François Delattre is the Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations in New York and head of France's UN mission since 2014. He was appointed to this position by French president François Hollande on 12 June 2014 with effect from 15 July 2014, he was the Ambassador of France to the United States until 14 June 2014, an appointment made in February 2011 by President Nicolas Sarkozy. Delattre graduated from Sciences Po in Paris in 1984 and the École nationale d'administration with a degree in international law in 1989. Delattre joined the French Foreign Ministry in 1989, he served at the French embassy to Germany, in the Department of Strategic Affairs and Disarmament. Delattre was Press and Communications Director at the French Embassy in Washington, D. C. from 1998 to 2002. Columbia University, European Institute, Member of the Advisory Board United Nations International School, Honorary Trustee France, Newfoundland sign driver-licensing pact Rabbi Arthur Schneier Presented With Legion of Honor Medal by François Delattre, France’s Ambassador to the United States French Ambassador François Delattre visited Atlanta for the first time on May 26-27 French Ambassador to the US François Delattre Speaks about Libya on CNN Appearances on C-SPAN
William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, again from 1983 to 1992, the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College and Yale Law School, he met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979; as Governor of Arkansas, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992. At age 46, he became the first from the Baby Boomer generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.
He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term, he passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice following allegations that he committed perjury and obstructed justice to conceal an affair that he had with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year old White House Intern. Clinton was completed his term in office, he is only the second U. S. president—following Andrew Johnson 131 years earlier—to be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969.
In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. president since World War II, has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U. S. presidents placing in the top third. Since leaving office, he has been involved in humanitarian work, he created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming, he has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including the presidential campaigns of his wife and Barack Obama. In 2004, Clinton published My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund.
In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang and negotiating their release with Kim Jong-il. Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas, he is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife. Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.
The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. Although he assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. Clinton said that he remembered his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section, he considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class.
After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck that it "made him realize that someday he would study law". Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War. The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German and Italian aggression. At the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France and the United Kingdom, as well as their dependent states, such as British India. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth: Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. After the start of the German invasion of North Europe until the Balkan Campaign, the Netherlands, Belgium and Yugoslavia joined the Allies. After first having cooperated with Germany in invading Poland whilst remaining neutral in the Allied-Axis conflict, the Soviet Union perforce joined the Allies in June 1941 after being invaded by Germany; the United States provided war materiel and money all along, joined in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
China had been in a prolonged war with Japan since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, but joined the Allies in 1941. The alliance was formalised by the Declaration by United Nations, from 1 January 1942. However, the name United Nations was used to describe the Allies during the war; the leaders of the "Big Three"—the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States—controlled Allied strategy. The Big Three together with China were referred as a "trusteeship of the powerful" were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations and as the "Four Policemen" of the United Nations. After the war ended, the Allied nations became the basis of the modern United Nations. Members The origins of the Allied powers stem from the Allies of World War I and cooperation of the victorious powers at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Germany resented signing Treaty of Versailles; the new Weimar Republic's legitimacy became shaken. However, the 1920s were peaceful. With the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression, political unrest in Europe soared including the rise in support of revanchist nationalists in Germany who blamed the severity of the economic crisis on the Treaty of Versailles.
By the early 1930s, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler became the dominant revanchist movement in Germany and Hitler and the Nazis gained power in 1933. The Nazi regime demanded the immediate cancellation of the Treaty of Versailles and made claims to German-populated Austria, German-populated territories of Czechoslovakia; the likelihood of war was high, the question was whether it could be avoided through strategies such as appeasement. In Asia, when Japan seized Manchuria in 1931, the League of Nations condemned it for aggression against China. Japan responded by leaving the League of Nations in March 1933. After four quiet years, the Sino-Japanese War erupted in 1937 with Japanese forces invading China; the League of Nations initiated sanctions on Japan. The United States, in particular, was sought to support China. In March 1939, Germany took over Czechoslovakia, violating the Munich Agreement signed six months before, demonstrating that the appeasement policy was a failure. Britain and France decided that Hitler had no intention to uphold diplomatic agreements and responded by preparing for war.
