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The peritoneum is the serous membrane forming the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids. It covers most of the intra-abdominal organs, is composed of a layer of mesothelium supported by a thin layer of connective tissue; this peritoneal lining of the cavity supports many of the abdominal organs and serves as a conduit for their blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves. The abdominal cavity is different from the intraperitoneal space; the structures within the intraperitoneal space are called "intraperitoneal", the structures in the abdominal cavity that are located behind the intraperitoneal space are called "retroperitoneal", those structures below the intraperitoneal space are called "subperitoneal" or "infraperitoneal". The peritoneum is one continuous sheet, forming two layers and a potential space between them: the peritoneal cavity; the outer layer, the parietal peritoneum, is attached to the pelvic walls. The tunica vaginalis, the serous membrane covering the male testis, is derived from the vaginal process, an outpouching of the parietal peritoneum.

The inner layer, the visceral peritoneum, is wrapped around the visceral organs, located inside the intraperitoneal space for protection. It is thinner than the parietal peritoneum; the mesentery is a double layer of visceral peritoneum. There are blood vessels and other structures between these layers; the space between these two layers is technically outside of the peritoneal sac, thus not in the peritoneal cavity. The potential space between these two layers is the peritoneal cavity, filled with a small amount of slippery serous fluid that allows the two layers to slide over each other. Peritoneal folds are omenta and ligaments. There are two main regions of the peritoneal cavity, connected by the omental foramen; the greater sac, represented in red in the diagrams above. The lesser sac, represented in blue; the lesser sac is divided into two "omenta": The lesser omentum is attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach and the liver. The greater omentum hangs from the greater curve of the stomach and loops down in front of the intestines before curving back upwards to attach to the transverse colon.

In effect it is draped in front of the intestines like an apron and may serve as an insulating or protective layer. The mesentery is the part of the peritoneum through which most abdominal organs are attached to the abdominal wall and supplied with blood and lymph vessels and nerves. In addition, in the pelvic cavity there are several structures that are named not for the peritoneum, but for the areas defined by the peritoneal folds: The structures in the abdomen are classified as intraperitoneal, retroperitoneal or infraperitoneal depending on whether they are covered with visceral peritoneum and whether they are attached by mesenteries. Structures that are intraperitoneal are mobile, while those that are retroperitoneal are fixed in their location; some structures, such as the kidneys, are "primarily retroperitoneal", while others such as the majority of the duodenum, are "secondarily retroperitoneal", meaning that structure developed intraperitoneally but lost its mesentery and thus became retroperitoneal.

The peritoneum develops from the mesoderm of the trilaminar embryo. As the mesoderm differentiates, one region known as the lateral plate mesoderm splits to form two layers separated by an intraembryonic coelom; these two layers develop into the visceral and parietal layers found in all serous cavities, including the peritoneum. As an embryo develops, the various abdominal organs grow into the abdominal cavity from structures in the abdominal wall. In this process they become enveloped in a layer of peritoneum; the growing organs "take their blood vessels with them" from the abdominal wall, these blood vessels become covered by peritoneum, forming a mesentery. Peritoneal folds develop from the dorsal mesentery of the embryo. In one form of dialysis, called peritoneal dialysis, a glucose solution is sent through a tube into the peritoneal cavity; the fluid is left there for a prescribed amount of time to absorb waste products, removed through the tube. The reason for this effect is the high number of veins in the peritoneal cavity.

