1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Letcher County, Kentucky
Letcher County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,519, its county seat is Whitesburg. The county, founded in 1842, is named for Robert P. Letcher, Governor of Kentucky from 1840 to 1844. Letcher County is a dry county, with the only exceptions being the Highland Winery, the city of Whitesburg, the city of Jenkins; the killing of filmmaker Hugh O'Connor by a local landowner in 1967 brought Letcher County to national attention. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 339 square miles, of which 338 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles is water. Letcher County's natural areas include the Lilley Cornett Woods. Knott County Pike County Wise County, Virginia Harlan County Perry County Jefferson National Forest In an effort to bring tourists to Letcher County and to revitalize the local economy, the Pioneer Horse Trail is under construction on Pine Mountain; the trail, part of an "adventure tourism" initiative spearheaded by Governor Steve Beshear, Beshear's wife Jane, Lieutenant Governor Daniel Mongiardo, is scheduled for completion in the spring of 2009.
However, controversy has arisen about whether or not the environment would be harmed during construction. In the summer of 2008, the Letcher County Fiscal Court had signed an agreement with state officials stating that the county would do an environmental impact study before construction would begin. Documents obtained by the Lexington Herald-Leader under Kentucky's Open Records Act showed that construction began before the study was to take place. County-owned bulldozers started clearing trees in part of a wildlife management area in which heavy equipment was not permitted. Environmental groups are asking the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service to determine if any species on the threatened or endangered list were harmed; because of the environmental impact studies, construction has been halted for the time being. As of the census of 2000, there were 25,277 people, 10,085 households, 7,462 families residing in the county; the population density was 75 per square mile. There were 11,405 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 98.71% White, 0.51% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.03% from other races, 0.35% from two or more races. 0.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,085 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.40% were married couples living together, 11.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.00% were non-families. 24.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.94. The age distribution was 23.70% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 25.80% from 45 to 64, 12.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $21,110, the median income for a family was $24,869.
Males had a median income of $30,488 versus $17,902 for females. The per capita income for the county was $11,984. About 23.70% of families and 27.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.90% of those under age 18 and 21.20% of those age 65 or over. Two public school districts operate in the county. Most K-12 students in the county, with the exception of those living in the far eastern part of the county surrounding Jenkins, are served by the Letcher County Public Schools; the district operates nine elementary/middle schools, one vocational school, one high school, an alternative education center. In 2005, the doors to the new Letcher County Central High School were opened in Ermine, with total costs of over $25,000,000; the school's nickname is the Cougars, the school colors are blue and silver. The school volleyball team has been to the state tournament every year since its creation and the wrestling team has had multiple regional champions; the baseball team has claimed three region titles in 2007, 2011, 2013, with two state tournament appearances and one semi-state appearance.
The baseball team has been led by the 14th region coach of Bryan Dean, since its creation. The boys Cross Country team has had an individual region champion; the Girls basketball team made a State sweet sixteen appearance. Students in the Jenkins area are served by the Jenkins Independent Schools, which operates two elementary schools and a combined middle and high school with grades 7-12. Jenkins Independent Schools will be entering its 100th year in 2012; the middle/high school's athletic nickname is the Cavaliers/Lady Cavaliers. The school colors are Kelly White. Letcher County has a somewhat similar political history to West Virginia. Under the Fourth Party System it was a reliable Republican county, voting Republican in every election from 1884 to 1928. However, with increasing unionization under the New Deal it turned for the next sixty to seventy years into a solid Democratic county, apart from the 1956 and 1972 landslides and the candidacy of Catholic John F. Kennedy. However, since 2004 as the Democratic Party has become opposed to coal production due to global warming issues it has now become a solidly Republican county.
Alpha Natural Resources James River Coa
Kentucky's 5th congressional district
Kentucky's 5th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Kentucky. Located in the heart of Appalachia in Southeastern Kentucky, the rural district is the second most impoverished district in the nation and, as of the 2010 U. S. Census, it has the highest percentage of White Americans in the nation. Located within the district are the economic leading cities of Pikeville, Middlesborough, Jackson, Ashland and Somerset; the current 5th congressional district is one of the few ancestrally Republican regions south of the Ohio River. Much of the region now in the district supported the Union in the Civil War, identified with the Republicans after hostilities ceased. Much of the eastern portion of the district was once part of the disbanded 7th congressional district, long a Democratic stronghold; the 7th district was disbanded in 1992 after the 1990 census showed that the state's population could no longer support seven districts. Geographically, the district consists of flat land areas to the west, to Appalachia highland mountains to the east and southeast.