On 31 March 1939, Britain formed the Anglo-Polish military alliance in an effort to avert a German attack on the country. The French had a long-standing alliance with Poland since 1921; the Soviet Union sought an alliance with the western powers, but Hitler ended the risk of a war with Stalin by signing the Nazi–Soviet non-aggression pact in August 1939. The agreement secretly divided the independent nations of Eastern Europe between the two powers and assured adequate oil supplies for the German war machine. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. On 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. A Polish government-in-exile was set up and it continued to be one of the Allies, a model followed by other occupied countries. After a quiet winter, Germany in April 1940 invaded and defeated Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands and France. Britain and its Empire stood alone against Mussolini. In June 1941, Hitler broke the non-aggression agreement with Stalin and Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
In December, Japan attacked the Britain. The main lines of World War II had formed. During December 1941, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt devised the name "United Nations" for the Allies and proposed it to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, he referred to the Big Three and China as a "trusteeship of the powerful", later the "Four Policemen". The Declaration by United Nations on 1 January 1942 was the basis of the modern United Nations. At the Potsdam Conference of July–August 1945, Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman, proposed that the foreign ministers of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States "should draft the peace treaties and boundary settlements of Europe", which led to the creation of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the "Big Five", soon thereafter the establishment of those states as the permanent members of the UNSC. Great Britain and other members of the British Commonwealth, most known as the Dominions, declared war on Germany separately from 3 September 1939 with the UK first, all within one week of each other.
British West Africa and the British colonies in E
Vasily Alekseevich Nebenzya is a Russian diplomat and the current Russia's Permanent Representative to the United Nations. His official title is Plenipotentiary. Nebenzya was born 26 February 1962 in Volgograd, USSR, his father was Deputy Chairman of the USSR State Committee for Publishing Aleksei Andreevich Nebenzya. He graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations in 1983. Since he has pursued a diplomatic career. 1988-1990 — attaché of the USSR Embassy in Thailand. 1990-1991 — third Secretary Directorate for international economic relations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR. 1991-1992 — second Secretary Department of international organizations Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR and Russia. 1993-1996 — head of Department, Department of international organizations Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. 1996-2000 — Advisor, senior Counsellor, Permanent Mission of Russia to the UN. 2000-2006 — head of Department, Deputy Director of the Department of international organizations Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia.
2006-2011 — Deputy Permanent Representative of Russia to the World Trade Organization. 2011-2012 — Deputy Permanent Representative of Russia to the United Nations office and other international organizations in Geneva. 2012-2013 — Director of Department for humanitarian cooperation and human rights Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. 2013-2017 — Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia. Since 27 July 2017 — Russia's Permanent Representative to the United Nations. In February 2017, Russia's Permanent Representative to the UN Vitaly Churkin died. In March 2017 Nebenzya was named as one of the main candidates for this post alongside the Permanent Representative of Russia to NATO Alexander Grushko, the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Anatoly Antonov. On April 21, 2017, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia nominated him for the post of UN Ambassador. Since 25 to 29 May 2017 He was approved of the Federal Assembly of Russia. President Putin appointed Nebenzya as Permanent Representative to the United Nations on July 27, 2017, he presented his credentials to the UN Secretary-General António Guterres the following day.
In July 2014, Vasily Nebenzya published an article "Ukraine: The Choice of Paradigm and Consequences" in the Izvestia newspaper. In the article, Nebenzya analyzed the unequal nature of the agreement between Ukraine and the European Union, which for Ukraine "is not spelled out the prospect of membership in this integration Association". In the autumn of 2017, Vasily Nebenzya told reporters that the Russian plan to deploy the UN peacekeeping mission in the Donbass did not find support from the United States and Ukraine. Vasily Nebenzya is debating in the UN Security Council about the War in Syria. In February 2018, Nebenzya said that the blow inflicted by the forces of the international coalition led by the United States on Syrian government troops is a crime. According to him, representatives of the coalition claim that they are in Syria to fight terrorism, but they are not limited to that stated goal and attack those who fight with the militants in the territory of the Republic, this is a crime.
Vasily Nebenzya urged the UN to take the information of Damascus that Western countries supplied Syrian militants with chemical weapons. According to Nebenzya, if the information is confirmed and it turns out that the armed opposition had chemical weapons produced by American and British companies, it can be regarded as a violation of the Convention on the prohibition of chemical weapons. Commenting on the news about the upcoming US and it’s allies launching of a missile strike on Syria, Vasily Nebenzya told reporters that Russia had warned the US about the possible serious consequences of the attack on the armed forces in Syria. On 14 April 2018, when the US and allies launched the missile attack on Syria, Vasily Nebenzya, speaking at an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council, said that the leadership of the United States, if you wish, you will be able to end the war in Syria in 24 hours. To do this, they need to give the command to their "manual terrorists". Nebenzya called on the US to stop its aggressive actions against Syria and prevent them from happening again.
