Second Vatican Council
The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican known as the Second Vatican Council or Vatican II, addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. The council, through the Holy See, was formally opened under the pontificate of Pope John XXIII on 11 October 1962 and was closed under Pope Paul VI on the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception on 8 December 1965. Several changes resulted from the council, including the renewal of consecrated life with a revised charism, ecumenical efforts towards dialogue with other religions, the universal call to holiness, which according to Pope Paul VI was "the most characteristic and ultimate purpose of the teachings of the Council". According to Pope Benedict XVI, the most important and essential message of the council is "the Paschal Mystery as the center of what it is to be Christian and therefore of the Christian life, the Christian year, the Christian seasons". Other changes which followed the council included the widespread use of vernacular languages in the Mass instead of Latin, the subtle disuse of ornate clerical regalia, the revision of Eucharistic prayers, the abbreviation of the liturgical calendar, the ability to celebrate the Mass versus populum, as well as ad orientem, modern aesthetic changes encompassing contemporary Catholic liturgical music and artwork.
Many of these changes remain divisive among the Catholic faithful. Of those who took part in the council's opening session, four have become popes: Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, who on succeeding John XXIII took the name Pope Paul VI. In the 1950s, theological and biblical studies in the Catholic Church had begun to sway away from the Neo-Scholasticism and biblical literalism which a reaction to Catholic modernism had enforced since the First Vatican Council; this shift could be seen in theologians such as Karl Rahner, Michael Herbert, John Courtney Murray who looked to integrate modern human experience with church principles based on Jesus Christ, as well as others such as Yves Congar, Joseph Ratzinger and Henri de Lubac, who looked to an accurate understanding of scripture and the early Church Fathers as a source of renewal. At the same time, the world's bishops faced challenges driven by political, social and technological change; some of these bishops sought new ways of addressing those challenges.
The First Vatican Council had been held nearly a century before but had been cut short in 1870 when the Italian Army entered the city of Rome at the end of Italian unification. As a result, only deliberations on the role of the papacy and the congruent relationship of faith and reason were completed, with examination of pastoral issues concerning the direction of the Church left unaddressed. Pope John XXIII, gave notice of his intention to convene the Council on 25 January 1959, less than three months after his election in October 1958; this sudden announcement, which caught the Curia by surprise, caused little initial official comment from Church insiders. Reaction to the announcement was widespread and positive from both religious and secular leaders outside the Catholic Church, the council was formally summoned by the apostolic constitution Humanae Salutis on 25 December 1961. In various discussions before the Council convened, John XXIII said that it was time to "open the windows and let in some fresh air".
He invited other Christians outside the Catholic Church to send observers to the Council. Acceptances came from both the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant denominations as internal observers, but these observers did not cast votes in the approbation of the conciliar documents. Pope John XXIII's announcement on 25 January 1959 of his intention to call a general council came as a surprise to the cardinals present; the Pontiff pre-announced the council under a full moon when the faithful with their candlelights gathered in St. Peter's square and jokingly noted about the brightness of the moon, he had tested the idea only ten days before with one of them, his Cardinal Secretary of State Domenico Tardini, who gave enthusiastic support to the idea. Although the Pope said the idea came to him in a flash in his conversation with Tardini, two cardinals had earlier attempted to interest him in the idea, they were two of the most conservative, Ernesto Ruffini and Alfredo Ottaviani, who had in 1948 proposed the idea to Pope Pius XII and who put it before John XXIII on 27 October 1958.
Actual preparations for the Council took more than two years, included work from 10 specialised commissions, people for mass media and Christian Unity, a Central Commission for overall coordination. These groups, composed of members of the Roman Curia, produced 987 proposed constituting sessions, making it the largest gathering in any council in church history. Attendance varied in sessions from 2,100 to over 2,300. In addition, a varying number of periti were available for theological consultation—a group that turned out to have a major influence as the council went forward. Seventeen Orthodox Churches and Protestant denominations sent observers. More than three dozen representatives of other Christian communities were present at the opening session, the number grew to nearly 100 by the end of the 4th Council Sessions. Pope John XXIII opened the Council on 11 October 1962 in a public session and read the declaration Gaudet Mater Ecclesia before the Council Fathers. What is needed at the present t
Pope Pius V
Pope Pius V, born Antonio Ghislieri, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572. He is venerated as a saint of the Catholic Church, he is chiefly notable for his role in the Council of Trent, the Counter-Reformation, the standardization of the Roman rite within the Latin Church. Pius V declared Thomas Aquinas a Doctor of the Church; as a cardinal, Ghislieri gained a reputation for putting orthodoxy before personalities, prosecuting eight French bishops for heresy. He stood firm against nepotism, rebuking his predecessor Pope Pius IV to his face when he wanted to make a 13-year-old member of his family a cardinal and subsidize a nephew from the papal treasury. By means of the papal bull of 1570, Regnans in Excelsis, Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth I of England for heresy and persecution of English Catholics during her reign, he arranged the formation of the Holy League, an alliance of Catholic states to combat the advancement of the Ottoman Empire in Eastern Europe.