To the north to northeast of the district are rolling hills that end at the Ohio River. The district is represented by Republican Harold D. "Hal" Rogers, the dean of the Kentucky delegation. Congressman Rogers serves in various top leadership positions in the U. S. House of Representatives; as of September 2013, there were 510,329 registered voters: 253,798 Democrats, 235,470 Republicans, 21,061 "Others". All of the "Others" included 15,344 unclassified Others, 5,385 Independents, 241 Libertarians, 43 Greens, 21 Constitutionalists, 20 Reforms, 7 Socialist Workers; until January 1, 2006, Kentucky did not track party affiliation for registered voters who were neither Democratic nor Republican. The Kentucky voter registration card does not explicitly list anything other than Democratic Party, Republican Party, or Other, with the "Other" option having a blank line and no instructions on how to register as something else. Kentucky's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Knott County, Kentucky
Knott County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,346, its county seat is Hindman. The county is named for James Proctor Knott, Governor of Kentucky, it is dry county. Its county seat is home to the Hindman Settlement School, founded as America's first settlement school; the Knott County town of Pippa Passes is home to Alice Lloyd College. Knott County was established in 1884 from land given by Breathitt, Floyd and Perry counties; the 1890s-era courthouse, the second to serve the county, burned in 1929. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 353 square miles, of which 352 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water. Magoffin County Floyd County Pike County Letcher County Perry County Breathitt County Big Lovely Mountain, 1,401 feet As of the census of 2000, there were 17,649 people, 6,717 households, 4,990 families residing in the county; the population density was 50 per square mile. There were 7,579 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 98.27% White, 0.73% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races. 0.63% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,717 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.60% were married couples living together, 12.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.70% were non-families. 23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.50% under the age of 18, 10.80% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 11.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,373, the median income for a family was $24,930.
Males had a median income of $29,471 versus $21,240 for females. The per capita income for the county was $11,297. About 26.20% of families and 31.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.80% of those under age 18 and 23.10% of those age 65 or over. Knott County Central High School Knott County Area Technology Center Beaver Creek Elementary Carr Creek Elementary Cordia School Emmalena Elementary Hindman Elementary Jones Fork Elementary Bethel Christian Academy Hindman Settlement School June Buchanan School Knott County Campus of Hazard Community and Technical College Alice Lloyd College Knott County has voted strongly for the Democratic Party. In 1992, 75% of Knott County residents voted for Democrat Bill Clinton for US President, the highest percentage for Clinton of any county in the state. However, in recent years, Knott County has voted more favorably for the Republican Party. In the 2008 presidential election, Republican John McCain became the first Republican to win Knott County in a presidential election by winning 52.6% of the vote to Barack Obama's 45%.
When Governor Ernie Fletcher appointed Republican Randy Thompson as County Judge Executive in 2005, it was the first time the county had a Republican Judge Executive. Thompson won re-election in 2006 and again in 2010, making him the first Republican to win election in a Knott County office. Congressman Hal Rogers has won Knott County's vote in recent years. Thompson was removed from office in 2013 after being convicted of misusing public funds. Alpha Natural Resources James River Coal Company Tourism is increasing in the county the popularity of elk viewing. Knott County and its surrounding counties are home to 5,700 free ranging elk, the largest elk herd east of the Mississippi River. There is an ATV Training Center dedicated to the safety of ATV usage amongst riders and the Knott County Sportsplex, a sports complex which has indoor basketball courts, outside baseball fields, a soccer field, a fitness center. Hometown24 WKCB-FM WKCB-AM WWJD-FM Troublesome Creek Times Hindman Pippa Passes Vicco Public transportation is provided by LKLP Community Action Partnership with demand-response service and scheduled service from Hindman to Hazard.
Rebecca Gayheart and model Carl Dewey Perkins and member of the United States House of Representatives. He was a Democrat. Perkins was born in Kentucky, he attended the Knott County grade schools, Hindman High School, Caney Junior College. James Still, author Zack Hall, Reality TV Producer/Camera Operator David Tolliver, musician. "Coal jobs gone for good". Lexington Herald-Leader. Cheeves, John. "Bombs and bullets in Clear Creek: Knott County's evolution from mining resistance to pro-coal epicenter". Lexington Herald-Leader. Estep, Bill. "How a Kentucky school teacher stopped a 756-acre surface mine — for now". Lexington Herald-Leader. Estep, Bill. "Pain remains more than 30 years after mine blast killed 8 on Potato Branch". Lexington H
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