In mid-March 2018, Nebenzya said that the United Kingdom, which initiated an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council in the case of poisoning former GRU Colonel Sergey Skripal, is not interested in establishing the truth. On 6 April 2018, Vasily Nebenzya commented on the UK charges in the Skripal case by criticising the British version of events which he summarised as the UK arguing that Russia could not forgive Skripal for treason and therefor decided to eliminate him despite the fact that he of course represents no current threat to the Russian state. Vasily Nebenzya proceeded to question the conspicuous timing: "Why did we wait eight years and decided on a "case" two weeks before the presidential election and a few weeks before the World Cup?", "Why was he released from Russia?", "Why would we attempt to assassinate him in such a strange way, so dangerous to bystanders?" Speaking at a meeting of the UN Security Council devoted to the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis, Vasily Nebenzya said that Russia calls to stop interfering in the internal affairs of Venezuela and abandon economic pressure on the country.
According to him, the recognition of the United States and a number of countries of Juan Guaidó as President means that they either contributed or had a hand in the creation of dual power in Venezuela. He stressed that the current situation threatens to destabilize the domestic political situation. C-SPAN appearancesS/PV.8452 Security Co
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
United States and the United Nations
The United States of America is a charter member of the United Nations and one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council. The United States is host to the headquarters of the United Nations, which includes the usual meeting place of the General Assembly in New York City, the seat of the Security Council and several bodies of the United Nations; the United States is the largest provider of financial contributions to the United Nations, providing 22 percent of the entire UN budget in 2017. From July 2016 to June 2017, 28.6 percent of the budget used for peacekeeping operations was provided by the United States. The United States had a pivotal role in establishing the UN; the UN is an outgrowth of the Atlantic Charter. It appeared in the Declaration by United Nations on January 1, 1942, in which 26 nations pledged to continue fighting the Axis powers, their main inspiration was the League of Nations. Roosevelt’s main role was to convince the different allies Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom and Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union, to join the new organization.
The negotiations took place during the Dumbarton Oaks Conference and the Yalta Conference, where the three world leaders tried to reach a consensus concerning the United Nation’s structure and principles. “Roosevelt saw the United Nations as the crowning achievement of his political career.”In 1945, representatives from 50 countries met in San Francisco for the United Nations Conference on International Organization. They deliberated on proposals, drafted by representatives of the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference between August and October 1944. Roosevelt and Stalin reviewed the Dumbarton Oaks proposal during the Yalta Conference in February 1945; the purpose of the conference was to discuss post-war settlements and to reach a final agreement concerning “the UN’s structure and membership and set the date of the San Francisco organizing conference.” The world leaders agreed on Roosevelt’s proposal to give certain members a veto power so “that the Organization could take no important action without their joint consent.”
Though the veto power question created a lot of disagreement among the different signatories, its inclusion in the charter was never a matter of negotiation for Roosevelt and his allies. During the Yalta conference, Stalin agreed to make the USSR a member of the United Nations. An important American contribution, prior to the formation of the United Nations, was made at the Bretton Woods Conference; this conference took place in 1944 and its goal was “to create a new international monetary and trade regime, stable and predictable.” Over subsequent decades, this new system promoted a liberal economy. It was implemented through different institutions, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, which went on to work with the United Nations but remained independent from it; the United Nations came into existence on October 24, 1945, when the Charter was ratified by the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States as well as a majority of other signatories.
The United Nations was the first international governmental organization to receive significant support from the United States. Its forerunner, the League of Nations, had been championed by Woodrow Wilson after World War I to prevent future conflicts. While it was supported by most nations of Europe, it was never ratified by the United States Congress due to the inability to reach a compromise regarding the Lodge Reservations or the Hitchcock Reservations. Shortly after the establishment of the United Nations, the United States came into conflict with another member of the Security Council. Since the Soviet Union was a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, it had the power to veto any binding UN resolution. In fact, Soviet foreign minister and UN ambassador Vyacheslav Molotov used veto power twice as as any other permanent member, earning him the title "Mr. Veto". Relations between the U. S. and the Soviet Union within the UN have evolved in step with the larger geopolitical situation between the two powers.
