100 Pipers is a brand of blended Scotch whisky with smoked notes, produced by Pernod Ricard. The company says it is the "seventh-largest blended Scotch worldwide", the "No. 2 standard whisky in Asia", the "No. 1 standard whisky" in Thailand. In addition to Thailand, it is distributed in India and South America. 100 Pipers is a blend of between 30 source whiskies. Much of it comes from the Allt a'Bhainne distillery, owned by Pernod Ricard and does not have its own bottling facilities. 100 Pipers is bottled in Scotland. The brand owes its name and Celtic imagery to the Scottish tradition of bagpipers leading soldiers into battle; the "100 Pipers" name in particular comes from the ballad of "The Hundred Pipers", which tells of the heroic Bonnie Prince Charlie's 1745 Jacobite uprising led by a troop of 100 bagpipers. The brand is marketed with the promotional slogan True Legend; the website RankingtheBrands.com rated the brand value of 100 Pipers 75th in 2011 and 81st in 2014 among 10,000 spirit brands worldwide.
100 Pipers sponsors an annual "India Music Week" festival. 100 Pipers is one of the best-selling whiskies in Thailand. A limited-edition "Night Bottle" for 100 Pipers was released in Thailand in 2015 with a fashion show-themed silicone wrap accompanying the bottle design. 100 Pipers received a Gold Medal at "The Asian Spirits Masters 2014"
A long drink or tall drink is an alcoholic mixed drink with a large volume. A long drink will have a tall glass full of mixer, in contrast to a short drink which has less mixer. Short drinks are stronger since both types tend to contain the same amount of alcohol. Long drinks are therefore more dilute than short drinks. A classic long drink is a Tom Collins. A simple style of long drink is a cocktail composed of one liquor and one mixer. A classic example of the highball is the tonic. In Finland, long drink refers to a mixed drink made from gin and, most grapefruit soda, although other long drink flavours include cranberry and lime. In Finland, the long drink is ubiquitously available both in stores and in restaurants on draught
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Ararat, is a brand of Armenian brandy, produced by the Yerevan Brandy Company since 1887. It is made according to a traditional method; the brand's "ordinary brandies" are aged between 6 years. Its "aged brandies" are between 30 years old. Authors of a 2003 book wrote that it is "Undoubtedly the top of the tops of East European brandies." Ararat brandy is sold in countries of the former Soviet Union, chief among them Russia, Georgia and Belarus. In the Russian-speaking countries of the former Soviet Union, the Armenian brandy is marketed as cognac. In 1900, the brandy won the Grand-prix award in Paris; the term "brandy" has never caught on in the region. An undocumented anecdote claims that during the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill was so impressed with the Armenian brandy Dvin given to him by Joseph Stalin that he asked for several cases of it to be sent to him each year. 400 bottles of Dvin were shipped to Churchill annually. This brandy was named in honour of the ancient capital Dvin, was first produced in 1943.
During a 2013 meeting at his personal villa in Sochi, Russian president Vladimir Putin gave British Prime Minister David Cameron a bottle of Armenian brandy as a gift, recalling Stalin's offering to Churchill in 1945. ArArAt Erebuni, 30 years old. ArArAt Nairi, 20 years old. ArArAt, 3, 5 and 25 years old. ArArAt Tonakan, 15 years old. ArArAt Akhtamar, 10 years old. ArArAt Otborny, 7 years old. ArArAt Ani, 6 years old. ArArAt Dvin, collection. ArArAt Armenia, collection. Retired brands include: ArArAt Vaspurakan, 15 years old. ArArAt Kilikia, 30 years old. ArArAt Sparapet, 40 years old. ArArAt Noah's Ark, 70 years old. Noy Yerevan Brandy Company Pernod Ricard Armenia Yerevan Brandy Company Vinorium Ltd
Brancott Estate is the brand adopted since 2010 by Pernod Ricard for New Zealand's largest wine producer Montana Wines, which now operates as the New Zealand division of Pernod Ricard Winemakers. The name comes from its Brancott winery in Blenheim, was chosen to reduce confusion in the United States market with wines from the state of Montana; the winery has been significant enough throughout New Zealand's wine history that the Montana name is still used on domestic labelling due to its strong brand recognition. Montana was founded by Ivan and Amanda Yukich, Croatian immigrants who planted their first vines in 1934, in Titirangi, situated in the Waitakere Ranges west of Auckland; the first wine was sold in 1944, by 1960 10 hectares of vineyards were planted. Ivan's sons and Frank, had become involved, they set up the company Montana Wines in 1961. By the end of the 1960s, the company had expanded further. In 1973, the company expanded into Gisborne and Marlborough and exported its first wines in 1980.
