Anthony Charles Lynton Blair is a British politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and the Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. From 1983 to 2007, Blair was the MP for Sedgefield, under Blairs leadership, the party used the phrase New Labour, to distance it from previous Labour policies and the traditional conception of socialism. Critics of Blair denounced him for having the Labour Party abandon genuine socialism, in May 1997, the Labour Party won a landslide general election victory, the largest in its history, allowing Blair, at 43 years old, to become the youngest Prime Minister since 1812. In September 1997, Blair attained early personal popularity, receiving a 93% public approval rating, the Labour Party went on to win two more elections under his leadership, in 2001, in which it won another landslide victory, and in 2005, with a reduced majority. In the first years of the New Labour government, Blairs government introduced the National Minimum Wage Act, Human Rights Act, Blairs government devolved power, establishing the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly.
In Northern Ireland, Blair was involved in the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, Blair has faced strong criticism for his role in the invasion of Iraq, including calls for having him tried for war crimes and waging a war of aggression. In 2016, the Iraq Inquiry strongly criticised his actions and described the invasion of Iraq as unjustified, Blair intervened militarily in Kosovo and Sierra Leone. Blair was succeeded as the leader of the Labour Party and as Prime Minister by Gordon Brown in June 2007. On the day that Blair resigned as Prime Minister, he was appointed the official Special Envoy of the Quartet on the Middle East and he now runs a consultancy business and has set up various foundations in his own name, including the Tony Blair Faith Foundation. Anthony Charles Lynton Blair was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 6 May 1953 and he was the second son of Leo and Hazel Blair. Leo Blair was the son of two entertainers and adopted as a baby by Glasgow shipyard worker James Blair and his wife.
Hazel Corscadden was the daughter of George Corscadden, a butcher, in 1923 he returned to Ballyshannon, County Donegal. In Ballyshannon Corscaddens wife, Sarah Margaret, gave birth above the grocery shop to Blairs mother. Blair has one brother, Sir William Blair, a High Court judge. Blairs first home was with his family at Paisley Terrace in the Willowbrae area of Edinburgh, during this period, his father worked as a junior tax inspector whilst studying for a law degree from the University of Edinburgh. Blairs first relocation was when he was 19 months old, at the end of 1954 Blairs parents and their two sons moved from Paisley Terrace to Adelaide, South Australia. His father lectured in law at the University of Adelaide and it was when in Australia that Blairs sister Sarah was born. The Blairs lived in the suburb of Dulwich close to the university, the family returned to the UK in summer 1958
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang. The name derives from the Kuomintangs translated name Nationalist Party, the government was in place until the Government of the Republic of China under the newly promulgated Constitution of the Republic of China was established in its place. After the outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution on 10 October 1911, revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen was elected Provisional President, to preserve national unity, Sun ceded the presidency to military strongman Yuan Shikai, who established the Beiyang government. After a failed attempt to himself as Emperor of China, Yuan died in 1916, leaving a power vacuum which resulted in China being divided into several warlord fiefdoms. The legitimacy of this transfer is disputed and is another aspect of the political status of Taiwan. After World War II, the war between the ruling Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China resumed, despite attempts at mediation by the United States.
The Nationalist Government began drafting the Constitution of the Republic of China under a National Assembly, with the promulgation of the constitution, the Nationalist Government abolished itself and was replaced by the Government of the Republic of China. Following their loss of the Civil War, the Nationalist Government retreated moved their capital to Taiwan while claiming that they were the government of the mainland. After Suns death on 12 March 1925, four on 1 July 1925. The following year, Chiang Kai-shek became the de facto leader of the KMT, Chiang led the Northern Expedition through China with the intention of defeating the warlords and unifying the country. Chiang received the help of the Soviet Union and the Chinese Communists, however and he was convinced, not without reason, that they wanted to get rid of the KMT and take over. Chiang decided to strike first and purged the Communists, killing thousands of them, at the same time, other violent conflicts took place in the south of China where the Communists fielded superior numbers and were massacring Nationalist supporters.
