The Bust of Pericles with the Corinthian Helmet is a bust of the Athenian statesman and general Pericles which survives in the form of four marble copies from the Roman Imperial period. The Roman copies of the bust of Pericles derive from a bronze statue made by the sculptor Kresilas; this life-size statue was installed on the Athenian Acropolis at or shortly after the death of the politician. Pausanias says that the statue was directly beyond the gate to the Acropolis. Since this statue is not preserved and only limited information is known about it, its arrangement is unclear and its details can only be guessed at by analogies and assumptions. Pericles was not shown in a realistic fashion, but as an idealised image of the long-serving strategos. Whether he was depicted naked, clothed or in full armour is disputed. Remains of the statue's base were preserved with a dedicatory inscription. A slot in the base indicates; the slight turning of the head indicates. Pericles is depicted as an adult man with a Corinthian helmet.
The helmet symbolised his military role as strategos. The Berlin copy is carefully executed; the helmet is cocked back, with short curly hair bursting out at the temples. The beard is cropped with many small, well-ordered curls. Broad eyelids ring the eyes and eyebrows are carved above, his full lips are open. Behind the eyeholes of his helmet, further hair can be seen; this hair, far above where his head would be expected to end, might hint at Pericles' unusually shaped head, referenced in Attic Comedy by the abusive nickname "Leek-head." This deformity was said to be the reason why Pericles was always depicted in a Corinthian helmet, since this would conceal the height of his head. The presence of the hair in the eyeholes should therefore be seen as the addition of a learned sculptor. Kresilas created a kind of symbol of the Athenian democracy with this image of Pericles; however the sculpture conformed to the broadly accepted citizen ideal of the times and employed the calm and collected facial expression, the contemporary ideal.
As a result, the realistic tendencies of Athenian art, which are found to some extent in the bust of Themistocles were abandoned. The expression is serious, showing no emotion. In this the depiction squares with self-controlled personality attributed to Pericles in the historical tradition; the identification of this idealised figure with Pericles is made because two of the copies are inscribed: one in the Vatican Museum, the other in the British Museum. Berlin, Antikensammlung Inventory Number: Sk 1530, found on Lesbos, acquired on the art market in 1901, height 0.54m London, British Museum Inventory Number GR 1805.7-3.91, found in the Villa of Hadrian, height 0.48m, Inscription ΠΕΡΙΚΛΗΣ Rome, Museo Barracco, Inventory Number 96, acquired in 1884 from the collection of Augusto Castellani, height 0.40m Vatican, Vatican Museum, Museo Pio-Clementino Inventory number 269, found in the Villa of Brutus at Tivoli, height 1.83m, Inscription ΠΕΡΙΚΛΗΣ ΞΑΝΘΙΠΠΟΥ ΑΘΕΝΑΙΟΣ Perikles, Son of Xanthippos, Athenian Max Kunze, "Bildnis des Perikles mit korinthischem Helm."
In Die Antikensammlung im Pergamonmuseum und in Charlottenburg. Von Zabern, Mainz 1992, ISBN 3-8053-1187-7, pp. 152f. Ralf Krumeich, Bildnisse griechischer Herrscher und Staatsmänner im 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. 1997, pp. 118ff. Die griechische Klassik. Idee oder Wirklichkeit. Exhibition catalogue Berlin, Bonn 2002. Mainz, Zabern 2002, ISBN 3-8053-2854-0, pp. 232–233. Michael Siebler. Griechische Kunst. Taschen, Köln 2007, ISBN 978-3-8228-5447-1, pp. 76–77. Bust of Perikles in the database of the British Museum
Soviet Information Bureau was a leading Soviet news agency, operating from 1941 to 1961. The Axis invasion of the Soviet Union started on 22 June 1941, opening the Eastern Front of World War II. On 24 June 1941 a directive of Sovnarkom and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union established the Sovinformburo "to bring into the limelight international events, military developments, day-to-day life through printed and broadcast media". During World War II the Sovinformburo directed the activity of the All-Slavonic Committee, the Anti-Fascist Committee of Soviet Women, the Anti-Fascist Committee of the Soviet Youth, the Anti-Fascist Committee of Soviet Scientists and the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee. In 1944 a special bureau on propaganda for foreign countries was set up as part of Sovinformburo. In 1961 the Sovinformburo was transformed into Novosti Press Agency, succeeded by RIA Novosti in 1991 and, in 2013, by International Information Agency Russia Today. Yuri Levitan made the radio announcements on Radio Moscow.
