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Persian miniature

A Persian miniature is a small Persian painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa. The techniques are broadly comparable to the Western and Byzantine traditions of miniatures in illuminated manuscripts. Although there is an well-established Persian tradition of wall-painting, the survival rate and state of preservation of miniatures is better, miniatures are much the best-known form of Persian painting in the West, many of the most important examples are in Western, or Turkish, museums. Miniature painting became a significant genre in Persian art in the 13th century, receiving Chinese influence after the Mongol conquests, the highest point in the tradition was reached in the 15th and 16th centuries; the tradition continued, under some Western influence, after this, has many modern exponents. The Persian miniature was the dominant influence on other Islamic miniature traditions, principally the Ottoman miniature in Turkey, the Mughal miniature in the Indian sub-continent.

Persian art under Islam had never forbidden the human figure, in the miniature tradition the depiction of figures in large numbers, is central. This was because the miniature is a private form, kept in a book or album and only shown to those the owner chooses, it was therefore possible to be more free than in wall paintings or other works seen by a wider audience. The Qur'an and other purely religious works are not known to have been illustrated in this way, though histories and other works of literature may include religiously related scenes, including those depicting the Prophet Muhammed, after 1500 without showing his face; as well as the figurative scenes in miniatures, which this article concentrates on, there was a parallel style of non-figurative ornamental decoration, found in borders and panels in miniature pages, spaces at the start or end of a work or section, in whole pages acting as frontispieces. In Islamic art this is referred to as "illumination", manuscripts of the Qur'an and other religious books included considerable number of illuminated pages.

The designs reflected contemporary work in other media, in periods being close to book-covers and Persian carpets, it is thought that many carpet designs were created by court artists and sent to the workshops in the provinces. In periods miniatures were created as single works to be included in albums called muraqqa, rather than illustrated books; this allowed non-royal collectors to afford a representative sample of works from different styles and periods. The bright and pure colouring of the Persian miniature is one of its most striking features. All the pigments used are mineral-based ones which keep their bright colours well if kept in proper conditions, the main exception being silver used to depict water, which will oxidize to a rough-edged black over time; the conventions of Persian miniatures changed slowly. Lighting is without shadows or chiaroscuro. Walls and other surfaces are shown either frontally, or as at an angle of about 45 degrees giving the modern viewer the unintended impression that a building is hexagonal in plan.

Buildings are shown in complex views, mixing interior views through windows or "cutaways" with exterior views of other parts of a facade. Costumes and architecture are always those of the time. Many figures are depicted, with those in the main scene rendered at the same size, recession indicated by placing more distant figures higher up in the space. More important figures may be somewhat larger than those around them, battle scenes can be crowded indeed. Great attention is paid to the background, whether of a landscape or buildings, the detail and freshness with which plants and animals, the fabrics of tents, hangings or carpets, or tile patterns are shown is one of the great attractions of the form; the dress of figures is shown with great care, although artists understandably avoid depicting the patterned cloth that many would have worn. Animals the horses that often appear, are shown sideways on. Landscapes are often mountainous, this being indicated by a high undulating horizon, outcrops of bare rock which, like the clouds in the small area of sky left above the landscape, are depicted in conventions derived from Chinese art.

When a scene in a palace is shown, the viewpoint appears to be from a point some metres in the air. The earliest miniatures appeared unframed horizontally across the page in the middle of text, following Byzantine and Arabic precedents, but in the 14th century the vertical format was introduced influenced by Chinese scroll-paintings; this is used in all the luxury manuscripts for the court that constitute the most famous Persian manuscripts, the vertical format dictates many characteristics of the style. The miniatures occupy a full page sometimes spreading across two pages to regain a square or horizontal "landscape" format. There are panels of text or captions inside the picture area, enclosed in a frame of several ruled lines with a broader band of gold or colour

Tim Corcoran (pitcher)