Although outnumbered, the Holy League famously defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Pius V attributed the victory to the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary and instituted the feast of Our Lady of Victory. Biographers report that as the Battle of Lepanto ended, Pius rose and went over to a window, where he stood gazing toward the East. "...ooking at the sky, he cried out,'A truce to business. Antonio Ghislieri was born 17 January 1504 in Bosco in the Duchy of Italy. At the age of fourteen he entered the Dominican Order, taking the name Michele, passing from the monastery of Voghera to that of Vigevano, thence to Bologna. Ordained priest at Genoa in 1528, he was sent by his order to Pavia, where he lectured for sixteen years. At Parma he advanced thirty propositions in support of the papal chair and against the Protestant Reformation, he became master of novices and was on several occasions elected prior of more than one Dominican priory. During a time of great moral laxity, he insisted on discipline, strove to develop the practice of the monastic virtues.
He fasted, did penance, passed long hours of the night in meditation and prayer, traveled on foot without a cloak in deep silence, or only speaking to his companions of the things of God. As his reformist zeal provoked resentment, he was compelled to return to Rome in 1550, after having been employed in several inquisitorial missions, he was elected to the commissariat of the Holy Office. In 1556 he was made Bishop of Sutri by Pope Paul IV and was selected as inquisitor of the faith in Milan and Lombardy. In 1557 he was named inquisitor general for all Christendom, his defense of Bartolomé Carranza, Archbishop of Toledo, suspected of heresy by the Spanish Inquisition, earned him a rebuff from the Pope. Under Pope Pius IV he became bishop of Mondovi in Piedmont. Called to Rome, he displayed his unflinching zeal in all the affairs on which he was consulted, thus he offered an insurmountable opposition to Pius IV when the latter wished to admit Ferdinand de' Medici only thirteen years old, into the Sacred College.
His opposition to the pontiff procured his dismissal from the palace and the abridgment of his authority as inquisitor. Before Michele Ghislieri could return to his episcopate, Pope Pius IV died. On 8 January 1566, with the influential backing of Charles Borromeo, was elected to the papal throne, taking the name Pope Pius V, he was crowned ten days on his 62nd birthday by the protodeacon. Cardinal Borromeo wrote to the Portuguese Cardinal Henrique six weeks following the conclave where he recalled the election of the new pope; the cardinal referred to having "a high esteem for him on account of his singular holiness and zeal" and saw these qualities as a signal that he would make a good pope "to the great satisfaction of all". On 4 January, a courier from Spain arrived prompting rumors that King Philip II endorsed Cardinal Ghislieri, giving Borromeo and his allies the chance to capitalize on the confusion; this led to an increase in votes for Ghislieri as the cardinals conferred with each other, leading to the election of the new pope in the afternoon of 8 January.
His pontificate saw him dealing with internal reform of the Church, the spread of Protestant doctrines in the West, Turkish armies advancing from the East. Aware of the necessity of restoring discipline and morality at Rome to ensure success without, he at once proceeded to reduce the cost of the papal court after the manner of the Dominican Order to which he belonged, compel residence among the clergy, regulate inns, assert the importance of the ceremonial in general and the liturgy of the Mass in particular. Three national synods were held during his pontificate at Naples under Alfonso Cardinal Caraffa, at Milan under Saint Charles Borromeo, at Machim. In his wider policy, characterised throughout by an effective stringency, the maintenance and increase of the efficacy of the Inquisition and the enforcement of the canons and decrees of the Council of Trent had precedence over other considerations. Accordingly, in order to implement a decision of that council, he standardised the Holy Mass by promulgating the 1570 edition of the Roman Missal.
