A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music is referred to as a musician. A musician who plays a musical instrument is known as an instrumentalist. Musicians can specialize in any musical style, some musicians play in a variety of different styles depending on cultures and background. Examples of a musician's possible skills include performing, singing, producing, composing and the orchestration of music. In the Middle Ages, instrumental musicians performed with soft ensembles inside and loud instruments outdoors. Many European musicians of this time catered to the Roman Catholic Church, they provided arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts. Notable musicians Phillipe de Vitry Guillaume Dufay Guillaume de Machaut Hildegard of Bingen John Jenkins Beatritz de Dia Tyagaraja Purandara Dasa Bhimsen Joshi Bismillah Khan A. R. RAHMAN Renaissance musicians produced music that could be played during masses in churches and important chapels.
Vocal pieces were in Latin—the language of church texts of the time—and were Church-polyphonic or "made up of several simultaneous melodies." By the end of the 16th century, patronage split among many areas: the Catholic Church, Protestant churches, royal courts, wealthy amateurs, music printing—all provided income sources for composers. Notable musicians Giovanni Palestrina Giovanni Gabrieli Thomas Tallis Claudio Monteverdi Leonardo da Vinci The Baroque period introduced heavy use of counterpoint and basso continuo characteristics. Vocal and instrumental "color" became more important compared with the Renaissance style of music, emphasized much of the volume and pace of each piece. Notable musicians George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi Classical music was created by musicians who lived during a time of a rising middle class. Many middle-class inhabitants of France at the time lived under long-time absolute monarchies; because of this, much of the music was performed in environments that were more constrained compared with the flourishing times of the Renaissance and Baroque eras.
Notable musicians Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Joseph Haydn Ludwig Van Beethoven The foundation of Romantic period music coincides with what is called the age of revolutions, an age of upheavals in political, economic and military traditions. This age included the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution. A revolutionary energy was at the core of Romanticism, which quite consciously set out to transform not only the theory and practice of poetry and art, but the common perception of the world; some major Romantic Period precepts survive, still affect modern culture. Notable musicians Ludwig van Beethoven Frédéric Chopin Franz Schubert Niccolò Paganini Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Richard Wagner Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Johannes Brahms Johann Strauss II The world transitioned from 19th-century Romanticism to 20th century Modernism, bringing major musical changes. In 20th-century music and musicians rejected the emotion-dominated Romantic period, strove to represent the world the way they perceived it.
Musicians wrote to be"... objective. While past eras concentrated on spirituality, this new period placed emphasis on physicality and things that were concrete."The advent of audio recording and mass media in the 20th century caused a boom of all kinds of music—pop, dance, folk and all forms of classical music. Musicians can experience a number of health problems related to the practice and performance of music; these can include tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss, which occurs and over a long period of time, most musicians do not seek help until they start to experience secondary symptoms such as tinnitus, distortion of sounds and hyperacusis. In addition, musicians are at increased risk for both musculoskeletal and vocal health problems when producing high sound levels on musical instruments. Increased biomechanical demands, whether at the hands, embouchure, or vocal cords, elevates the risks for occupational health problems like tendonitis, carpal tunnel, rupture of facial muscles, vocal cord malfunction.
Singer Composer Tour manager Musicians' or'Hi-Fi' earplugs Media related to Musicians at Wikimedia Commons
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Vampire Diaries
The Vampire Diaries is an American supernatural teen drama television series developed by Kevin Williamson and Julie Plec, based on the popular book series of the same name written by L. J. Smith; the series premiered on The CW on September 10, 2009, concluded on March 10, 2017, airing 171 episodes over eight seasons. The pilot episode attracted the largest audience for The CW of any series premiere since the network began in 2006, it was the most-watched series on the network before being supplanted by Arrow. The show has received numerous award nominations, winning four People's Choice Award and many Teen Choice Awards. On April 26, 2013, The CW announced that the spin-off The Originals, which focuses on the Original family of vampires, had been ordered to series, the show began airing during the 2013–14 American television season. On April 6, 2015, lead actress Nina Dobrev confirmed via Instagram that she and co-star Michael Trevino would be leaving the show after its sixth season. Dobrev returned to record a voiceover for the seventh-season finale.