These events eventually led to the Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists, Chiang Kai-shek pushed the Communists into the interior as he sought to destroy them, and moved the Nationalist Government to Nanjing in 1927. Leftists within the KMT still allied to the communists had established a rival Nationalist Government in Wuhan two months earlier, but soon joined Chiang in Nanjing in August 1927. By the following year, Chiangs army had captured Beijing after overthrowing the Beiyang government and unified the nation, at least nominally. By 1928, the Nationalists, having taken over power militarily and reunified China, started the second phase, promulgating a provisional constitution, the KMT was criticized as instituting totalitarianism, but claimed it was attempting to establish a modern democratic society. Among others, they created at time the Academia Sinica, the Central Bank of China. In 1932, China sent a team for the first time to the Olympic Games, such as Edmund Fung, argue that establishing a democracy in China at that time was not possible
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
United Nations Security Council veto power
Abstention or absence from the vote by a permanent member does not prevent a draft resolution from being adopted. However, the power does not apply to procedural votes. The permanent members can vote against a draft resolution without blocking its adoption by the Council. A negative vote by a permanent member will block the selection of a Secretary-General and this de facto control over the UN Council by the five governments has been seen by critics as the most undemocratic character of the UN. Critics claim that veto power is the cause for international inaction on war crimes and crimes against humanity. However, the United States refused to join the United Nations unless it was given a veto, the absence of the United States from the League of Nations contributed to its ineffectiveness. The idea of states having a veto over the actions of international organizations was not new in 1945, from the foundation of the League of Nations in 1920, each member of the League Council, whether permanent or non-permanent, had a veto on any non-procedural issue.
From 1920 there were 4 permanent and 4 non-permanent members, thus there were in effect 15 vetoes. This was one of several defects of the League that made action on many issues impossible, the UN Charter provision for unanimity among the Permanent Members of the Security Council was the result of extensive discussion, including at Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta. The veto was forced on all other governments by the five veto holders and you may, if you wish, he said, go home from this Conference and say that you have defeated the veto. But what will be your answer when you are asked, Where is the Charter, the United Nations Security Council veto system was established in order to prohibit the UN from taking any future action directly against its principal founding members. One of the lessons of the League of Nations had been that an organization cannot work if all the major powers are not members. Article 27 of the United Nations Charter states, Each member of the Security Council shall have a vote, decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members.
For this reason, the power of veto is referred to as the principle of great power unanimity, the actual use of the veto, and the constant possibility of its use, have been central features of the functioning of the Security Council throughout the UNs history. In the period from 1945 to the end of 2009,215 resolutions on substantive issues were vetoed, the average number of vetoes cast each year to 1989 was over five, since the average annual number has been just above one. The figures reflect the fact that a Permanent Member of the Security Council can avoid casting a veto if the proposal in question does not in any event obtain the requisite majority. In the first two decades of the UN, the Western states were able to defeat resolutions without actually using the veto. Use of the veto has reflected a degree of isolation of the vetoing state on the particular issue
Li Keqiang is the current Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. An economist by training, Li is Chinas head of government as well as one of the figures behind Chinese economic policy. He is the member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China. Li is a part of the fifth generation of Chinese leadership. Li was named the Worlds 12th Most Powerful Person by the Forbes list of The Worlds Most Powerful People in 2015 and 2016, Li rose through the ranks through his involvement in the Communist Youth League. From 1998 to 2004, Li served as the Governor of Henan, from 2004 to 2007 he served as the Party Secretary of Liaoning, the top political office in the province. Given his Youth League experience, Li has generally been considered an ally of former leader Hu Jintao. Li assumed the post of Premier in 2013, and has facilitated the Chinese governments shifting of priorities from export-led growth to a focus on internal consumption. Li has been a force behind the implementation of the comprehensively deepening reforms announced in the fall of 2013.