Montana was listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange as'Corporate Investments Limited', as Montana Wines. It was the main sponsor of the Montana New Zealand Book Awards from 1994 to 2009. In 2000, Montana purchased Corbans Wines, New Zealand's second largest producer at the time, to control 60% of domestic wine sales and a large majority of the country's wine exports. Montana was itself taken over by the British firm Allied Domecq in 2001 after outbidding Lion Nathan, four years Allied Domecq was bought by Pernod Ricard in 2005. In 2010, Pernod Ricard sold off several of its brands, including Lindauer and Corbans Wines, to a partnership formed between Lion and Indevin, another large New Zealand wine operator. Montana Wines at various times has had several wineries spread around the country. Located on State Highway 1, just south of Blenheim, the Brancott winery was opened in 1977 and produces all of its Marlborough wines, wine from Waipara vineyards as well. Many of the grapes for Montana's sparkling wines are pressed here, but secondary fermentation is carried out at the Tamaki Winery.
Founded in 1897, the Church Road Winery is one of the three oldest in the Hawkes Bay. The first commercial Cabernet Sauvignon in New Zealand was produced here in 1949 by Tom McDonald; the Church Road facility was purchased by Montana in 1988. In recent years, the winery has increased its operation and the expansion of the Church Road brand portfolio; the Corbans winery was established by McWilliam's Wines in 1981, changing hands to Cooks in 1984, Corbans in 1987, Montana in 2000. It was a more commercial scale facility than Church Road and contributed to Longridge, Verde and Robard & Butler brands; the Corbans brand was sold to Lion in 2010, in 2012 the winery was closed with most of its production integrated into the nearby Church Road facility. The Montana Gisborne Winery was one of the largest wine-making facilities in the country. Montana's original facility was acquired in 1973, from the business established by Fredrich Wohnsiedler. Two further adjacent facilities were incorporated, from Penfolds NZ in 1986 and Corbans in 2000.
In 2010, Pernod Ricard sold some associated brands to the Lion Indevin partnership. All Montana wines are bottled at the Tamaki Winery in Auckland, opened in 1975; this means that all sparkling wines undergo secondary fermentation in Auckland. Pernod-Ricard operates several different brands in New Zealand. Ranked in order of prestige; the Tom McDonald Winery, the Church Road Winery in Taradale near Napier represents a flagship brand. It produces Merlot-Cabernet blends, Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc in several tiers. In order of price, the Tom wines are positioned at the premium end of the market and are some of New Zealand's most expensive wines. Next are the Grand Reserve and McDonald Series ranges, the range of cheaper white-label Church Road wines are available in supermarkets. In 2010, Montana Wines was renamed Brancott Estate, where its wines had been sold for over a decade with this label. Today only its Winemaker Series of wines carries the Montana brand name within New Zealand, since there is still strong Montana brand recognition and association with New Zealand wine.