Trevino appeared as a guest star in season seven and returned for season 8. On March 11, 2016, The CW renewed the series for an eighth season, but on July 23, 2016, announced that the eighth season, which would have 16 episodes, would be the show's last; the final season began airing on October 21, 2016, ended March 10, 2017. The series is set in the fictional town of Mystic Falls, Virginia, a town charged with supernatural history since its settlement of migrants from New England in the late 19th century, it follows the life of Elena Gilbert, a teenage girl who has just lost both parents in a car accident, as she falls in love with a 162-year-old vampire named Stefan Salvatore. Their relationship becomes complicated as Stefan's mysterious older brother Damon Salvatore returns, with a plan to bring back their past love Katherine Pierce, a vampire who looks like Elena. Although Damon is the villain and harbors a grudge against his brother for forcing him to become a vampire, he reconciles with Stefan and falls in love with Elena, creating a love triangle among the three.
Both brothers protect Elena as they face various villains and threats to their town, including Katherine. The brothers' history and the town's mythology are revealed through flashbacks as the series goes on. Additional storylines revolve around the other inhabitants of the town, most notably Elena's younger brother Jeremy Gilbert, her best friends Bonnie Bennett and Caroline Forbes, their mutual friends Tyler Lockwood and Matt Donovan, their history teacher, vampire hunter Alaric Saltzman; the town's politics are orchestrated by descendants of the original founding families, all comprising a "Founders' Council." The founding families of Mystic Falls include the Salvatores, the Gilberts, the Fells, the Forbes, the Lockwoods. They guard the town from vampires, although there are many more supernatural threats such as werewolves, witches and ghosts. Nina Dobrev as Elena Gilbert and Katherine Pierce; the series follows Elena as she falls in love with Stefan Salvatore, his brother, creating a love triangle.
This results in her being drawn into the supernatural world and her struggles in surviving supernatural events in the town. Dobrev portrays Elena's doppelgänger, Katerina Petrova known as Katherine Pierce. Katherine sporadically appeared in subsequent seasons and played a significant role in the fifth season. Dobrev has played the progenitor of the Petrova doppelgängers, Silas's true love known as Amara, during the fifth season, whom he had sought in the afterlife for two thousand years. Dobrev played another doppelgänger Tatia in The Originals season 2 episode "Red Door." In the season 6 finale, Elena's life was tied to Bonnie's in such a way that as long as Bonnie is alive, Elena will remain asleep. Damon put Elena in a coffin and had her hidden in a warehouse in Brooklyn for the next 60 years or so while he waits for her to wake up. In the series finale, Elena's curse is broken, she reunites with Damon and they live a long and happy life together with her becoming a doctor. Paul Wesley as Stefan Salvatore, a good-hearted and affectionate vampire and the complete opposite of his older brother, Damon Salvatore.
In the series, Stefan reverts to his old ways as a Ripper to save Damon from a werewolf bite. His role becomes more antagonistic, after being forced to turn his humanity off, he returns to his good-hearted and caring self and reconciles with Elena, but the relationship doesn't last long. He becomes human again and marries Caroline in Season 8 and is killed afterwards in the series finale as he sacrifices himself to save Mystic Falls. Wesley portrays his revealed doppelgänger, the world's first immortal being. Wesley played another doppelgänger, Tom Avery, during the fifth season. Ian Somerhalder as Damon Salvatore, the malevolent vampire brother who served as the show's villian and anti-hero, he is thought of as selfish and manipulative, but on begins to display a more caring side. Though his love for Elena is one-sided, she begins to develop feelings for him as they work together to save Stefan after he's given in to his Ripper side, they begin dating in season 4, continue to date until Elena is put into her deep sleep at the end of season 6.
Damon becomez close with Stefan, but has a close friendship with Bonnie, despite the fact that they hated each other for the first 5 seasons of the series. Throug
South Florida is a geographic and cultural region that comprises Florida's southernmost counties, including Miami-Dade and Palm Beach. It is the fourth most populous urban agglomeration in the United States, it is one of Florida's three most common "directional" regions, the others being Central Florida and North Florida. It includes the populous Miami metropolitan area, the Everglades, the Florida Keys, Treasure Coast, other localities. South Florida is the only part of the continental United States with a tropical climate; as with all vernacular regions, South Florida has no official boundaries or status and is defined differently by different sources at different times. A 2007 study of Florida's regions by Ary Lamme and Raymond K. Oldakowski found that Floridians surveyed identified "South Florida" as comprising the southernmost sections of peninsular Florida; that area includes the Miami metropolitan area, the Florida Keys included in Monroe county, the interior region known as the Glades.