Through the mechanism of diffusion, waste products are removed from the blood. Peritonitis is the inflammation of the peritoneum, it is more associated to infection from a punctured organ of the abdominal cavity. It can be provoked by the presence of fluids that produce chemical irritation, such as gastric acid or pancreatic juice. Peritonitis causes fever and pain in the abdominal area, which can be localized or diffuse; the treatment involves rehydration, administration of antibiotics, surgical correction of the underlying cause. Mortality is if present for a prolonged time. Primary peritoneal cancer is a cancer of the cells lining the peritoneum. "Peritoneum" is derived from Greek περιτόναιον peritonaion "peritoneum, abdominal membrane" via Latin. In Greek, περί peri means "around," while τείνω teino means "to stretch". Anatomy photo:37:03-0102 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Overview and diagrams at

Kristian Magdalon Bing

Kristian Magdalon Bing was a Norwegian jurist and mountaineer. He is credited for re-introducing the tradition of celebrating Olsok and reviving it as an annual ceremony commemorating the death of St. Olav at Stiklestad. Bing was born in Norway, his parents were Christine Marie Ingebrechtsen. He father was a judge in Sunnhordland. Bing earned a law degree and starting practicing in his hometown in 1891 after serving a year as editor at the newspaper Bergens Tidende, he was a writer most associated with the work, Guttekorpsene i Bergen from 1889. Bing was a pioneer in climbing in Norway, made several first ascents of mountains and glaciers, he was a capable mountaineer and the first on a number of peaks and glaciers between Finnmark and Folgefonna. The ice phenomenon Bings Gryte at the Jostedalsbreen glacier is named after him. In 1910, he discovered the rock carvings at Vingen in Sogn og Fjordane; these were the first rock carvings with hunting motifs discovered in Norway. He was looking for a site he.

In 1913, Kristian Bing purchased the property. He retained rights to several large waterfalls but subsequently sold the site where most rock carvings are located to the Bergen Museum in 1923. In 1915, he married Unni Mette Ingebrigtsen, he was the grandfather of Jon Bing. Guttekorpsene i Bergen Dræggens linjekorps historie Nordnæs linjekorps og bataljons historie Olsoktradition

Thomas Wentworth-Fitzwilliam, 10th Earl Fitzwilliam

William Thomas George Wentworth-Fitzwilliam, 10th Earl Fitzwilliam JP, known as Tom, was a British peer. He was last Earl Fitzwilliam, he died in 1979 at Yorkshire. He left no issue from his marriage, he left £11,776,401 gross, thus paying no death duties. Fitzwilliam was the son of George Wentworth-Fitzwilliam and Evelyn Lyster, daughter of Charles Stephen Lyster, he was educated at Eton in houses run by Reginald Saumarez de Havilland and Clement James Mellish Adie. In 1923, he went up to Cambridge, he was appointed Justice of the Peace for the Liberty of Peterborough. On 3 April 1956, he married Joyce Elizabeth Mary Langdale of Yorkshire, she had been married to Henry FitzAlan-Howard, 2nd Viscount FitzAlan of Derwent, from whom she was divorced in 1955. She died in 1995 at her home in Peterborough, her second husband's home, Wentworth Woodhouse, near Rotherham, Yorkshire, is the largest private residence in England. With his second seat of Milton Hall, Peterborough at her disposal, she may have felt little need to retain Houghton for her own use.

Black Diamonds by Catherine Bailey, (the rise and fall of an English Dynasty Thomas Wentworth-Fitzwilliam, 10th Earl Fitzwilliam Genealogy

The Fall of Troy (band)

The Fall of Troy is an American post-hardcore band from Mukilteo, Washington. The band is a trio consisting of Thomas Erak, Andrew Forsman and Tim Ward, replaced by Frank Ene following his departure from the band in late 2007. Ene would remain in the band until their initial break-up in 2010, but Ward rejoined the band in Ene's place for their reunion in 2013. Drew Pelisek of CHON, has been touring with the band on bass and backing vocals since 2017 and both he and Ward are considered to be official members; the trio is known for their technical and dynamic style, unorthodox song structures and energetic stage presence. The group has released five full-length albums, two EPs, one single. Prior to The Fall of Troy's formation, when each member was about 17 years old, all three founding members were in another group named The 30 Years War, who released two EPs. Late in his freshman year at Kamiak High School, Erak provided vocals and guitar for the band The Tribune; the band recorded one EP but disbanded by mid-2002.

