Roh Moo-hyun GOM was a South Korean politician who served as President of South Korea. Roh's pre-presidential political career was focused on human rights advocacy for student activists in South Korea, his electoral career expanded to a focus on overcoming regionalism in South Korean politics, culminating in his election to the presidency. He achieved a large following among younger internet users at the website OhMyNews, which aided his success in the presidential election. Roh's election was notable for the arrival in power of a new generation of Korean politicians, the so-called 386 Generation; this generation had been veterans of student protests against authoritarian rule, advocated a conciliatory approach towards North Korea at the expense of good relations with the United States. Roh himself was the first South Korean president to be born after the end of Japanese rule in Korea. South Korea received the highest marks on the Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index under his administration.
The value of the South Korean won against the US Dollar was the strongest during his administration since 1997. Due to the strong currency, for the first time in history, South Korea became the world's 10th largest economy and exceeded the $20,000 milestone in nominal GDP per capita during his administration. However, due to his poor performance in economy and diplomacy, Roh was not a popular president, having the worst approval rating on average recorded in South Korean political history, his economic policy was criticized for persisting with certain obsolete economic views and failing certain livelihood issues. There had been a considerable diplomatic dissonance between South Korea and its traditional allies during Roh's presidency as well. Former Bush administration officials such as Condoleezza Rice and Robert Gates, in their published memoirs, claimed that Roh was anti-American and disclosed that there had been numerous conflicts between the U. S. and South Korea because of Roh's unpredictability.
There has been criticism that Roh's anti-Americanism and pro-North Korean views contributed to a contradiction in diplomacy and impaired credibility in the international community. It led to a decline in some of his popular support among the older generation. Despite high expectations in the beginning, his presidency encountered strong opposition from the conservative Grand National Party and media, they accused him of incompetence, insulting criticism was published in the media. As a result, many of Roh's policies, including a plan to move the capital, a plan to form a coalition with the opposition, were attacked and made little progress. After leaving office, Roh returned to his hometown of Bongha Maeul, he lived an ordinary life, sharing it through his blog. He ran a website called "Democracy 2.0" to promote healthy online discussions. The growing numbers of visits by his political supporters were seen as a threat to the Grand National Party. Fourteen months Roh was suspected of bribery by prosecutors, the subsequent investigations attracted public attention.
Roh committed suicide on 23 May 2009 by jumping from a mountain cliff behind his home, after saying that "there are too many people suffering because of me" on a suicide note on his PC. About 4 million people visited Roh's hometown Bongha Village in the week following his death, his suicide was confirmed by police. Roh's former chief of staff and political ally, Moon Jae-in was elected president in 2017. Roh was born into a poor farming family on 1 September 1946, in Bongha Village near Gimhae and Pusan, in what is now southeastern South Korea, his parents had three boys and two girls, Roh was the youngest of his family. In 1953, he entered Dae Chang Elementary School, he received high grades, but was quite absent from school to assist his parents. While in sixth grade, with the encouragement of his school teacher, he became the president of the school; as he entered Jin-yeong middle school, a writing contest was held to commemorate Syngman Rhee's birthday. Roh was caught and suspended from the school.
Roh Moo-Hyun decided to become a lawyer due to the influence of his elder brother who had studied law but had died in a car accident. Roh studied on his own to pass the bar exam in 1975. In 1977, he became a regional judge in Daejeon, but quit in 1978, became a lawyer. In 1981, he defended students, tortured for suspicion of possession of contraband literature. Following this he decided to become a human rights lawyer. In early 2003, he was quoted as saying, "After that defense, my life was changed. At first I couldn't believe that they had been tortured that harshly. However, when I saw their horrified eyes and their missing toenails, my comfortable life as a lawyer came to an end. I became a man that wanted to make a difference in the world." With fellow human rights lawyers, he pointed out that this case was forged claimed that the National Security Act itself should be judged. In 1985 he started to participate in civic movements by assuming permanent power of attorney on behalf of the Busan council of citizen democracy.