Additionally, Southwest Florida, representing the state's southern Gulf Coast, has emerged as a directional vernacular region. Some respondents from as far northwest as the southern Tampa Bay area identified their region as being in South Florida rather than Southwest or Central Florida. However, the University of South Florida, founded in 1956, is located in Tampa. At that time, prior to the changes brought by the Florida Constitution of 1968, south Florida was much less important politically, the term was used more loosely. Tampa is not considered part of south Florida. Enterprise Florida, the state's economic development agency, identifies "Southeast Florida" as one of eight economic regions used by the agency and other state and outside entities, including the Florida Department of Transportation; some entities alternately designate this region "South Florida". Its definition includes much of the same territory as Lamme and Oldakowski's report as well as additional area, it includes Monroe County and the three metropolitan counties of Miami-Dade and Palm Beach.
The demographics of South Florida residents can be segmented as following: Over 87.2% of all foreigners residing in South Florida come from Latin America. Largest cities in South Florida by population: The Miami accent is a regional accent of the American English dialect spoken in South Florida in Miami-Dade, Palm Beach, Monroe counties; the accent was born in central Miami, but has expanded to the rest of South Florida in the decades since the 1960s. The Miami accent is most prevalent in American-born South Floridian youth; the Miami accent is based on a standard American accent but with some changes similar to dialects in the Mid-Atlantic Unlike Virginia Piedmont, Coastal Southern American, Northeast American dialects, the "Miami accent" is rhotic. Lamme and Oldakowski identify several demographic and cultural elements that characterize South Florida and distinguish it from other areas of the state. Many of its differences appear to be driven by its proportionately higher level of migration from the northern U.
S. states and from the Caribbean and Latin America in the densely populated Miami area. Politically, South Florida is more liberal than the rest of the state. While less than 10% of people in either North or Central Florida felt their area was liberal, over a third of South Floridians described their region as such. 38% characterized the area as conservative. This tracks with South Florida's demographics, Lamme and Oldakowski's findings parallel Barney Warf and Cynthia Waddell's research on Florida's political geography during the 2000 Presidential election; the economy in South Florida is similar to that in Central Florida. Compared to the more diversified economy in North Florida, tourism is by far the most significant industry in South and Central Florida, with a much smaller but vibrant agricultural industry. Lamme and Oldakowski's survey found some cultural indicators distinguishing South Florida. South Florida is the only region of the state where ethnic foods are as popular as general American cuisine.
Additionally, while there was little geographical variation for most styles of music, there was regional variation for both country and Latin music. Country was less popular in South Florida than in North or Central Florida, while Latin was more popular than in the other regions; the Anthony J. Catanese Center for Urban and Environmental Solutions at Florida Atlantic University notes the unusual growth pattern of South Florida. Unlike many areas with centralized cities surrounded by development, most of South Florida is preserved natural area and designated agricultural reserves, with development restricted to a dense, narrow strip along the coast; the developed area is urbanized and continuous and decentralized, with no particular dominant core cities. The center projects this pattern to continue in the future. Over time, there have been numerous proposals for partitioning the state of Florida to form a separate state of South Florida; such proposals have been made as political statement rather than serious attempts at secession.
Reasons stated are cultural, ethnic and financial frustrations with the state government in Tallahassee, in North Florida. In 2008, the North Lauderd
Saul Stacey Williams is an American rapper, singer-songwriter, slam poet and actor. He is known for his blend of poetry and alternative hip hop and for his lead roles in the 1998 independent film Slam and the 2013 jukebox musical Holler If Ya Hear Me, featuring Tupac Shakur's music. Williams was born in Newburgh, New York, is the youngest of three children in his family, he attended Newburgh Free Academy, where he wrote his song "Black Stacey". He graduated from Morehouse College with a BA in acting and philosophy moved to New York City, where he earned an MFA in acting from New York University's Graduate Acting Program at the Tisch School of the Arts. While at New York University he became part of the New York café poetry scene. Williams has lived in Brazil as an exchange student from 1988 to 1989. By 1995, Williams had become an open mic poet. In 1996, he won the title of Nuyorican Poets Cafe's Grand Slam Champion; the documentary film SlamNation follows Williams and the other members of the 1996 Nuyorican Poets Slam team as they compete in the 1996 National Poetry Slam held in Portland, Oregon.