Li was born on 1 July 1955 in Hefei, the capital and his father was a local official in Anhui. He was awarded the honour of Outstanding Individual in the Study of Mao Zedong Thought during this time and he earned a PhD in economics in 1995, and the prominent economist Li Yining was his doctoral advisor. His doctoral dissertation was awarded the Sun Yefang Prize, Chinas highest prize in economics, in 1980, Li became the Communist Youth League secretary at Peking University. Li became the organizations First Secretary in 1993 and served until 1998 and he is a representative member of the first generation to have risen from the CYL leadership. Li became the youngest Chinese provincial governor in June 1998 when he was appointed governor of Henan at the age of 43, according to provincial officials working with him at the time, Li refused to participate in any banquets or large fancy events not related to government activities. During his time as governor, a sense of his bad luck grew due to the occurrence of three major fires in the province.
Li is known to be outspoken and led development in Henan. Li did not spend time pursuing superficial projects and he trekked through all regions of the province trying to search for a comprehensive solution to its growing problems. Henan jumped in national GDP rankings from 28th in the early 1990s to 18th in 2004, his government was relatively ineffective at curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic that was affecting the rural areas of the province
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War. The Allies promoted the alliance as seeking to stop German, Japanese, at the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France and the United Kingdom, and dependent states, such as the British India. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth, Canada, New Zealand, Poland was a minor factor after its defeat in 1939, France was a minor factor after its defeat in 1940. China had already been into a war with Japan since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937. The alliance was formalised by the Declaration by United Nations, from 1 January 1942, the name United Nations was rarely used to describe the Allies during the war. The leaders of the Big Three – the UK, the Soviet Union, in 1945, the Allied nations became the basis of the United Nations. The origins of the Allied powers stem from the Allies of World War I, Germany resented signing Treaty of Versailles.
The new Weimar republics legitimacy became shaken, by the early 1930s, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler became the dominant revanchist movement in Germany and Hitler and the Nazis gained power in 1933. The Nazi regime demanded the cancellation of the Treaty of Versailles and made claims to German-populated Austria. The likelihood of war was high, and the question was whether it could be avoided through strategies such as appeasement, in Asia, when Japan seized Manchuria in 1931, the League of Nations condemned it for aggression against China. Japan responded by leaving the League of Nations in March 1933, after four quiet years, the Sino-Japanese War erupted in 1937 with Japanese forces invading China. The League of Nations condemned Japans actions and initiated sanctions on Japan, the United States, in particular, was angered at Japan and sought to support China. In March 1939, Germany took over Czechoslovakia, violating the Munich Agreement signed six months before and France decided that Hitler had no intention to uphold diplomatic agreements and responded by preparing for war.
On 31 March 1939, Britain formed the Anglo-Polish military alliance in an effort to avert a German attack on the country, the French had a long-standing alliance with Poland since 1921. The Soviet Union sought an alliance with the powers. The agreement secretly divided the independent nations of eastern Europe between the two powers and assured adequate oil supplies for the German war machine, on 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, two days Britain and France declared war on Germany. Then, on 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east, a Polish government-in-exile was set up and it continued to be one of the Allies, a model followed by other occupied countries. After a quiet winter, Germany in April 1940 invaded and quickly defeated Denmark, Belgium and its Empire stood alone against Hitler and Mussolini
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Theresa Mary May is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party, having served as both since July 2016. She has been the Member of Parliament for Maidenhead since 1997, may identifies as a one-nation conservative and has been characterised as a liberal conservative. She is the second female Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader after Margaret Thatcher, the daughter of a vicar, May grew up in Oxfordshire. From 1977 until 1983, she worked for the Bank of England, after unsuccessful attempts to be elected to the House of Commons in 1992 and 1994, she was elected as the MP for Maidenhead in the 1997 general election. She was Chairman of the Conservative Party from 2002 to 2003, after the formation of a coalition government following the 2010 general election, May was appointed Home Secretary and Minister for Women and Equalities, giving up the latter role in 2012. Reappointed after the Conservative victory in the 2015 general election, she went on to become the longest-serving Home Secretary since James Chuter Ede over 60 years previously.