Some of the Montana labelled wines are made with grapes from Australia. Montana has several levels of wines under the label Brancott Estate; the most prestigious ` estate' label is a range of Marlborough only wines. The letter used to relate to the name of the vineyard. Letter Series. Available wine series. Deutz Marlborough Cuvée Deutz Blanc de Blanc Deutz Pinot Noir Cuvée. A Marlborough-based vineyard producing mid-market white wines, using light-coloured stones in the vineyard to reflect sunlight up into the canopy to improve ripening. Pernod Ricard Pernod Ricard Winemakers Brancott Estate website
S. A. or Société anonyme designates a type of corporation in countries that employ civil law. Depending on language, it means anonymous company, anonymous partnership, share company, or joint-stock company equivalent to public limited company in common law jurisdictions, it is different from private limited companies. Shareholders could be anonymous and collect dividends by surrendering coupons attached to their share certificates. Dividends were therefore paid to. Share certificates could be transferred and therefore the management of the company would not know who owned its shares. Like bearer bonds, illegal unregistered share ownership and dividend collection enabled money laundering, tax evasion, concealed business transactions in general, so governments passed laws to audit the practice. Nowadays, shareholders of S. A.s are not anonymous, though shares can still be held by holding companies in order to obscure the beneficiary. S. A. can be an abbreviation of: Sociedade Anónima in Galician and European Portuguese Sociedá Anónima in Asturian and Leonese Sociedade Anônima in Brazilian Portuguese Societat Anònima in Catalan Société anonyme in French Società Anonima in Italian Sociedad Anónima or Sociedad por Acciones in Spanish Mexican law takes into account the variability of the corporate stock, resulting in most S.
A. turning into Sociedad Anónima de Capital Variable, or Sociedad Anónima Bursátil de Capital Variable for publicly traded companies. Mexico has Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada de Capital Variable, analogous to the limited liability company. Spółka Akcyjna in Polish Societate pe Acțiuni in RomanianIt is equivalent in literal meaning and function to: Naamloze vennootschap in Dutch Ανώνυμη Εταιρεία, Anonymi Etaireia in Greek Perseroan Terbatas Terbuka in Indonesia Berhad in Malaysia Anonim Şirket in Turkish Corporación anónima in VenezuelaIt is equivalent in function to: Shoqëri Aksionare in Albanian شركة مساهة عامة ذات مسؤولية محدودة ش.ذ.م.م, Sharikah musāhamah ʿāmmah dhāt mas'ūliyyah maḥdūdah in Arabic Dioničko društvo in Croatian and Bosnian Акционерно дружество, Aktsionerno druzhestvo in Bulgarian Акционерско друштво, Aktsionersko drushtvo in Macedonian Akciová společnost in Czech Aktieselskab in Danish Société anonyme égyptienne or (شركة مساهمة مصرية (ش.م.م in Egypt Osakeyhtiö in Finnish Aktsiaselts in Estonian Aktiengesellschaft in German Részvénytársaság in Hungarian Hlutafélag in Icelandic Public Limited in India Public limited company in the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth countries Kabushiki Gaisha or 株式会社 in Japan Jusighoesa or 주식회사 in Korea Société anonyme laotienne in Laos Akcinė bendrovė in Lithuanian Akciju Sabiedrība in Latvian Aksjeselskap in Norwegian Акционерное общество, Aktsionernoye obshchestvo in Russian Деоничарско друштво, Deoničarsko društvo, or Акционарско друштво, Akcionarsko društvo in Serbian Akciová spoločnosť in Slovak Delniška družba in Slovene Aktiebolag in Swedish Акціонерне товариство, Aktsionerne tovarystvo in Ukrainian Publicly traded company or Incorporated in the United States, though the former term does not appear in the names of business entities Compañía Anónima in Andorra ក.អ or Société anonyme cambodgienne in Cambodia Président-directeur général Global Witness on Anonymous Companies
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by using selective boiling and condensation. Distillation may result in complete separation, or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components in the mixture. In either case, the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of universal importance, but it is a physical separation process, not a chemical reaction. Distillation has many applications. For example: Distillation of fermented products produces distilled beverages with a high alcohol content or separates out other fermentation products of commercial value. Distillation is an traditional method of desalination. In the fossil fuel industry, oil stabilization is a form of partial distillation that reduces vapor pressure of crude oil, thereby making it safe for storage and transport as well as reducing the atmospheric emissions of volatile hydrocarbons.
