Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary. Performance may be either scripted or unscripted, random or orchestrated, spontaneous or otherwise planned with or without audience participation; the performance can be live or via media. It can be any situation that involves four basic elements: time, the performer's body or presence in a medium, a relationship between performer and audience. Performance art can happen anywhere, for any length of time; the actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time constitute the work. Performance art is an contested concept: any single definition of it implies the recognition of rival uses; as concepts like "democracy" or "art", it implies productive disagreement with itself. The meaning of the term in the narrower sense is related to postmodernist traditions in Western culture. From about the mid-1960s into the 1970s derived from concepts of visual art, with respect to Antonin Artaud, the Situationists, installation art and conceptual art, performance art tended to be defined as an antithesis to theatre, challenging orthodox art forms and cultural norms.
The ideal had been an ephemeral and authentic experience for performer and audience in an event that could not be repeated, captured or purchased. The discussed difference, how concepts of visual arts and concepts of performing arts are utilized, can determine the meanings of a performance art presentation. Performance art is a term reserved to refer to a conceptual art which conveys a content-based meaning in a more drama-related sense, rather than being simple performance for its own sake for entertainment purposes, it refers to a performance presented to an audience, but which does not seek to present a conventional theatrical play or a formal linear narrative, or which alternately does not seek to depict a set of fictitious characters in formal scripted interactions. It therefore can include action or spoken word as a communication between the artist and audience, or ignore expectations of an audience, rather than following a script written beforehand; some types of performance art can be close to performing arts.
Such performance may utilize a script or create a fictitious dramatic setting, but still constitute performance art in that it does not seek to follow the usual dramatic norm of creating a fictitious setting with a linear script which follows conventional real-world dynamics. Performance artists challenge the audience to think in new and unconventional ways, break conventions of traditional arts, break down conventional ideas about "what art is"; as long as the performer does not become a player who repeats a role, performance art can include satirical elements. Some artists, e.g. the Viennese Actionists and neo-Dadaists, prefer to use the terms "live art", "action art", "actions", "intervention" or "manoeuvre" to describe their performing activities. As genres of performance art appear body art, fluxus-performance, action poetry, intermedia. Western cultural theorists trace performance art, at least in the European tradition, back to the beginning of the 20th century, to the Russian constructivists and Dada movements.
Dada provided a significant progenitor with the unconventional performances of poetry at the Cabaret Voltaire, by the likes of Richard Huelsenbeck and Tristan Tzara. Russian Futurist artists could be identified as precursors of performance, such as David Burliuk, who painted his face for his actions and Alexander Rodchenko and his wife Varvara Stepanova. Performance art activity is not confined to European or American art traditions, notable practitioners can be found in Asia and Latin America. Performance artists and theorists point pre-20th Century precursors or origins for performance art from different traditions and histories, ranging from tribal to sporting and ritual or religious events. In an episode of the BBC series In Our Time several academics proposed the idea that Antisthenes and Diogenes in ancient Greece practiced a form of performance art and that they acquired the epithet of cynic which means "dog" due to Diogenes behaving like a dog in his performances. According to the art critic Harold Rosenberg in the 1940s and 1950s Action Painting gave artists the freedom to perform—the canvas as "an arena in which to act", thereby rendering the paintings as traces of the artist's performance in his/her studio.
Abstract expressionism and Action painting preceded the Fluxus movement and the emergence of Performance Art. Performance art was anticipated, if not explicitly formulated, by Japan's Gutai group of the 1950s in such works as Atsuko Tanaka's Electric Dress. Yves Klein had been a precursor of performance art with the conceptual pieces of Zone de Sensibilité Picturale Immatérielle 1959–62, Anthropométries, works like the photomontage, Saut dans le vide. In the late 1960s Earth artists as diverse as Robert Smithson, Dennis Oppenheim, Michael Heizer and Carl Andre created environmental pieces that predict the performance art of the 1970s. Works of conceptual artists in the early 1980s, like Sol LeWitt, who converted mural-style
Rosen v. United States, 161 U. S. 29, was a case decided by the United States Supreme Court dealing with the concept of obscenity. In a decision written by Justice Harlan, the Court upheld the conviction of the defendant to 13 months hard labor and a fine of $1 for using the United States Postal Service to send material, deemed "obscene and lascivious", it had been alleged that the defendant had, on April 24, 1893, within the Southern District of New York: unlawfully and knowingly deposit and cause to be deposited in the post office of the City of New York, for mailing and delivery by the post office establishment of the United States, a certain obscene and lascivious paper, which said paper and there, on the first page thereof, was entitled'Tenderloin Number, Broadway,' and on the same page were printed the words and figures following, to say:'Volume II, number 27. Geo. Edwards, P. O. Box 510, Summit, N. J.' -- against the peace of the United States and their dignity, contrary to the statute of the United States in such case made and provided.
