The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous period 298.9 million years ago, to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic era; the concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the region of Perm in Russia. The Permian witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles and archosaurs; the world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa. The Carboniferous rainforest collapse left behind vast regions of desert within the continental interior. Amniotes, which could better cope with these drier conditions, rose to dominance in place of their amphibian ancestors; the Permian ended with the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the largest mass extinction in Earth's history, in which nearly 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial species died out.

It would take well into the Triassic for life to recover from this catastrophe. Recovery from the Permian–Triassic extinction event was protracted; the term "Permian" was introduced into geology in 1841 by Sir R. I. Murchison, president of the Geological Society of London, who identified typical strata in extensive Russian explorations undertaken with Édouard de Verneuil; the region now lies in the Perm Krai of Russia. Official ICS 2018 subdivisions of the Permian System from most recent to most ancient rock layers are: Lopingian epoch Changhsingian Wuchiapingian Others: Waiitian Makabewan Ochoan Guadalupian epoch Capitanian stage Wordian stage Roadian stage Others: Kazanian or Maokovian Braxtonian stage Cisuralian epoch Kungurian stage Artinskian stage Sakmarian stage Asselian stage Others: Telfordian Mangapirian Sea levels in the Permian remained low, near-shore environments were reduced as all major landmasses collected into a single continent—Pangaea; this could have in part caused the widespread extinctions of marine species at the end of the period by reducing shallow coastal areas preferred by many marine organisms.

During the Permian, all the Earth's major landmasses were collected into a single supercontinent known as Pangaea. Pangaea straddled the equator and extended toward the poles, with a corresponding effect on ocean currents in the single great ocean, the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, a large ocean that existed between Asia and Gondwana; the Cimmeria continent rifted away from Gondwana and drifted north to Laurasia, causing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean to shrink. A new ocean was growing on its southern end, the Tethys Ocean, an ocean that would dominate much of the Mesozoic era. Large continental landmass interiors experience climates with extreme variations of heat and cold and monsoon conditions with seasonal rainfall patterns. Deserts seem to have been widespread on Pangaea; such dry conditions favored gymnosperms, plants with seeds enclosed in a protective cover, over plants such as ferns that disperse spores in a wetter environment. The first modern trees appeared in the Permian. Three general areas are noted for their extensive Permian deposits—the Ural Mountains and the southwest of North America, including the Texas red beds.

The Permian Basin in the U. S. states of Texas and New Mexico is so named because it has one of the thickest deposits of Permian rocks in the world. The climate in the Permian was quite varied. At the start of the Permian, the Earth was still in an ice age. Glaciers receded around the mid-Permian period as the climate warmed, drying the continent's interiors. In the late Permian period, the drying continued although the temperature cycled between warm and cool cycles. Permian marine deposits are rich in fossil mollusks and brachiopods. Fossilized shells of two kinds of invertebrates are used to identify Permian strata and correlate them between sites: fusulinids, a kind of shelled amoeba-like protist, one of the foraminiferans, ammonoids, shelled cephalopods that are distant relatives of the modern nautilus. By the close of the Permian, trilobites and a host of other marine groups became extinct. Terrestrial life in the Permian included diverse plants, fungi and various types of tetrapods; the period saw a massive desert covering the interior of Pangaea.

The warm zone spread in the northern hemisphere. The rocks formed at that time were stained red by iron oxides, the result of intense heating by the sun of a surface devoid of vegetation cover. A number of older types of plants and animals became marginal elements; the Permian began with the Carboniferous flora still flourishing. About the middle of the Permian a major tr

M. C. Nandeesha

Mudnakudu Channabasappa Nandeesha was a development researcher, innovative aquaculture development worker and educator. He is recognized for making critical contributions to the rapid growth of aquaculture by applying research to key bottlenecks to fish production. In India, he conducted successful pioneering field tests of Ovaprim, an ovulating agent, under different agro-climatic conditions to help remove a critical early barrier for freshwater fish breeding, his significant scientific contributions include simplified breeding technology for cyprinids and development of feeds and feeding techniques appropriate to rural aquaculture, helping improve and spread the practices of small scale fish farming at a time when most attention was on large scale producers. He wrote a regular and acclaimed column in Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific Aquaculture Asia magazine on farmer innovations in aquaculture, he was described as an "ambassador for aquaculture" and was noted for promoting aquaculture for the disadvantaged poor households and women.