He opposed the autocratic regime in place at the time in South Korea, participated in the pro-democracy June Democracy Movement in 1987 against Chun Doo-hwan. The same year he was jailed while investigat
Juan Domingo Perón was an Argentine Army general and politician. After serving in several government positions, including Minister of Labor and Vice President, he was elected President of Argentina three times, serving from June 1946 to September 1955, when he was overthrown in a coup d'état, from October 1973 until his death in July 1974. During his first presidential term, Perón was supported by his second wife, Eva Duarte, they were immensely popular among many Argentines. Eva died in 1952, Perón was elected to a second term, serving from 1952 until 1955. During the following period of two military dictatorships, interrupted by two civilian governments, the Peronist party was outlawed and Perón was exiled; when the left-wing Peronist Héctor José Cámpora was elected President in 1973, Perón returned to Argentina and was soon after elected President for a third time. His third wife, María Estela Martínez, known as Isabel Perón, was elected as Vice President on his ticket and succeeded him as President upon his death in 1974.
Although they are still controversial figures and Evita Perón are nonetheless considered icons by the Peronists. The Peróns' followers praised their efforts to eliminate poverty and to dignify labour, while their detractors considered them demagogues and dictators; the Peróns gave their name to the political movement known as Peronism, which in present-day Argentina is represented by the Justicialist Party. Peronism is a political phenomenon that draws support from both the political left and political right. Peronism is not considered a traditional party, but a political movement, because of the wide variety of people who call themselves Peronists, there is great controversy surrounding his personality. A number of following Argentinian presidents are considered Peronists, including administrations covering a majority of the democratic era: Héctor Cámpora, Isabel Perón, Adolfo Rodríguez Saá, Eduardo Duhalde, Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Kirchner. Juan Domingo Perón was born in Lobos, Buenos Aires Province, on 8 October 1895.
He was the son of Mario Tomás Perón. The Perón branch of his family was Spanish, but settled in Spanish Sardinia, from which his great-grandfather emigrated in the 1830s, he had Spanish and French Basque ancestry. Perón's great-grandfather became a successful shoe merchant in Buenos Aires, his grandfather was a prosperous physician; the couple had their two sons out of wedlock and married in 1901. His father moved to the Patagonia region that year, where he purchased a sheep ranch. Juan himself was sent away in 1904 to a boarding school in Buenos Aires directed by his paternal grandmother, where he received a strict Catholic upbringing, his father's undertaking failed, he died in Buenos Aires in 1928. The youth entered the National Military College in 1911 at age 16 and graduated in 1913, he excelled less in his studies than in athletics boxing and fencing. Perón began his military career in an Infantry post in Entre Ríos, he went on to command the post, in this capacity mediated a prolonged labor conflict in 1920 at La Forestal a leading firm in forestry in Argentina.
He earned instructor's credentials at the Superior War School, in 1929 was appointed to the Army General Staff Headquarters. Perón married his first wife, Aurelia Tizón, on 5 January 1929. Perón was recruited by supporters of the director of the War Academy, General José Félix Uriburu, to collaborate in the latter's plans for a military coup against President Hipólito Yrigoyen. Perón, who instead supported General Agustín Justo, was banished to a remote post in northwestern Argentina after Uriburu's successful coup in September 1930, he was promoted to the rank of Major the following year and named to the faculty at the Superior War School, where he taught military history and published a number of treatises on the subject. He served as military attaché in the Argentine Embassy in Chile from 1936 to 1938, returned to his teaching post, his wife was diagnosed with uterine cancer that year, died on 10 September at age 30. Perón was assigned by the War Ministry to study mountain warfare in the Italian Alps in 1939.