The defendant, Lew Rosen, had been found guilty and appealed his conviction, arguing that the material the grand jury had found to be obscene had not been identified on the record. The Supreme Court upheld the conviction. Writing for the Court, Justice Harlan found that because the paper in question had been admitted into evidence and the defendant had not objected, because he could have requested a bill of particulars that described the paper but chose not to, the indictment sufficiently informed the accused of the nature and cause of the accusation against him. Justices White and Shiras dissented. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 161 List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Fuller Court List of United States Supreme Court cases involving the First Amendment Text of Rosen v. United States, 161 U. S. 29 is available from: Justia Library of Congress
Adore is the fourth studio album by the American alternative rock band The Smashing Pumpkins, released in June 1998 by Virgin Records. After the multi-platinum success of Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness and a subsequent yearlong world tour, follow-up Adore was considered "one of the most anticipated albums of 1998" by MTV. Recording the album proved to be a challenge as the band members struggled with lingering interpersonal problems and musical uncertainty in the wake of three successful rock albums and the departure of drummer Jimmy Chamberlin. Frontman Billy Corgan would characterize Adore as "a band falling apart". Corgan has mentioned he was going through a divorce while recording the album; the result was a much more subdued and electronica-tinged sound that Greg Kot of Rolling Stone magazine called "a complete break with the past". The album sold only a fraction of the previous two albums. However, the album was well received by critics, became the third straight Pumpkins album to be nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Performance and has gained a cult following.
A remastered and expanded version of the album was released on CD and vinyl in September 2014 as a part of the band's project to reissue their back catalogue from 1991–2000. The Smashing Pumpkins had cemented their place as a cultural force with the multi-platinum Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness. Feeling the limitations of their guitar-driven hard rock sound, the band had started to branch out during the making of Mellon Collie, after the chart-topping success of the electronic-leaning "1979", the band zeroed in on electronica; as the sprawling and massively successful Infinite Sadness tour wound down, Billy Corgan found himself facing many difficult issues, including musical burnout, the absence of his "best friend and musical soul mate in the band" Jimmy Chamberlin, the end of his marriage, the death of his mother to cancer. During this period, the band released two new singles on movie soundtracks—"Eye" and "The End Is the Beginning Is the End". Both songs incorporated electronic elements, yet retained the hard rock elements of the band's previous material.
However, the new album material Corgan was writing consisted of simple acoustic songs. Corgan, James Iha, D'arcy Wretzky, Matt Walker spent a few days in the studio in February 1997 laying down demos as live takes, the band hoped to record an entire album in such a manner. Corgan, hoping to maintain the band's progressive rock-inspired experimentation, soon had second thoughts about this approach and began envisioning a hybrid of folk rock and electronica, at once "ancient" and "futuristic"; the Smashing Pumpkins started demoing in February 1997 and recorded 30 songs for the album which, at one point, looked set to be a double album. The band subsequently cut the number of tracks on the album to 14. After playing several festival dates in summer 1997, the band began working at a variety of Chicago studios with producer Brad Wood—with whom Corgan had worked in the early 1990s. While Mellon Collie had been recorded with the full participation of all the band members, the band dynamics during the new sessions soon muddled as Corgan, uninspired by his bandmates, worked alone.
Wood, was leaving Corgan unsatisfied, so, after six weeks in Chicago, the band—minus Wood and Matt Walker—relocated to Los Angeles and started work at Sunset Sound, with Corgan now the de facto producer. The band rented a house, hoped living communally would foster good relations and a happier recording environment. According to Corgan, Iha refused to live in the house and visited; the recording sessions continued to be slow-moving and technical. In the absence of a drummer, the band used a drum machine; the band enlisted Joey Waronker, of Beck's band, Matt Cameron, of Soundgarden and Pearl Jam, for a few songs each. Bon Harris of Nitzer Ebb contributed electronic sequencing and sounds to eight album tracks, with the band giving him free rein. At the behest of the band's management, Rick Rubin was brought in to produce one song, "Let Me Give the World to You", but the song was left off the album to be re-recorded for Machina II/The Friends & Enemies of Modern Music. With around thirty songs recorded, Corgan began to see an end, enlisted Mellon Collie co-producer Flood to help finish the recording, pull the album together, mix the songs.
Art direction for the album is credited to Frank Olinsky, Billy Corgan, Corgan's then-girlfriend and frequent collaborator Yelena Yemchuk. The artwork for the album and its singles consisted entirely of black-and-white photographs shot by Yemchuk, many of which featured model Amy Wesson. Corgan was deliberately setting out to widen his band's sound and message, explaining that he was not "talking to teenagers anymore. I'm talking to everyone now. It's a wider dialogue. I'm talking to people who are older than me and younger than me, our generation as well." He said much of the record was "an attempt to go back to what's important at a musical core and build it outward". He would reflect that he was "stuck on the idea that needed to prove was an artist, the death knell of any artist". Distorted guitars and live drums, the previous hallmarks of the Pumpkins sound, took a back seat in a sonic palette that included much more synthesizers, drum programming, acoustic guitar, piano. At least five songs on the album are driven chiefly by piano, while the track "Appels + Oranjes" contains only electronic instruments and Corgan's voc