The following year, Williams landed the lead role in the 1998 feature film Slam. Williams featured as both a writer and actor in the film, which would win both the Sundance Festival Grand Jury Prize and the Cannes Camera D'Or. Around 1998, Williams was breaking into music, he had performed with such artists as Nas, The Fugees, Christian Alvarez, Erykah Badu, KRS-One, Zack De La Rocha, De La Soul, DJ Krust, as well as poets Allen Ginsberg and Sonia Sanchez. After releasing a string of EPs, he released the LP Amethyst Rock Star with producer Rick Rubin in 2001. In September 2004, he released his self-titled album to much acclaim, he played several shows supporting Nine Inch Nails on their European tour in summer 2005, has supported The Mars Volta. Williams was invited to the Lollapalooza music festival around that time, the Chicago stage allowed Williams to attract a wider audience, he appeared on the Nine Inch Nails album Year Zero, supported the group on their 2006 tour of North America. On the tour, Williams announced.
This collaboration resulted in 2007's The Inevitable Rise and Liberation of NiggyTardust!. The album was available only from its website until a physical CD was issued, featuring new tracks and extended album artwork; the first 100,000 customers on the website had the option to download a free lower-quality audio version of the album. The other option was for users to pay $5 to support the artist directly and be given the choice of downloading the higher-quality MP3 version or the lossless FLAC version; the material was mixed by Alan Moulder. It was Reznor who said, after his own recent dealings with record labels, that they should release it independently and directly to the audience. In early 2008, a Nike Sparq Training commercial featured Williams' song "List of Demands". In a November 2008 interview with Wired.com, Williams talked about his forthcoming projects: "There's one album that I'm waist-deep into. I'm aiming to finish it up next month. Trent wants to work on a sequel for Niggy that I think would be cool, I have an album and new songs demoed at home that I'm ready to go into the studio and lay down.
It's a complete reflection of. Williams showcased the album at London's Hoxton Bar Kitchen on January 26, 2011. Livemusic interviewed Williams on the evening and made a subsequent film, produced by artist Alex Templeton-Ward; when Williams was asked what the point of poetry was, he said: "I'm making this up, I have no idea but here we go. I think that it would be to express, to share, to explore. For me, poetry offers some what of a cathartic experience. I am able to move through emotions and emotional experience you know, break-ups, difficulties in all the things that I may face, whether, with an industry or a loved one or whomever, there needs to be an infiltration process, like you have a window open over there; that is the purpose of poetry: it is the window that opens, that allows some air in, some other insight, some other possibility so we can explore all that we feel, all that we think but with the space to see more than what we know, because there is so much more than we know. If I didn't open myself to the possibilities of the unknown I would be lost."
Williams' fifth album, MartyrLoserKing, was released on January 29, 2016. In March 2018, The Kills released their cover of Williams' "List of Demands" and Williams opened for The Kills' sold-out performance at the Regent Theater in Los Angeles on August 13, 2018; as a writer, Williams has been published in The New York Times, Bomb Magazine, African Voices, as well as releasing four collections of poetry. As a poet and musician, Williams has toured and lectured across the world, appearing at many universities and colleges. In his interview in the book Words in Your Face: A Guided Tour Through Twenty Years of the New York City Poetry Slam, Williams explained why he creates within so many genres: "It's not that I balance those arts out, all the different arts balance me out. So, that there is a certain type of emotion, more accessible through music than poetry... some things are meant to be written, some are meant to be sung, some things are meant to be hummed, some things are made to be yelled, so that's just how life works."In January 2009, he released NGH WHT – The Dead Emcee Scrolls with The Arditti Quartet, a reading of
Adrian Nicholas Matthews Thaws, better known by his stage name Tricky, is an English record producer and rapper. Born and raised in Bristol, he began his career as an early collaborator of Massive Attack before embarking on a solo career with his debut album, Maxinquaye, in 1995; the release won Tricky popular acclaim and marked the beginning of a lengthy collaborative partnership with vocalist Martina Topley-Bird. He released four more studio albums before the end of the decade, including Pre-Millennium Tension and the pseudonymous Nearly God, both in 1996, he has gone on to release eight studio albums since 2000, most Ununiform. Tricky is a pioneer of trip hop music, his work is noted for its dark, layered musical style that blends disparate cultural influences and genres, including hip hop, alternative rock and ragga, he has collaborated with a wide range of artists over the course of his career, including Terry Hall, Björk, Grace Jones, PJ Harvey. Tricky was born in the Knowle West neighbourhood of Bristol, to a Jamaican father and a mixed-race Anglo-Guyanese mother.