He attended the University of Turin for a semester and served as a military observer in countries across Europe. He studied Benito Mussolini's Italian Fascism, Nazi Germany, other European governments of the time, concluding in his summary, Apuntes de historia militar, that social democracy could be a viable alternative to liberal democracy or totalitarian regimes, he returned to Argentina in 1941, served as an Army skiing instructor in Mendoza Province. In 1943 a coup d'état was led by General Arturo Rawson against conservative President Ramón Castillo, fraudulently elected to office; the military was opposed to Governor Robustiano Patrón Costas, Castillo's hand-picked successor, the principal landowner in Salta Province, as well as a main stockholder in its sugar industry. As a colonel and his power of premier minister, Perón took a significant part in the military coup by the GOU against the conservative civilian government of Castillo. At first an assistant to Secretary of War General Edelmiro Farrell, under the administration of General Pe
Stephen Kevin Bannon is an American media executive, political figure, former investment banker, the former executive chairman of Breitbart News. He served as White House Chief Strategist in the administration of U. S. President Donald Trump during the first seven months of Trump's term, he co-founded as vice-president the board of Cambridge Analytica, the data-analytics firm of the Facebook–Cambridge Analytica data scandal. Bannon was an officer in the United States Navy for seven years in the early 1980s. After his military service, he worked at Goldman Sachs as an investment banker, left as vice president. In 1993, he became acting director of the research project Biosphere 2. In the 1990s, he became an executive producer in Hollywood, produced 18 films between 1991 and 2016. In 2007, he co-founded Breitbart News, a far-right website which he described in 2016 as "the platform for the alt-right". In August 2016, Bannon was named the chief executive officer of Trump's 2016 presidential bid. Appointed Chief Strategist in the Trump administration, he left this position on August 18, 2017 and rejoined Breitbart.
After leaving the White House, Bannon opposed the establishment Republican Party and supported insurgent candidates in Republican primaries. After Roy Moore, supported by Bannon, lost the 2017 United States Senate election in Alabama, Bannon's reputation as a political strategist was questioned. In January 2018, Bannon was disavowed by Trump for critical comments reported in the book Fire and Fury and left Breitbart. After leaving the White House, Bannon declared his intention to become "the infrastructure, for the global populist movement." Accordingly, he has supported various national populist conservative political movements around the world. These include France's National Front, Hungary's Fidesz, the Italian League, the Five Star Movement, the Brothers of Italy, Alternative for Germany, the Polish Law and Justice, the Sweden Democrats, the Dutch Party for Freedom, the Freedom Party of Austria, the Swiss People's Party, the UK Independence Party, the Flemish Vlaams Belang, the Belgian People's Party, Spain’s Vox, the Finns Party, the pan-European identitarian movement, Republika Srpska's Alliance of Independent Social Democrats, the Brazilian 2018 Jair Bolsonaro presidential campaign, the Israeli Likud.
Bannon believes that the aforementioned movements – along with Japan’s Shinzo Abe, India’s Narendra Modi, Russia's Vladimir Putin, Saudi Arabia's Mohammad bin Salman, China's Xi Jinping, Turkey's Recep Tayyip Erdogan, America's Donald Trump, as well as similar leaders in Egypt, the Philippines and South Korea – are part of a global shift towards nationalism. A self-described economic nationalist, Bannon advocates for reductions in immigration, restrictions on free trade with China and Mexico, an increased federal income tax for those earning incomes of over $5 million a year. Bannon is a skeptic of military intervention abroad and has opposed proposals for the expansion of U. S. involvement in Afghanistan and Venezuela. He has referred to himself as a "proud Christian Zionist" in reference to his support of Israel, he rejects the description. According to conservative commentator David French, Bannon has "done more than any other person to introduce the... alt-right into mainstream American life".
Stephen Kevin Bannon was born on November 27, 1953 in Norfolk, Virginia, to Doris, a homemaker, Martin J. Bannon Jr. who worked as an AT&T telephone lineman and as a middle manager. His working class, Irish Catholic family was pro-Kennedy and pro-union Democrat. Bannon graduated from Benedictine College Preparatory, a private, military high school in Richmond, Virginia, in 1971, attended Virginia Tech, where he served as the president of the student government association. During the summers he worked at a local junk yard, he graduated from Virginia Tech College of Architecture and Urban Studies in 1976, with a bachelor's degree in urban planning. While serving in the navy, he earned a master's degree in national security studies in 1983 from Georgetown University School of Foreign Service. In 1985, Bannon earned a Master of Business Administration degree with honors from Harvard Business School. Bannon was an officer in the United States Navy for seven years in the early 1980s. Bannon's job at the Pentagon was, among other things, handling messages between senior officers and writing reports about the state of the Navy fleet worldwide.