Munro and Erak started a four-piece hardcore band under the name The 30 Years War. The band was rounded out with drummer Andrew Forsman; the group had intended a much mellower sound than employed. Erak stayed on guitar and vocals, Munro moved to second guitar, bass and drums were filled by Tim Ward and Forsman respectively. During the life of The 30 Years War, two EPs were independently released, entitled Martyrs Among the Casualties and Live at the Paradox. Just as The 30 Years War were about to go into the studio to record again, Munro quit, stating that school commitments rendered him unable to continue playing with the band. After Munro left, the band changed its name to "The Fall of Troy" using the same method with which they had chosen their previous name: "opening a history textbook and pointing at a random location until found a selection they liked". In May 2003, the trio entered The Hall of Justice in Seattle, Washington with producer Joel M. Brown to record their first full length.

They were all about 17 and a half years of age, the album was recorded in one take over their spring break in one week. The album was released on November 4, 2003 on Lujo Records, reissued on August 22, 2006 by Equal Vision Records; the trio recorded their independently released Ghostship EP shortly after the release of the self-titled, in 2004. Early versions of the demos had no vocals; the demos on the Ghostship EP. The band was invited to submit a new demo for Equal Vision, which saw the band hooking up with Ghostship producers Gordon Edward Greenwood III and Dustin Kochel once again; the resulting two tracks were "Tom Waits" and "Laces Out, Dan". Equal Vision used these tracks as promos for the yet to be recorded album. In March 2005, the band entered the studio to record their second album, titled Doppelgänger, it was released on August 16, 2005 in Compact Disc and vinyl format, which had alternate artwork. The trio started touring extensively from the release of Doppelgänger through the first quarter of 2006.

"F. C. P. R. E. M. I. X." was released as the only single from the album and has led to some mainstream success. The music video was released June 6, 2006 and received massive airplay on MTV and FUSE; the song was featured in Saints Row for Xbox 360 and in MLB 2K6 for Xbox, PlayStation 2, GameCube, PSP and Xbox 360. The song is featured in Guitar Hero III: Legends of Rock. In mid-December 2006, the band entered the studio with producer Matt Bayles to begin work on their third full-length album Manipulator; the album achieved 4 out of 5 K's in Kerrang! magazine and 7 out of 10 from Metal Hammer magazine. The album features Nouela Johnston of the Seattle band People Eating People contributing vocal and keyboard parts to many songs; the album includes the written, "Seattlantis," and all new material, including songs such as, "Problem!?," "Cut Down All the Trees and Name the Streets After Them," and a song with the palindromic title, "A Man. A Plan. A Canal. Panama." Before its release date the band stated that the first single from Manipulator would be "Cut Down All the Trees and Name the Streets After Them,", the first song released to the public on the band's MySpace.

The music video for this song was released August 8, 2007 on the band's MySpace. To support Manipulator, the band went on tour with and opened for Deftones in the summer of 2007. Footage of this tour was used for the single, "Ex-Creations,", released on January 16, 2008 on MySpace as well. In late November 2007, during their tour with Coheed and Cambria, Timothy took a break from the band, it was confirmed by the band that he had left the band due to stress. He was replaced by Frank Ene of the band "... Of Stalwart Fads"; the trio went on tour spring 2008 with The Dear Hunter and Tera Melos. On November 28, 2008, Phantom on the Horizon was released; the EP features all five Ghostship parts, with interludes. Erak has described the album as "one song separated by tracks." The album was played in its entirety on their West Coast and East Coast tours, followed by some "deep cuts" from the group's catalogue each night of the tour. Only 3,000 copies have been were sold online and at shows. After the 1500 physical copies held aside for online ordering sold out on December 1, an MP3 version of the album became availabl