In midstream operations at oil refineries, distillation is a major class of operation for transforming crude oil into fuels and chemical feed stocks. Cryogenic distillation leads to the separation of air into its components – notably oxygen and argon – for industrial use. In the field of industrial chemistry, large amounts of crude liquid products of chemical synthesis are distilled to separate them, either from other products, from impurities, or from unreacted starting materials. An installation used for distillation of distilled beverages, is called a distillery; the distillation equipment at a distillery is a still. In 1975 Paolo Rovesti a chemist and pharmacist who became known as"father of Phytocosmetics" discovered a terracota distillation apparatus in the Indus valley in West Pakistan which dates from around 3000 BC. Early evidence of distillation was found on Akkadian tablets dated circa 1200 BC describing perfumery operations; the tablets provided textual evidence that an early primitive form of distillation was known to the Babylonians of ancient Mesopotamia.
Early evidence of distillation was found related to alchemists working in Alexandria in Roman Egypt in the 1st century. Distilled water has been in use since at least c. 200, when Alexander of Aphrodisias described the process. Work on distilling other liquids continued in early Byzantine Egypt under Zosimus of Panopolis in the 3rd century. Distillation was practiced in the ancient Indian subcontinent, evident from baked clay retorts and receivers found at Taxila and Charsadda in modern Pakistan, dating back to the early centuries of the Common Era; these "Gandhara stills" were only capable of producing weak liquor, as there was no efficient means of collecting the vapors at low heat. Distillation in China may have begun during the Eastern Han dynasty, but the distillation of beverages began in the Jin and Southern Song dynasties, according to archaeological evidence. Clear evidence of the distillation of alcohol comes from the Arab chemist Al-Kindi in 9th-century Iraq; the process spread to Italy, where it was described by the School of Salerno in the 12th century.
Fractional distillation was developed by Tadeo Alderotti in the 13th century. A still was found in an archaeological site in Qinglong, Hebei province, in China, dating back to the 12th century. Distilled beverages were common during the Yuan dynasty. In 1500, German alchemist Hieronymus Braunschweig published Liber de arte destillandi, the first book dedicated to the subject of distillation, followed in 1512 by a much expanded version. In 1651, John French published The Art of Distillation, the first major English compendium on the practice, but it has been claimed that much of it derives from Braunschweig's work; this includes diagrams with people in them showing the industrial rather than bench scale of the operation. As alchemy evolved into the science of chemistry, vessels called retorts became used for distillations. Both alembics and retorts are forms of glassware with long necks pointing to the side at a downward angle to act as air-cooled condensers to condense the distillate and let it drip downward for collection.
Copper alembics were invented. Riveted joints were kept tight by using various mixtures, for instance a dough made of rye flour; these alembics featured a cooling system around the beak, using cold water, for instance, which made the condensation of alcohol more efficient. These were called pot stills. Today, the retorts and pot stills have been supplanted by more efficient distillation methods in most industrial processes. However, the pot still is still used for the elaboration of some fine alcohols, such as cognac, Scotch whisky, Irish whiskey and some vodkas. Pot stills made of various materials are used by bootleggers in various countries. Small pot stills are sold for use in the domestic production of flower water or essential oils. Early forms of distillation involved batch processes using one condensation. Purity was improved by further distillation of the condensate. Greater volumes were processed by repeating the distillation. Chemists carried out as many as 500 to 600 distillations in order to obtain a pure compound.
In the early 19th century, the basics of modern techniques, including pre-heating and reflux, were developed. In 1822, Anthony Perrier developed one of the first continuous stills, in 1826, Robert Stein improved that design to make his patent still. In 1830, Aeneas Coffey got a patent for improving the design f