While at the Pentagon, Bannon attended Georgetown University at night and obtained his master's degree in national security studies. In 1980, Bannon was deployed to the Persian Gulf to assist with Operation Eagle Claw during the Iran hostage crisis; the mission's failure marked a turning point in his political world-view from apolitical to Reaganite, further reinforced by the September 11 attacks. Bannon has stated, "I wasn't political until I got into the service and saw how badly Jimmy Carter fucked things up. I became a huge Reagan admirer. Still am, but what turned me against the whole establishment was coming back from running companies in Asia in 2008 and seeing that Bush had fucked up as badly as Carter. The whole country was a disaster."Upon his departure he was ranked as a lieutenant. After his military service, Bannon worked at Goldman Sachs as an investment banker in the Mergers and Acquisitions Department. In 1987, he relocated from New York to Los Angeles, to assist Goldman in expanding their presence in the enterta
Viktor Mihály Orbán is a Hungarian politician serving as Prime Minister of Hungary since 2010. He served as Prime Minister from 1998 to 2002, he is the present leader of the national conservative Fidesz party, a post he has held since 2003 and from 1993 to 2000. Born in Székesfehérvár, Orbán studied law at Eötvös Loránd University, graduating in 1987, he studied political science at Pembroke College, before entering politics in the wake of the Autumn of Nations at the head of the reformist student movement Alliance of Young Democrats, the nascent Fidesz. He became a nationally known politician after giving an address at the 1989 reburial of Imre Nagy and other martyrs of the 1956 revolution, in which he demanded that Soviet troops withdraw from the country. After the transition to democracy in 1990, he was elected to the National Assembly and served as leader of Fidesz's parliamentary caucus until 1993. Under his leadership, Fidesz shifted away from its original centre-right, classical liberal, pro-European integration platform toward right-wing national conservatism.
After Fidesz won a plurality of seats in the National Assembly in the 1998 elections, Orbán became Prime Minister for four years at the head of a right-wing coalition government. Fidesz narrowly lost the 2002 and 2006 elections to the Socialist Party, Orbán spent eight years as the leader of the opposition; the Socialists' rising unpopularity, exacerbated by Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány's "Őszöd speech", led to Orbán's re-election to the premiership in 2010 in a landslide victory. At the helm of a parliamentary supermajority, Orbán's cabinet spearheaded major constitutional and legislative reforms. Fidesz retained its supermajority in the 2018 elections. Orbán's social conservatism, national conservatism, soft Euroscepticism and advocacy of what he describes as an "illiberal state" have attracted significant international attention; some observers have described his government as autocratic. In August 2018, Orbán became the second longest-serving Prime Minister after Kálmán Tisza. If his current government lasts a full term, upon its completion, he will become the longest-serving Hungarian Prime Minister in history.
Orbán was born on 31 May 1963 in Székesfehérvár into a rural middle-class family, as the eldest son of the entrepreneur and agronomist Győző Orbán and the special educator and speech therapist, Erzsébet Sípos. He has both entrepreneurs, Győző, Jr. and Áron. His paternal grandfather, Mihály Orbán, practiced animal husbandry. Orbán spent his childhood in Alcsútdoboz and Felcsút in Fejér County. In 1977, his family moved permanently to Székesfehérvár. Orbán graduated from Blanka Teleki High School in Székesfehérvár in 1981. After completing two years of military service, he studied law at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest, writing his master's thesis on the Polish Solidarity movement. After graduation in 1987, he lived in Szolnok for two years, commuting to his job in Budapest as a sociologist at the Management Training Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food. In 1989, Orbán received a scholarship from the Soros Foundation to study political science at Pembroke College, Oxford, his personal tutor was the Hegelian political philosopher Zbigniew Pełczyński.
In January 1990, he left Oxford and returned to Hungary to run for a seat in Hungary's first post-communist parliament. At the age of 14 and 15, he was a secretary of the communist youth organisation, KISZ, of his secondary grammar school. Orbán said in a interview that his political views had radically changed during the military service: earlier he had considered himself a "naive and devoted supporter" of the Communist regime. On 30 March 1988, Orbán was one of the founding members of Fidesz and served as its first spokesperson; the first members of the party, including Orbán, were students from the Bibó István College for Advanced Studies who opposed the Communist regime. At the college, Orbán edited the social science journal Századvég and was one of the key figures among the radical students. On 16 June 1989, Orbán gave a speech in Heroes' Square, Budapest, on the occasion of the reburial of Imre Nagy and other national martyrs of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. In his speech, he demanded the withdrawal of Soviet troops.