Trial of Satanta and Big Tree

The Trial of Satanta and Big Tree occurred in May 1871 in the town of Jacksboro in Jack County, United States. This historic trial of Native American War Chiefs of the Kiowa Indians Satanta and Big Tree for the murder of seven teamsters during a raid on Salt Creek Prairie near Jacksboro, marked the first time the United States had tried Native American Chiefs in a state court; the trial attracted international attention. The two Kiowa leaders, with Satank, a legendary third War Chief, were formally indicted on July 1, 1871, tried shortly thereafter, for acts arising out of the Warren Wagon Train Raid. Fort Richardson, near Jacksboro, was built to stop the Kiowa and Kiowa-Apache warriors, from violating their confinement to the reservation lands in Oklahoma, which they did nearly every "Comanche moon"; the warriors of those three tribes, along with the Cheyenne, crossed the Red River and made bloody raids into the sparsely settled northwestern counties of Texas, down into Mexico. Never was the frontier more tense than in 1871 because there was a prodigious look out for Indians smoking peyote.

The time of the free Native American Plains Tribes had gone. But the warriors still made bloody efforts to stave off confinement; the Warren Wagon Train Raid was one such effort. This incident occurred on May 18, 1871. Wagon Master Henry Warren had contracted to haul supplies to Army forts in the west of Texas, including Forts Richardson and Concho. So on May 18, Warren and his men were traveling down the Jacksboro-Belknap road heading towards Salt Creek Crossing, on Salt Creek Prairie, were a few miles from Fort Richardson; that morning, the Warren Train encountered General William Tecumseh Sherman with an escort of a dozen troopers. General Sherman, general-in-chief of the United States Army, was on a three-week inspection tour of federal military posts on the Texas frontier; the Kiowas and Comanches waiting in ambush, followed the advice of their medicine man and waited for the more profitable prey of civilians he had seen in his dreams instead of attacking the small army group. This dream doomed the Warren train, but saved Sherman, who would certainly been killed had the large war party attacked his escort.

The warriors attacked. Despite efforts to defend themselves, the Warren Train was overrun. Seven teamsters were killed, including one, burned alive; the survivors rushed on to Fort Richardson. The General, realizing that he had escaped death by fate, ordered Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie and the 4th Cavalry to pursue the war party and bring back those responsible for the attack; the Army did not catch the war party, the war party caught themselves. Leaders Satank and Satanta had come back to the reservation, had they kept quiet, no one would have found out who had committed the Warren Wagon Train Raid, but Satanta could not bring himself to be quiet. He asked the Indian Agent on the Kiowa-Comanche Reservation for ammunition and supplies, bragging that he, Big Tree had led the war party which had killed the teamsters at Salt Creek, that they could have killed General Sherman if they had wished. Lawrie Tatum, the Quaker Indian Agent for the Kiowa, wrote a letter on May 30, 1871, in which he described the speech of Satanta's on the Warren Wagon Train Raid: Satanta made, what he wished understood to be a "Big Speech," in which he said addressing me "I have heard that you have stolen a large portion of our annuity goods and given them to the Texans.

The white people are preparing to build a R. R. through our country. Some years ago we were taken by the haid, but we have cut that are all going with the Cheyennes to the Antalope Hills. When Gen Custer was here two or three years ago, he arrested me & kept me in confinement several days, but arresting Indians is plaid out now & is never to be repeated. On account of these grievances, I took, a short time ago, about 100 of my warriors, with the Chiefs Satank, Eagle Heart, Big Tree, Big Bow, & Fast Bear, & went to Texas, where we captured a train not far from Ft Richardson, killed 7 of the men, & drove off about 41 mules. Three of my men were killed. If any other Indian come here & claims the honor of leading the party he will be lieing to you, for I did it myself. Nor was Tatum the only white man Satanta admitted his role in the raid to, for according to a letter written by General Sherman, dated May 28, 1871 published in the San Antonio Express, reprinted in the New York Times on June 27, 1871, Satanta admitted to General Sherman in person, via an interpreter, that he led the party that attacked the Warren Wagon Train.