His mother, Maxine Quaye, either committed suicide or died due to epilepsy complications when Tricky was four. His father, Roy Thaws, who left the family before Tricky was born, operated the Studio 17 sound system with his brother Rupert and father Hector. Bristol musician Bunny Marrett claimed in 2012, "It became the most popular sound system in Bristol at the time."Tricky experienced a difficult childhood in Knowle West, a "white ghetto" in Southern Bristol. He became involved in crime at an early age, joined a gang, involved in car theft, burglary and promiscuity. Tricky spent his youth in the care of his grandmother, who let him watch old horror films instead of going to school. At the age of 15, he began to write lyrics. At 17, he spent some time in prison after he purchased forged £50 notes from a friend, who informed the police. Tricky stated in an interview afterward: "Prison was good. I'm never going back". In the mid-1980s, Tricky met DJ Milo and spent time with a sound system called the Wild Bunch, which by 1987 evolved into Massive Attack.
He received the nickname "Tricky Kid" and at age eighteen became a member of the Fresh 4, a rap group built from the Wild Bunch. He rapped on Massive Attack's acclaimed debut album Blue Lines. In 1991, before the release of Massive Attack's album Blue Lines, he met Martina Topley-Bird in Bristol; some time she came to his house, mentioned to Tricky and Mark Stewart that she could sing. Martina was only fifteen years old, but her "honey-coated vox" impressed them and they recorded a song called "Aftermath". Tricky showed "Aftermath" to Massive Attack. So in 1993 he decided to press a few hundred vinyl copies of the song, he cut it directly off the tape, so that the song is "just bassline and hiss".. In 1995, a white label got him a contract with Island Records and he started to record his first solo album, Maxinquaye, he rapped on former Wild Bunch member Neneh Cherry's song "Sassy" from her 1992 album Homebrew. Tricky left Massive Attack to release his debut album Maxinquaye, co-produced by himself and Mark Saunders and prominently featured singer Martina Topley-Bird.
The album was successful and Tricky attained international fame, something he was notably uncomfortable with. The Maxinquaye album review by Rolling Stone read: "Tricky devoured everything from American hip-hop and soul to reggae and the more melancholic strains of'80s British rock". Authors David Hesmondhalgh and Caspar Melville wrote in the book Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA: "Tricky showed his debt to hip-hop aesthetics by reconstructualising samples and slices of both the most respected black music and the tackiest pop." As the Rolling Stone article further explained, Tricky created "a mercurial style of dance music that finds it own fast feet."Tricky failed to complete a number of lyrics for the Massive Attack album Protection and gave the band some of the lyrics he had written for Maxinquaye instead. Thus, there are songs across the two albums that share the same lyrics —entitled "Overcome" and "Hell is'Round the Corner" on Maxinquaye and "Karmacoma", "Eurochild" on Protection, respectively.
Tricky found it difficult to cope with the huge success of Maxinquaye and subsequently eschewed the laid-back soul sound of the first album to create an edgy and aggressive punk style of music. In 1996, Neneh Cherry and Björk appeared as guests on his second album Nearly God; the opening number was a cover of the Siouxsie and the Banshees pre-trip-hop song "Tattoo" that had inspired Tricky when he forged his style. In 2001, Tricky appeared on the Thirteen Ghosts soundtrack with the song "Excess" which features Alanis Morissette during two of the choruses. In 2002 that song appeared on the Queen of the Damned soundtrack. Tricky's studio album Knowle West Boy was released in the UK and Ireland in July 2008, September 2008 in the US; the first single from the album was "Council Estate" and features the artist as the sole vocalist: "It's the first single I've done with just me on vocals. I couldn't whisper that song. I do a loud, screaming vocal. I wanted to be a proper frontman on that one." In an interview with The Skinny in July 2008, Tricky mentioned that Knowle West Boy was the first album for which he decided to enl