The speech brought him wide political acclaim. In summer 1989, he took part in the opposition round table talks, representing Fidesz alongside László Kövér. On returning home from Oxford, he was elected Member of Parliament from his party's Pest County Regional List during the 1990 parliamentary election, he was appointed leader of the Fidesz's parliamentary group, serving in this capacity until May 1993. On 18 April 1993, Orbán became the first president of Fidesz, replacing the national board that had served as a collective leadership since its founding. Under his leadership, Fidesz transformed from a radical liberal student organization to a center-right people's party; the conservative turn caused a severe split in the membership. Several members left the party, including Gábor Fodor and Zsuzsanna Szelényi. Fodor and others joined the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats a strong ally of Fidesz, but a political opponent. During the 1994 parliamentary election, Fidesz reached the 5% threshold.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is a Turkish politician serving as the 12th and current President of Turkey since 2014. He served as Prime Minister from 2003 to 2014 and as Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998, he founded the Justice and Development Party in 2001, leading it to general election victories in 2002, 2007 and 2011 before standing down upon his election as President in 2014. Coming from an Islamist political background and as a self-described conservative democrat, he has promoted conservative and liberal economic policies in his administration. Under his administration, Turkey has experienced democratic backsliding. Erdoğan played football for Kasımpaşa before being elected in 1994 as the Mayor of Istanbul from the Islamist Welfare Party, he was stripped of his position, banned from political office, imprisoned for four months, for reciting a poem that promoted a religious point of view of government during a speech in 1998. Erdoğan abandoned Islamist politics and established the moderate conservative AKP in 2001.
Following the AKP's landslide victory in 2002, the party's co-founder Abdullah Gül became Prime Minister, until his government annulled Erdoğan's ban from political office. Erdoğan became Prime Minister in March 2003 after winning a by-election in Siirt. Erdoğan's government oversaw negotiations for Turkey's membership in the European Union, an economic recovery following a financial crash in 2001, changes to the constitution via referenda in 2007 and 2010, a Neo-Ottoman foreign policy, investments in infrastructure including roads, a high-speed train network, the Turkish currency and debt crisis of 2018. With the help of the Cemaat Movement led by preacher Fethullah Gülen, Erdoğan was able to curb the power of the military through the Sledgehammer and Ergenekon court cases. In late 2012, his government began peace negotiations with the Kurdistan Workers Party to end the ongoing PKK insurgency that began in 1978; the ceasefire broke down in 2015. In 2016, a coup d'état was unsuccessfully attempted against Turkish state institutions.
This was followed by an ongoing state of emergency. Political scientists no longer consider Turkey as a fledged democracy, citing the lack of free and fair elections and jailing of opponents, curtailed press freedom, Erdoğan's efforts to broaden his executive powers and minimize his executive accountability. Widespread 2013 protests broke out against the perceived authoritarianism of Erdoğan's policies; this stalled negotiations related to EU membership. Following a split with Gülen, Erdoğan promulgated sweeping judicial reforms he insisted were needed to purge Gülen's sympathisers, but which were criticised for threatening judicial independence. A US$100 billion corruption scandal in 2013 led to the arrests of Erdoğan's close allies, incriminated Erdoğan, his government has since come under fire for alleged human rights violations and crackdown on press and social media, having blocked access to Wikipedia, Twitter and YouTube on numerous occasions. Erdoğan's government lifted the bans when directed by court orders, but reimposed them.
In 2016, Turkey under Erdoğan began a crackdown on freedom of the press. He was re-elected in the 2018 general election and assumed the role of Executive President and became both the head of state and head of government. Erdoğan was born in the Kasımpaşa neighborhood in Istanbul, to which his family had moved from Rize Province, his parents were Tenzile Erdoğan. In August 2003 during his official visit in Tbilisi, Erdoğan explained his Georgian roots, he told the story of his Adjarian forefathers, which migrated after the Russo-Turkish War from Batumi to Rize. According to journalistic investigation held by OdaTV in 2009, his grandfather's nickname "Bakatalı" is claimed to be originating from the village of Bagata, today in the Tskhinvali District of South Ossetia. Georgians in Turkey are Muslims, who had arrived during Ottoman times in several waves of migration from Caucasus, due to the Russo-Turkish Wars; however in a 2014 televised interview on the NTV news network, he said, "You wouldn't believe the things they have said about me.