Along with Michael New, in 2003 he was a founding member of the not-for-profit organisation, Aquaculture without Frontiers. While encouraging poor people to take up aquaculture, he was a pioneer in promoting equity for women, neglected in the aquaculture boom. Throughout his career, he was in the forefront of initiatives to upgrade the professionalism of fisheries and aquaculture experts, inspired peers and students in critical new directions, his professional career, which began in the 1980s, made significant contributions during the important early rapid development of Indian and world aquaculture. In this period, aquaculture remains the fastest growing food production sector. For Indian major carps, of which about 5 million tonnes are now produced annually, Nandeesha established critical improved breeding and seed production approaches, feed and nutrition regimes, began his promotion of women's roles and the need for gender equality in fisheries and aquaculture. In Cambodia, he pioneered the spread of small scale fish fish seed production.

In Bangladesh, he encouraged farmer-participatory research and elevated the importance of the role of women in Bangladesh aquaculture. When working in Cambodia and Bangladesh, Nandeesha was motivated by the conditions he witnessed to create more inclusive aquaculture development concerned with helping farmers and their households in poverty eradication and food security and nutrition, in building human resources. While subsequently working for international agencies in several countries, he energized the field of aquaculture research for development and worked in developing its professional societies and human resources, creating professional international institutional partnerships. Nandeesha received several honors for his work, he was formally honored by government and professional society awards at several levels: national, among which were the Royal Order of Sahametrei Knight Award by the Prime Minister of Cambodia, the Asian Fisheries Society Indian Branch gold medal. World Aquaculture Society fellow.

He held leadership positions in several professional and industry societies, one of which, the Asian Fisheries Society Indian Branch he helped create. He helped build stronger and new higher education institutions for aquaculture, including the Tamil Nadu Fisheries University that he helped build out of the Fisheries College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu, he was Vice-Chancellor Designate. Posthumously, his contributions were recognized by special tributes from his peers, an FAO sponsored course in advanced fisheries and aquaculture economics named in his honor. In honors reserved for few people, the Asian Fisheries Society, World Aquaculture Society and Asian Fisheries Society Indian Branch, have named awards in his honor. Nandeesha was born in Mudnakudu, a village near Mysore, into a rural farming family, he was educated at secondary school in the village of his birth. He attended the College of Fisheries, Karnataka and gained a Bachelor of Fisheries Science and Master of Fisheries Science.

He gained his Ph. D. in zoology/fisheries from Visva-Bharati University, West Bengal, India. His thesis title was "Formulation and evaluation of artificial diets for carps.” After obtaining his first degree, Nandeesha's fisheries career began in 1982 when he served, until 1985, as a Research Assistant in the Agriculture College, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. India, he became an Assistant Professor, in the Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries Mangalore, India. In 1992, Nandeesha took up a development position in Cambodia, working until 1997 as Fisheries Adviser for the non-governmental organisation Partnership for Development in Kampuchea, Phnom Penh and serving as Adjunct Professor with the Fisheries Faculty of Royal University of Agriculture, Royal Government of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, he returned to India in 1997–98 as an Associate Professor in the Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, University of Agricultural Sciences, before moving back to development work, this time in Bangladesh.

From 1998–2001, he worked for CARE Bangladesh in the Agriculture and Natural Resources Sector, committed to two major aquaculture projects, first as Research and Dissemination Advisor to LIFE Project and as Project Coordinator of the GOLDA (Greater Options for Local Devel

Anne Merwin

Anne Merwin was an American screenwriter known for writing short Edison comedies in the silent era. She was married to director Bannister Merwin, who worked for Edison. Both Anne and Bannister Merwin wrote scenarios for the London Film Company; the Bioscope wrote that "The names of Anne and Bannister Merwin as authors of a drama for the screen are a guarantee of originality and felicity of invention, combined with a picturesque treatment which never fails to render their productions of unusual interest". The same magazine comments on Merwin's writing when discussing The Ring and the Rajah: "Miss Anne Merwin has written a effective drama... The story is interesting, is set forth in a concise and dramatic manner..." The Foreman's Treachery The Elder Brother A Youthful Knight The Revenge of Mr. Thomas Atkins The Fringe of War The Victoria Cross or V. C; the Ring and the Rajah All for His Sake A Daughter of Romany A Warning Stormflower Anne Merwin on IMDb