Pius V made this Missal mandatory throughout the Latin rite of the Catholic Church, except where a Mass liturgy dating from before 1370 AD was in use. This form of the Mass remained unchanged for 400 years until Pope Paul VI's revision of the Roma
Traditionalist Catholicism is a set of religious beliefs made up of the customs, liturgical forms and private devotions, presentations of the teaching of the Catholic Church before the Second Vatican Council. It is associated with an attachment to the pre-1970 Roman Rite Mass, referred to as the Traditional Latin Mass. Traditionalist Catholics were disturbed by the liturgical changes that followed the Second Vatican Council, arguing that they stripped the liturgy of its outward sacredness and made it too Protestant, eroding faith in the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Many oppose the social teachings given by the Church during and after the Council, that on ecumenism, claiming that the latter blurs the lines between Catholicism and other religions; the modern traditionalist movement traces its roots to at least the early 1970s, when conservative Catholics opposed to or uncomfortable with the social and liturgical changes brought about by Second Vatican Council began to coalesce. In 1970, French Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre founded the Society of Saint Pius X, made up of priests who would say only the Traditional Latin Mass and who stood opposed to what he saw as excessive liberal influences in the Church.
Over time, Lefebvre's movement grew despite split-offs by various offshoot groups. Some Catholics, many never affiliated with Lefebvre, took the position of sedevacantism, which teaches John XXIII and his successors are heretics and cannot therefore be considered popes, that the new Church and new expressions of the sacraments are not valid. Other, marginal groups known as conclavists have elected their own popes in opposition to the men considered by the world to be the true popes; the Society of Saint Pius V broke off from Lefebvre over its objections to the SSPX's use of the missal of Pope John XXIII, preferring the much older 1570 missal of Pope Pius V, publicly questioning the legitimacy of the post-Vatican II popes. Lefebvre renounced these positions, but his movement still drew the suspicion of Roman authorities. In 1988, he and another bishop consecrated four men as bishops without papal permission, resulting in an Latae sententiae excommunication for all six men directly involved, not of the Society.
The excommunications were lifted for the surviving bishops by Pope Benedict XVI in 2009. Some members of the SSPX, unwilling to participate in what they considered schism and founded the Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter, which celebrates the Traditional Latin Mass but in full communion with the Holy See. During the papacy of Pope Benedict XVI, numerous attempts were made to bring the SSPX back from its separation from the authority of the Church, including the lifting of the excommunications on the four surviving bishops; these failed, but the efforts of the SSPX to negotiate with Rome led to the establishment of the minority SSPX Resistance. Traditionalist Catholics may be divided into four broad groups. Since the Second Vatican Council, several traditionalist organizations have been started with or have subsequently obtained approval from the Catholic Church; these organizations accept in principle the documents of the Second Vatican Council, regard the changes associated with the Council as legitimate, if prudentially unwise, but celebrate the older forms with the approval of the Holy See.
Priestly Fraternity of St Peter Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest, Sons of the Most Holy Redeemer Institute of the Good Shepherd Servants of Jesus and Mary Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem Canons Regular of Saint John Cantius Canons Regular of the Holy Cross Fraternity of Saint Vincent Ferrer Personal Apostolic Administration of Saint John Mary Vianney Miles Christi There are multiple monastic communities, including Monastery of Our Lady of the Annunciation of Clear Creek Monastery of St. Benedict in Norcia Monks of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel Monastery of Our Lady of the Cenacle Le Barroux AbbeySee Communities using the Tridentine Mass for a more detailed list. In addition, many traditionalist Catholics in good standing with Rome are served by local diocesan or religious priests who are willing and able to offer the traditional rites. Many other Catholics who sympathize with or who identify themselves as traditionalist are not able to attend the traditional liturgy because it is not offered in their area and attend the Mass of Paul VI, the current ordinary or normal Roman Rite of Mass following the Second Vatican Council.
Others may attend the liturgies of Eastern Catholic Churches. There are numerous local and international lay organizations of traditionalist Catholics, such as the youth-groups of Juventutem. Traditionalist Catholics are considered by some to differ from neo-conservatives in that the neo-conservative bases his entire belief system on the teaching of the present magisterium, while the traditionalist interprets the present with the perspective of the past; some traditionalists receive the Sacraments from priests considered suspended a divinis by Church authorities, though these priests and the Catholics that flock to them affirm their loyalty to the Church, while at the same time affirming that teachings of the Second Vatican Council on ecumenism, religious liberty, collegiality are inconsistent with Catholic teaching and doctrine. They form what Julie Byrne terms the right wing of independent Catholicism: "Independents vary ranging from right to left in the political spectrum. On the right traditionalist churches practice versions of Catholicism more conservative than Rome.