They have said I am Georgian... forgive me for saying this... much uglier things, they have called me an Armenian, but I am Turkish."Erdoğan spent his early childhood in Rize, where his father was a Captain in the Turkish Coast Guard. Erdoğan had a brother sister Vesile, his summer holidays were spent in Güneysu, where his family originates. Throughout his life he returned to this spiritual home, in 2015 he opened a vast mosque on a mountaintop near this village; the family returned to Istanbul. As a teenager, he sold lemonade and sesame buns on the streets of the city's rougher districts to earn extra money. Brought up in an observant Muslim family, Erdoğan graduated from Kasımpaşa Piyale primary school in 1965, İmam Hatip school, a religious vocational high school, in 1973, he received his high school diploma from Eyüp High School. According to his official biography, he subsequently studied Business Administration at the Aksaray School of Economics and Commercial Sciences, now known as Marmara University's Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences — although several Turkis
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat, the tenth President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. A leading member of the far-right New Society Movement, he ruled as a dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981, his regime was infamous for its corruption and brutality. Marcos claimed an active part in World War II, including fighting alongside the Americans in the Bataan Death March and being the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines". A number of his claims were found to be false and the United States Army documents described Marcos's wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd". Marcos started as an attorney served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965, he was elected President in 1965, presided over a growing economy during the beginning and intermediate portion of his 20-year rule, but ended in loss of livelihood, extreme poverty, a crushing debt crisis. Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972, during which he revamped the constitution, silenced the media, used violence and oppression against the political opposition, communist rebels, ordinary citizens.
Martial law was ratified by 90.77% of the voters during the Philippine Martial Law referendum, 1973 though the referendum was marred with controversy. Public outrage led to the snap elections of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution in February 1986, which removed him from power. To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US President Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly", after which Marcos fled to Hawaii. Marcos was succeeded by Corazon "Cory" Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. who had flown back to the Philippines to face Marcos. According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government, the Marcos family stole US$5–10 billion; the PCGG maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, taking away billions of dollars from the Philippines between 1965 and 1986.
His wife Imelda Marcos, whose excesses during the couple's conjugal dictatorship made her infamous in her own right, spawned the term "Imeldific". Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr. are still active in Philippine politics. Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917, in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, to Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin, he was baptized into the Philippine Independent Church, but was first baptized in the Roman Catholic Church at the age of three. Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines, he excelled in both curricular and extra-curricular activities, becoming a valuable member of the university's swimming and wrestling teams. He was an accomplished and prolific orator and writer for the student newspaper. While attending the UP College of Law, he became a member of the Upsilon Sigma Phi, where he met his future colleagues in government and some of his staunchest critics; when he sat for the 1939 Bar Examinations, he received a near-perfect score of 98.8%, but allegations of cheating prompted the Philippine Supreme Court to re-calibrate his score to 92.35%.
He graduated cum laude. He was elected to the Pi Gamma Mu and the Phi Kappa Phi international honor societies, the latter giving him its Most Distinguished Member Award 37 years later. In Seagrave's book The Marcos Dynasty, he mentioned that Marcos possessed a phenomenal memory and exhibited this by memorizing complicated texts and reciting them forward and backward such as the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines. Senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago, in an interview with the Philippine Star on March 25, 2012, shared her experience as a speech writer to President Marcos: "One time, the Secretary of Justice forgot to tell me that the President had requested him to draft a speech that the President was going to deliver before graduates of the law school, and on the day the President was to deliver the speech, he remembered because Malacañang was asking for the speech, so he said,'This is an emergency. You just have to produce something.' And I just dictated the speech. He liked long speeches. I think, 20 or 25 pages.
And in the evening, I was there, of course. President Marcos recited the speech from memory." In December 1938, Ferdinand Marcos was prosecuted for the murder of Julio Nalundasan. He was not the only accused from the Marcos clan. Nalundasan, one of the elder Marcos's political rivals, had been shot and killed in his house in Batac on September 21, 1935 – the day after he had defeated Mariano Marcos a second time for a seat in the National Assembly. According to two witnesses, the four had conspired to assassinate Nalundasan, with Ferdinand Marcos pulling the trigger. In late January 1939, they were denied bail and in the year, they were convicted. Ferdinand and Lizardo received the death penalty for premeditated murder, while Mariano and Pio were found guilty of contempt of court; the Marcos family took their appeal to the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which overturned the lower court's decision on 22 October 1940, acquitting them of all charges except contempt. Marcos' military service during World War II has been the subject of debate and controversy, both in the Philippines and in international military circles.