She won the first and second ballot of Conservative MPs by a significant margin and was due to face a vote of Conservative Party members in a contest with Andrea Leadsom, leadsoms withdrawal from the election on 11 July led to Mays appointment as party leader the same day. She was appointed Prime Minister on 13 July, as Prime Minister, Mays focus has primarily been on withdrawing the UK from the European Union. Born on 1 October 1956 in Eastbourne, May is the child of Zaidee Mary. Her father was a Church of England clergyman who was chaplain of an Eastbourne hospital and he became vicar of Enstone with Heythrop and finally of St Marys at Wheatley, to the east of Oxford. Mays mother was a supporter of the Conservative Party. May was educated primarily in the sector but with a short spell at an independent Catholic school. She initially attended Heythrop Primary School, a school in Heythrop, followed by St. Julianas Convent School for Girls, a Roman Catholic independent school in Begbroke. At the age of 13, May won a place at the former Holton Park Girls Grammar School, during her time as a pupil, the Oxfordshire education system was reorganised and the school became the new Wheatley Park Comprehensive School.
May attended the University of Oxford where she read geography at St Hughs College, between 1977 and 1983 May worked at the Bank of England, and from 1985 to 1997 as a financial consultant and senior advisor in International Affairs at the Association for Payment Clearing Services. Both Mays parents died during this period, her father in a car accident in 1981, may served as a councillor for Durnsford ward on the London Borough of Merton from 1986 to 1994, where she was Chairman of Education and Deputy Group Leader and Housing Spokesman. May stood at the 1994 Barking by-election, which was prompted by the death of Labour MP Jo Richardson. The seat had been held by Labour since it was created in 1945 and Labour candidate Margaret Hodge was expected to win easily
China and the United Nations
China was one of the charter members of the United Nations and is one of five permanent members of its Security Council. It has used its veto the least of any of the permanent members, One of the victorious Allies of the Second World War, the Republic of China joined the UN at its founding in 1945. The subsequent resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949, nearly all of mainland China was soon under its control and the ROC fled to the island of Taiwan. On October 25,1971, Albanias motion to recognize the Peoples Republic of China as the sole legal China was passed as General Assembly Resolution 2758. It was supported by most of the communist states and non-aligned countries, nixon personally visited China the next year, beginning the normalization of Sino-American relations. Since that time, the Republic of China has softened its own One-China Policy and these moves have been opposed and mostly blocked by the Peoples Republic of China, forcing the Republic of China to join international organizations under other names.
These include Chinese Taipei at the International Olympic Committee, the ROC co-founded the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration in 1943 and is one of four members of its policy-making Central Committee. UNRRA provided supplies and services to areas under occupation by the Axis Powers, the largest project undertaken by UNRRA was the China program which had a total estimated cost of $658.4 million. UNRRA China Office was opened in Shanghai at the end of 1944, final work and responsibilities were finished by March,1948. UNRRA cooperated with Chinese National Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, led by Jiang Tingfu, UNRRA functions were transferred to several UN agencies, including the International Refugee Organization and the World Health Organization. Peng Chun Chang of ROC was the Vice-Chairman of United Nations Commission on Human Rights that drafted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the UN General Assembly as Resolution 217 A on December 10,1948, the ROC was one of the 48 states that voted for it.
The International Criminal Court is a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, the Court has jurisdiction if a situation is referred to the Court by the United Nations Security Council. As of May 2013,122 states have ratified or acceded to the Rome Statute that established the Court, the PRC, as well its neighbouring rival India, has been critical of the Court. China ranked 7th among member states for contributing 3. 93% of United Nations Peacekeeping operations budget for 2013–2015, United States ranked first by contributing 27. 14%. The 1954 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR assistance was given to needy refugees among the Chinese refugees in Macao, and the Tibetan refugees in India and Nepal. India hosted some 110,000 Tibetan refugees as of the end of 2001, UNHCR estimates that there are 15,000 Tibetans who arrived in Nepal prior to 1990 and were recognized by the Government as refugees.
The Republic of China was a member of the United Nations