While the Soviet Union was boycotting the Security Council and China's seat was represented by U. S.-friendly Republic of China, the U. S. and UN jointly condemned the invasion of South Korea by North Korean troops, leading to the UN sanctioned Korean War. The U. S. persuaded all permanent members of the Security Council to authorize force against Iraq after it invaded Kuwait in 1991. This was a major step toward U. S. and Russian reconciliation after the end of the Cold War. Since 1991, the United States has been the world's dominant military, economic and political power. S. and other UN members have increased. Conflict between the U. S. and the UN predates the collapse of the Soviet Union. In 1971, the UN adopted Resolution 2758—which affected the admission of the People's Republic of China and the removal of the Republic of China—despite objections by the U. S. government. The U. S. government changed its own China policy shortly aft
Li Keqiang is a Chinese politician, the current Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China. An economist by trade, Li is China's head of government as well as one of the leading figures behind China's Financial and Economic Affairs, Foreign Affairs, National Security and Deepening Reforms, he is the second-ranked member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, the de facto top decision-making body of the country. Li is a major part of the "fifth generation of Chinese leadership" along with General secretary Xi Jinping. Li was named the World's 12th Most Powerful Person by the Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People in 2015 and 2016. Li rose through the ranks through his involvement in the Communist Youth League. From 1998 to 2004, Li served as the province's party secretary. From 2004 to 2007 he served as the Party Secretary of Liaoning, the top political office in the province. From 2008 to 2013, Li served as the first-ranked Vice-Premier under then-Premier Wen Jiabao, overseeing a broad portfolio which included economic development, price controls, climate change, macroeconomic management.
Given his Youth League experience, Li has been considered a political ally of former leader Hu Jintao. Li assumed the post of Premier in 2013, has facilitated the Chinese government's shifting of priorities from export-led growth to a greater focus on internal consumption. Li has been a major force behind the implementation of the "comprehensively deepening reforms" announced in the fall of 2013. Made in China 2025 is a strategic plan issued by Li and his cabinet in May 2015. Li Keqiang was born on 1 July 1955 in Anhui province, his father was a local official in Anhui. Li graduated from Hefei No.8 Senior High School in 1974, during the Cultural Revolution, was sent for rural labour in Fengyang County, where he joined the Communist Party of China and made his way in becoming the party head of the local production team. He was awarded the honour of Outstanding Individual in the Study of Mao Zedong Thought during this time. Li refused his father's offer of grooming him for the local county's party leadership and entered the School of Law at Peking University, where he received his LLB and became the president of the university's student council.
He earned a Doctor of Philosophy in economics in 1995, the prominent economist Li Yining was his doctoral advisor. His doctoral dissertation was awarded China's highest prize in economics. In 1982, Li became the Communist Youth League secretary at Peking University, he entered the top leadership of the national organization of the Communist Youth League in 1983 as a member of its secretariat, has worked with former Party General Secretary Hu Jintao, who rose through the ranks of the CYL since. Li became the organization's First Secretary in 1993 and served until 1998, he is a representative member of the first generation to have risen from the CYL leadership. Li became the youngest Chinese provincial governor in June 1998 when he was appointed governor of Henan at the age of 43. According to provincial officials working with him at the time, Li refused to participate in any banquets or large fancy events not related to government activities. During his time as governor, a public sense of his "bad luck" grew due to the occurrence of three major fires in the province.
Li is known to be outspoken and led economic development in Henan, transforming the poor inland region into an attractive area for investment. Li did not spend time pursuing superficial projects, he trekked through all regions of the province trying to search for a comprehensive solution to its growing problems. Henan jumped in national GDP rankings from 28th in the early 1990s to 18th in 2004, when Li left Henan. However, his government was ineffective at curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic, affecting the rural areas of the province. Li was transferred to work as the Party Secretary in Liaoning in December 2004, taking on the top political office of the province. There he is known for the "Five-points to one Line" project, where he linked up Dalian and Dandong, as well as a series of other ports into a comprehensive network to improve trade flow. With his Youth League experience and his association with paramount leader Hu Jintao, Li was seen from early on in Hu's term as a contender to succeed Hu when his term as party leader ends in 2012.
Li gained membership to the Politburo Standing Committee at 17th Party Congress held in October 2007. He was succeeded in his provincial party chief post by Governor Zhang Wenyue. While Li's political future seemed promising, he was outranked on the Standing Committee by Xi Jinping, who had just left his role as party chief of Shanghai to join the central leadership ranks in Beijing; this rank order ostensibly signaled that it would be Xi, not Li, who would succeed Hu as party General Secretary and President. At the 2008 National People's Congress, Li was elected Vice-Premier, first in rank, reinforcing the speculation that Li would become Premier and was being groomed to succeed then-Premier Wen Jiabao. During his first term in the PSC between 2007 and 2012, Li took on the most important portfolios in the Chinese government, including economic development, government budgets and resources, the environment, health, ostensibly to prepare him for his upcoming premiership, he became the head of central commissions overseeing the Three Gorges Dam and the South-North Water Transfer Project, as well as the leader of steering committees in charge of health care reform, food safety, AIDS-related work.
In addition, Li was the principal lieute