These include the Society of St. Pius X, foun
A priest or priestess is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They have the authority or power to administer religious rites, their office or position is the priesthood, a term which may apply to such persons collectively. According to the trifunctional hypothesis of prehistoric Proto-Indo-European society, priests have existed since the earliest of times and in the simplest societies, most as a result of agricultural surplus and consequent social stratification; the necessity to read sacred texts and keep temple or church records helped foster literacy in many early societies. Priests exist in many religions today, such as all or some branches of Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism, they are regarded as having privileged contact with the deity or deities of the religion to which they subscribe interpreting the meaning of events and performing the rituals of the religion. There is no common definition of the duties of priesthood between faiths.
These include blessing worshipers with prayers of joy at marriages, after a birth, at consecrations, teaching the wisdom and dogma of the faith at any regular worship service, mediating and easing the experience of grief and death at funerals – maintaining a spiritual connection to the afterlife in faiths where such a concept exists. Administering religious building grounds and office affairs and papers, including any religious library or collection of sacred texts, is commonly a responsibility – for example, the modern term for clerical duties in a secular office refers to the duties of a cleric; the question of which religions have a "priest" depends on how the titles of leaders are used or translated into English. In some cases, leaders are more like those that other believers will turn to for advice on spiritual matters, less of a "person authorized to perform the sacred rituals." For example, clergy in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy are priests, but in Protestant Christianity they are minister and pastor.
The terms priest and priestess are sufficiently generic that they may be used in an anthropological sense to describe the religious mediators of an unknown or otherwise unspecified religion. In many religions, being a priest or priestess is a full-time position, ruling out any other career. Many Christian priests and pastors choose or are mandated to dedicate themselves to their churches and receive their living directly from their churches. In other cases it is a part-time role. For example, in the early history of Iceland the chieftains were titled goði, a word meaning "priest"; as seen in the saga of Hrafnkell Freysgoði, being a priest consisted of offering periodic sacrifices to the Norse gods and goddesses. In some religions, being a priest or priestess is by human election or human choice. In Judaism the priesthood is inherited in familial lines. In a theocracy, a society is governed by its priesthood; the word "priest", is derived from Greek via Latin presbyter, the term for "elder" elders of Jewish or Christian communities in late antiquity.
The Latin presbyter represents Greek πρεσβύτερος presbúteros, the regular Latin word for "priest" being sacerdos, corresponding to ἱερεύς hiereús. It is possible that the Latin word was loaned into Old English, only from Old English reached other Germanic languages via the Anglo-Saxon mission to the continent, giving Old Icelandic prestr, Old Swedish präster, Old High German priast. Old High German has the disyllabic priester, priestar derived from Latin independently via Old French presbtre. Αn alternative theory makes priest cognate with Old High German priast, from Vulgar Latin *prevost "one put over others", from Latin praepositus "person placed in charge". That English should have only the single term priest to translate presbyter and sacerdos came to be seen as a problem in English Bible translations; the presbyter is the minister who both presides and instructs a Christian congregation, while the sacerdos, offerer of sacrifices, or in a Christian context the eucharist, performs "mediatorial offices between God and man".
The feminine English noun, was coined in the 17th century, to refer to female priests of the pre-Christian religions of classical antiquity. In the 20th century, the word was used in controversies surrounding the women ordained in the Anglican communion, who are referred to as "priests", irrespective of gender, the term priestess is considered archaic in Christianity. In historical polytheism, a priest administers the sacrifice to a deity in elaborate ritual. In the Ancient Near East, the priesthood acted on behalf of the deities in managing their property. Priestesses in antiquity performed sacred prostitution, in Ancient Greece, some priestesses such as Pythia, priestess at Delphi, acted as oracles. Sumerian en were top-ranking priestesses who were distinguished with special ceremonial attire and held equal status to high priests, they owned property, transacted business, initiated the hieros gamos with priests and kings. Enheduanna was the first known holder of the title en. Nadītu served as priestesses in the temples of Inanna in the city of Uruk.