According to General Sherman, Satanta admitted leading the attack, denying only that they had burnt a man alive. Sherman ordered the arrest of Satank and Big Tree, carried it out on the Agent’s porch, in spite of Guipago's intervention. Sherman hit on the ingenious idea of sending the Indian Chiefs to Jacksboro, Texas to be tried in state court for murder, he ordered. This would deny them any vestige of righ

Maurice Berkeley (died 1617)

Maurice Berkeley was an English landowner and gentleman who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1597 and 1614. Maurice Berkeley was the eldest son of Sir Henry Berkeley of Bruton Abbey and Margaret Lygon, widow of Sir Thomas Russell of Strensham, a daughter of William Lygon, esquire, of Madresfield, Worcestershire, by Eleanor Dennis. By his mother's marriage to Sir Henry Berkeley, Maurice Berkeley had two brothers of the whole blood, Henry Berkeley and Edward Berkeley, by her first marriage to Sir Thomas Russell, Maurice Berkeley had a half-brother, Thomas Russell of Strensham, who married firstly Katherine Bampfield and secondly, Anne St. Leger, widow of Thomas Digges, who in 1616 was overseer of the will of William Shakespeare. On 13 February 1590 Berkeley matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford, at the age of thirteen, together with his eleven-year-old brother, Henry, his half-brother, Thomas Russell, was at Queen's College at the time, in his second year. Berkeley graduated BA on 14 February 1593, was admitted to the Middle Temple in 1594.

In the 1590s, acrimonious conflicts between Sir Henry Berkeley's father and Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, required the intervention of the Queen and the Star Chamber. Berkeley was with Essex in the expedition to Cadiz in 1596, in January 1598 was to have accompanied his cousin, Sir Robert Cecil, to France, although it is unclear whether he did travel to the continent at that time. In August of that year he requested a military appointment. In 1601 he succeeded his father. In 1597, Berkeley was elected a Member of Parliament for Truro, he was elected as one of the members for Somerset in 1601 and for Minehead in 1604. In 1614 he was re-elected as a knight of the shire for Somerset. Berkeley married Elizabeth Killigrew, the eldest daughter of Sir William Killigrew of Hanworth, from an ancient Cornish family, a courtier to Queen Elizabeth I and to King James I, whom he served as Groom of the Privy Chamber. According to Bellany, William Killigrew, his brother, Henry Killigrew,'made their fortunes at Elizabeth I's court'.

William Killigrew was a diplomatic courier, a Groom of the Privy Chamber by 1576, Treasurer of the Chamber in 1595. He held various offices in Cornwall and Devon, was a member of Parliament, was knighted by King James I at Theobalds on 7 May 1603, in 1605-8 was Chamberlain of the Exchequer. By Elizabeth Killigrew Sir Maurice Berkeley had five sons and two daughters: Charles Berkeley, 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge Henry Berkeley Maurice Berkeley Sir William Berkeley John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton Margaret Berkeley Jane Berkeley Sir Maurice Berkeley's mother died in the winter of 1616, leaving him her household goods at Bruton and the wedding ring'which I had of his father, my late husband, Sir Henry Barkley, knight', leaving his half-brother, Thomas Russell, a basin and ewer of silver'which was his father's, Sir Thomas Russell, deceased'. Berkeley survived his mother by only a few months, he made his will on 26 April 1617, died on 11 May, purportedly ‘far indebted’. He left Bruton to Charles.

His son William Berkeley was Governor of Virginia. Bellany, Alastair. Killigrew, Sir Robert. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 November 2012. Foster, Joseph, ed. Alumni Oxonienses 1500-1714. Pp. 106–141. Retrieved 16 November 2012. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Hotson, Leslie. I, William Shakespeare Do Appoint Thomas Russell, Esquire... London: Jonathan Cape. Richardson, Douglas. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. III. Salt Lake City. ISBN 144996639X Richardson, Douglas. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. IV. Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709 Pedigree of Berkeley Sir Maurice Berkeley, History of Parliament Sir William Killigrew, History of Parliament