Timothy Hugh Corcoran is an American former professional baseball pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball for the Tampa Bay Devil Rays and in Nippon Professional Baseball for the Yokohama DeNA BayStars. Corcoran's brother, Roy Corcoran played professional baseball Corcoran was selected by the New York Mets in the 44th round of the 1996 MLB Draft out of Jackson High School, he began his professional career with the Kingsport Mets in 1997 and played in the Mets farm system through 2000. He played with Kingsport, the Gulf Coast Mets, St. Lucie Mets but spent most of his time with the Capital City Bombers. On December 11, 2000 he was selected from the Mets by the Baltimore Orioles in the minor league portion of the Rule 5 draft, he remained with the Orioles farm system through 2003 with the Double-A Bowie Baysox. In December 2003, he was once more selected in the minor league portion of the Rule 5 draft, this time by the Tampa Bay Devil Rays; the Devil Rays assigned him to the AAA Durham Bulls for 2004 and 2005.

Corcoran made his Major League debut on June 14, 2005 for the Devil Rays against the Milwaukee Brewers, working two scoreless innings of relief. He went into 2006 spring training looking to stay in the majors, but was sent down to Triple-A to begin the season and not recalled until June 15, he appeared in three relief appearances before getting a spot start in place of demoted Seth McClung. He pitched well enough to remain in the rotation, going 5-9 with a 4.38 ERA in 16 starts and 5 relief appearances. He started the 2007 season with Triple-A Durham and was recalled by the Devil Rays after Juan Salas received a 50-game suspension following a positive drug test. On June 11, 2007, Corcoran was optioned back to the minors. On Jan. 4, 2008, he signed a minor league deal with the Florida Marlins, spent most of the year playing for their Double-A team, the Carolina Mudcats. He became a free agent at the end of the season and signed a minor league contract with the Los Angeles Dodgers in March 2009.

With the Dodgers, he played for the AA Chattanooga Lookouts and AAA Albuquerque Isotopes. He spent the entire 2011 season on the disabled list for Albuquerque after undergoing Tommy John surgery on his elbow, he began 2012 pitching for the Delfines del Carmen in the Mexican League before returning to the Isotopes in August. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference

Anzar Shah Kashmiri

Sayyid Anzar Shah Kashmiri ibn Muḥammad Anwar Shāh ibn Mu‘az̤z̤am Shāh Kashmīrī was an Indian Sunni Islamic scholar of the Deobandi school of Islamic thought. He was youngest son of Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri. Maulana Anzar Shah Kashmiri was born at Deoband on 6 December 1927, his father Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri was a muhaddith. Maulana Anzar Shah graduated from the Darul Uloom Deoband, his main teachers include Maulana Hussain Ahmed Madani. Along with Muhammad Salim Qasmi, the son of Qari Muhammad Tayyib, Maulana Kashmiri laid the foundation of Darul Uloom Waqf, Deoband in 1982. In 1997, he established Jamia Imam Anwar Shah in Deoband in the memory of his late father Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri. Maulana Anzar Shah Kashmiri’s literary works count up to 20, his notable works are: Taqreer-e-Shahi Al-fayz ul Jaari Asma-e-Husna Ki Barkaat Nawaderat Imam Kashmiri Tadhkira-tul-Izaz. Laal-o-Gul Naqsh-e-Dawam Khayr al-MajalisTranslations from Arabic to Urdu Tafseer Ibn Katheer Tafseer Madarik Tafseer Jalalayn Tafseer Mazhari Tafseer Tantawi Kashaful Hajjah Maulana Kashmiri was selected as the Vice President of the Uttar Pradesh Congress in 2004.

He was awarded with Presidential Award in 2003 for his noble services in the field of Arabic Language and Literature. Maulana Anzar Shah Kashmiri suffered from heart and kidney problems for some years and was being treated at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital in Delhi, he died on Saturday 26 April 2008 in Delhi. He was buried in Deoband next to the grave of his father Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri, he is survived by wife, six daughters and a son Maulana Ahmad Khizar Shah Kashmiri, the chancellor of Jamia Imam Anwar Shah, Deoband. Jamia Imam Muhammad Anwar Shah, Deoband Fuzail Ahmad Nasiri