Marcos, who had received ROTC training, was activate
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician and journalist, the leader of the National Fascist Party. He ruled Italy as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943. Known as Il Duce, Mussolini was the founder of Italian Fascism. In 1912, Mussolini had been a leading member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party, but was expelled from the PSI for advocating military intervention in World War I, in opposition to the party's stance on neutrality. Mussolini served in the Royal Italian Army during the war until he was wounded and discharged in 1917. Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on nationalism instead of socialism and founded the fascist movement which came to oppose egalitarianism and class conflict, instead advocating "revolutionary nationalism" transcending class lines. Following the March on Rome in October 1922, Mussolini became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history until the appointment of Matteo Renzi in February 2014. After removing all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship.
Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means and aspired to create a totalitarian state. In 1929, Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty with the Vatican, ending decades of struggle between the Italian state and the Papacy, recognized the independence of Vatican City. After the Abyssinia Crisis of 1935–1936, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in the Second Italo–Ethiopian War; the invasion was condemned by the Western powers and was answered with economic sanctions against Italy. Relations between Germany and Italy improved due to Hitler's support of the invasion. In 1936, Mussolini surrendered Austria to the German sphere of influence, signed the treaty of cooperation with Germany and proclaimed the creation of a Rome–Berlin Axis. From 1936 through 1939, Mussolini provided huge amounts of military support to Franco's forces in the Spanish Civil War; this active intervention further distanced Italy from Britain. Mussolini had sought to delay a major war in Europe, but Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, resulting in declarations of war by France and the UK and the start of World War II.
On 10 June 1940—with the Fall of France imminent—Italy entered the war on the side of Germany, though Mussolini was aware that Italy did not have the military capacity and resources to carry out a long war with the British Empire. He believed that after the imminent French armistice, Italy could gain territorial concessions from France, he could concentrate his forces on a major offensive in North Africa, where British and Commonwealth forces were outnumbered by Italian forces. However, the British government refused to accept proposals for a peace that would involve accepting Axis victories in Eastern and Western Europe. In October 1940, Mussolini sent Italian forces into Greece; the invasion failed and the following Greek counter-offensive pushed the Italians back to occupied Albania. The Greek debacle and simultaneous defeats against the British in North Africa reduced Italy to dependence on Germany. Beginning in June 1941, Mussolini sent Italian forces to participate in the invasion of the Soviet Union, Italy declared war on the United States in December.
In 1943, Italy suffered one disaster after another: by February the Red Army had destroyed the Italian Army in Russia. As a consequence, early on 25 July, the Grand Council of Fascism passed a motion of no confidence for Mussolini. After the king agreed the armistice with the allies, on 12 September 1943 Mussolini was rescued from captivity in the Gran Sasso raid by German paratroopers and Waffen-SS commandos led by Major Otto-Harald Mors. Adolf Hitler, after meeting with the rescued former dictator put Mussolini in charge of a puppet regime in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic, informally known as the Salò Republic. In late April 1945, in the wake of near total defeat and his mistress Clara Petacci attempted to flee to Switzerland, but both were captured by Italian communist partisans and summarily executed by firing squad on 28 April 1945 near Lake Como, his body was taken to Milan, where it was hung upside down at a service station to publicly confirm his demise. Mussolini was born on 29 July 1883 in Dovia di Predappio, a small town in the province of Forlì in Romagna.
During the Fascist era, Predappio was dubbed "Duce's town" and Forlì was called "Duce's city", with pilgrims going to Predappio and Forlì to see the birthplace of Mussolini. Benito Mussolini's father, Alessandro Mussolini, was a blacksmith and a socialist, while his mother, was a devout Catholic schoolteacher. Owing to his father's political leanings, Mussolini was named Benito after liberal Mexican president Benito Juárez, while his middle names Andrea and Amilcare were from Italian socialists Andrea Costa and Amilcare Cipriani. Benito was the eldest of his parents' three children, his siblings Arnaldo and Edvige fol