state for the first time. Argive democracy included an Assembly, a Council, another body called'The Eighty,' whose precise responsibilities are obscure. Magistrates served six-month terms of office, with few exceptions, were audited at the end of their terms.
There is some evidence that ostracis
Amyntas I of Macedon
Amyntas I was king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a vassal of Darius I from 512/511 to his death 498 BC, at the time of Achaemenid Macedonia. He was a son of Alcetas I of Macedon, he married. Amyntas was a vassal of Darius I, king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, since 512/511 BC. Amyntas gave the present of "Earth and Water" to Megabazus, which symbolized submission to the Achaemenid Emperor. One of the daughters of Amyntas, named Gygaea, was married to the Persian General, called Bubares as a way of reinforcing the alliance; the history of Macedonia may be said to begin with Amyntas' reign. He was the first of its rulers to have diplomatic relations with other states. In particular, he entered into an alliance with Hippias of Athens, when Hippias was driven out of Athens he offered him the territory of Anthemus on the Thermaic Gulf with the object of taking advantage of the feuds between the Greeks. Hippias refused the offer and rejected the offer of Iolcos, as Amyntas did not control Anthemous at that time, but was suggesting a plan of joint occupation to Hippias.
Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Amyntas I". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. P. 900. Herodotus v. 17, 94 Justin vii. 2 Thucydides ii. 100 Pausanias ix. 40
Macedonia (ancient kingdom)
Macedonia called Macedon, was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties. Home to the ancient Macedonians, the earliest kingdom was centered on the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, bordered by Epirus to the west, Paeonia to the north, Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south. Before the 4th century BC, Macedonia was a small kingdom outside of the area dominated by the great city-states of Athens and Thebes, subordinate to Achaemenid Persia. During the reign of the Argead king Philip II, Macedonia subdued mainland Greece and Thrace through conquest and diplomacy. With a reformed army containing phalanxes wielding the sarissa pike, Philip II defeated the old powers of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. Philip II's son Alexander the Great, leading a federation of Greek states, accomplished his father's objective of commanding the whole of Greece when he destroyed Thebes after the city revolted.
During Alexander's subsequent campaign of conquest, he overthrew the Achaemenid Empire and conquered territory that stretched as far as the Indus River. For a brief period, his empire was the most powerful in the world – the definitive Hellenistic state, inaugurating the transition to a new period of Ancient Greek civilization. Greek arts and literature flourished in the new conquered lands and advances in philosophy and science spread throughout much of the ancient world. Of particular importance were the contributions of Aristotle, tutor to Alexander, whose writings became a keystone of Western philosophy. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, the ensuing wars of the Diadochi, the partitioning of Alexander's short-lived empire, Macedonia remained a Greek cultural and political center in the Mediterranean region along with Ptolemaic Egypt, the Seleucid Empire, the Kingdom of Pergamon. Important cities such as Pella and Amphipolis were involved in power struggles for control of the territory. New cities were founded, such as Thessalonica by the usurper Cassander.
Macedonia's decline began with the Macedonian Wars and the rise of Rome as the leading Mediterranean power. At the end of the Third Macedonian War in 168 BC, the Macedonian monarchy was abolished and replaced by Roman client states. A short-lived revival of the monarchy during the Fourth Macedonian War in 150–148 BC ended with the establishment of the Roman province of Macedonia; the Macedonian kings, who wielded absolute power and commanded state resources such as gold and silver, facilitated mining operations to mint currency, finance their armies and, by the reign of Philip II, a Macedonian navy. Unlike the other diadochi successor states, the imperial cult fostered by Alexander was never adopted in Macedonia, yet Macedonian rulers assumed roles as high priests of the kingdom and leading patrons of domestic and international cults of the Hellenistic religion; the authority of Macedonian kings was theoretically limited by the institution of the army, while a few municipalities within the Macedonian commonwealth enjoyed a high degree of autonomy and had democratic governments with popular assemblies.
The name Macedonia comes from the ethnonym Μακεδόνες, which itself is derived from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός, meaning "tall" descriptive of the people. It has the same root as the adjective μακρός, meaning "long" or "tall" in Ancient Greek; the name is believed to have meant either "highlanders", "the tall ones", or "high grown men". Linguist Robert S. P. Beekes claims that both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology; the Classical Greek historians Herodotus and Thucydides reported the legend that the Macedonian kings of the Argead dynasty were descendants of Temenus, king of Argos, could therefore claim the mythical Heracles as one of their ancestors as well as a direct lineage from Zeus, chief god of the Greek pantheon. Contradictory legends state that either Perdiccas I of Macedon or Caranus of Macedon were the founders of the Argead dynasty, with either five or eight kings before Amyntas I; the assertion that the Argeads descended from Temenus was accepted by the Hellanodikai authorities of the Ancient Olympic Games, permitting Alexander I of Macedon to enter the competitions owing to his perceived Greek heritage.
Little is known about the kingdom before the reign of Alexander I's father Amyntas I of Macedon during the Archaic period. The kingdom of Macedonia was situated along the Haliacmon and Axius rivers in Lower Macedonia, north of Mount Olympus. Historian Robert Malcolm Errington suggests that one of the earliest Argead kings established Aigai as their capital in the mid-7th century BC. Before the 4th century BC, the kingdom covered a region corresponding to the western and central parts of the region of Macedonia in modern Greece, it expanded into the region of Upper Macedonia, inhabited by the Greek Lyncestae and Elimiotae tribes, into regions of Emathia, Bottiaea, Mygdonia and Almopia, which were inhabited by various peoples such as Thracians and Phrygians. Macedonia's non-Greek neighbors included Thracians, inhabiting territories to the northeast, Illyrians to the northwest, Paeonians to the north, while the lands of Thessaly to the south and Epirus to the west were inhabited by Greeks with similar cultures to that of the Macedonians.
A year after Darius I of