While Radio Moscow always started its announcements with the words "Moscow is speaking", during the Axis aggression against the Soviet Union in World War II broadcasts came from Sverdlovsk until 1943, when activity moved to Kuibyshev until 1945. The Soviet Information Bureau never announced the fall of Kiev in 1941. Yuri Levitan Eastern Bloc information dissemination Censorship in the Soviet Union Propaganda in the Soviet Union
Bubble-tip anemone is a species of sea anemone in the family Actiniidae. Like several anemone species, E. quadricolor can support several anemonefish species, displays two growth types based on where they live in the water column, one of which gives it the common name, due to the bulbous tips on its tentacles. Entacmaea quadricolor is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific area, including the Red Sea. E. quadricolor anemones appear in a variety of morphs, including rose, orange and standard green. This sea anemone can grow to be up to 30 centimetres in diameter, obtains the majority of its energy from solar radiation via its symbiotic zooxanthellae. A characteristic of E. quadricolor is its ability to maintain a symbiotic relationship with the anemonefish, which can be "hosted" by the anemone by providing it with defence against predators and providing some nourishment. In turn, the anemone provides the anemonefish with shelter. Nutrients are obtained by filter feeding using its sweeping tentacles, or through wastes and debris cleaned from the surface of its partner anemonefish.
In the wild, E. quadricolor are found in two locations. Large adult specimens, with tentacles that are more streaming or stringy, are found in deeper waters with more dimly lit conditions; these specimens are solitary, while smaller, younger specimens are located in groups or colonies nearer to the surface, in bright sunlight. These specimens tend to show the bulbous tips on their tentacles that are characteristic of E. quadricolor. The tips of the anemones will have their characteristic bulbs based on several parameters, including; when they are placed in home aquariums, medium flow and medium lighting will be sufficient if your tank is old enough to captivate anemones. E. quadricolor is found within the range of most anemonefish and is generalist, hosting 14 different species, around half the species of anemonefish. It is thought the primary reason it does not host other species is competition, with other factors being habitat preferences or host-fish biochemical signalling; the anemone fish hosted by E quadricolor are: Amphiprion akindynos A. allardi A. barberi A. bicinctus A. chrysopterus A. clarkii A. ephippium A. frenatus A. mccullochi A. melanopus A. omanensis A. rubrocinctus A. tricinctus Premnas biaculeatus E. quadricolor associates with juvenile Dascyllus trimaculatus and shrimps such as Periclimenes brevicarpalis.
In aquariums, E. quadricolor will reproduce asexually or sexually when in proper care with supplemented minerals such as iodine and other trace elements purchased as an enrichment cocktail by most home aquarists. E. quadricolor is kept in marine aquariums and comes in variety of colors and rose being the most common. Without adequate lighting, the anemone will expel its photosynthetic symbiotic zooxanthellae, a process known as "bleaching" which will progressively result in its death. White or excessively translucent specimens are in various phases of bleaching and should not be purchased. Anemones are not easy to keep, require a knowledgeable aquarist; the aquarium must be at least 6 months stable to receive the anemone. The bigger the tank, the easier it'll be to keep a healthy anemone. Entacmaea quadricolor in Encyclopedia of Life Wiedenmann, J.. "A far-red fluorescent protein with fast maturation and reduced oligomerization tendency from Entacmaea quadricolor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
99: 11646–11651. Doi:10.1073/pnas.182157199. PMC 129323. PMID 12185250