They were recruited from the highest families in the land and were supposed to remain childless, own
Campos dos Goytacazes
Campos dos Goytacazes is a municipality located in the northern area of Rio de Janeiro State, with a population of 503,424 inhabitants. Campos dos Goytacazes has an area of 4,032 km², which makes it the largest municipality in the state by area, its elevation is 14 m, its name comes from the geographical characteristic of the region flat with fields and from the Goytacazes Indians, which inhabited the region. Campos, as the city is known, is a macro region of the Northern Fluminense, is a micro region of Campos dos Goytacazes; the city has a tropical climate. The municipality contains part of the 21,444 hectares Desengano State Park, created in 1970; the city's distance to Rio de Janeiro city, the capital of the state, is 286 kilometres. BR-101 is the access highway of the city of Campos. Regular air services are operated from its airport Bartolomeu Lysandro, it is the easternmost municipality in Rio de Janeiro. Colonization of the area started in the 16th century, the village of São Salvador de Campos de Goytacazes was founded on May 29, 1677.
On March 28, 1835 the village was promoted to city status. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Campos was the see of Bishop Antônio de Castro Mayer, nicknamed "The Lion of Campos", one of the bishops who opposed the Vatican II reforms and who teamed with Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre of Dakar to consecrate four independent bishops in Écône, Switzerland, in 1988. Nowadays there are in Campos two Roman Catholic jurisdictions: a Diocese, whose Bishop is Monsignor Roberto Gomes Guimarães and the Personal Apostolic Administration of Saint John Mary Vianney, whose Apostolic Administrator is Monsignor Fernando Areas Rifan. City's economy is based on oil extraction; the GDP for the city was R$58,011,293,000.. The per capita income for the city was R$122,693. Portuguese language is the official national language, thus the primary language taught in schools, but English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense; the city in the 1950s was the second largest of the state of Rio de Janeiro.
The reasons behind these reductions are the "crash" that the economy of the town, based on oil, suffered in 1954, something similar that happened in Detroit with the auto industries. According to the 2010 census, whites represent 70.4% of population, brown or mulatos 20% and black of African 7.1%. Other races represent 3.5% of the population. There are at least four football clubs in the city, namely Americano, Campos and Rio Branco; the derby between Americano and Goytacaz is known as Goyta-cano. Campos Prefecture Official Website Bishop Antônio de Castro Mayer
Society of Saint Pius X
The Society of Saint Pius X known as the SSPX, the FSSPX or Lefebvrians, is an international priestly fraternity founded in 1970 by Marcel Lefebvre, the French archbishop of the titular see of Synnada in Phrygia. The Society is known for rejecting many of the ecclesiastical reforms both influenced or institutionalized by the Second Vatican Council, maintaining the Tridentine Mass among its followers; the present superior general of the Society is Father Davide Pagliarani, succeeding Bishop Bernard Fellay. Tensions between the society and the Holy See reached their height in 1988, when Archbishop Lefebvre consecrated four bishops without the Apostolic Mandate and against a personal warning by Pope John Paul II, known as the Écône consecrations, resulting in Rome issuing a declaration of excommunication against the bishops who consecrated or were consecrated. Though the priestly fraternity denied that the bishops incurred any penalty, claiming canon law in their defense, the declared excommunication of the surviving bishops was at their request removed in January 2009 with a hope expressed that all members of the society would return to full communion.
In recent years, the Society has seen a growing recognition of its sacramental and pastoral activities by the Holy See. The Holy See extended, on 20 November 2016, permanent canonical recognition to confessions heard by Society priests and on 4 April 2017 allowed local ordinaries to grant delegation to priests of the Society for witnessing marriages; the significance of these recognitions is that, unique among the sacraments of the Catholic Church, both confession and marriage require canonical jurisdiction for their validity. In addition, the Vatican named Bishop Fellay judge in a canonical trial against one of the Society's priests. Like the Traditionalist Catholicism in general, the SSPX was born out of opposition to changes in the Catholic Church that followed the Second Vatican Council; the founder and central figure of the society was the French Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, who had served the Catholic Church as Apostolic Delegate for French-speaking Africa, Archbishop of Dakar, Superior General of the Congregation of the Holy Spirit, a missionary order of priests.
In May 1970, shortly after his retirement as Superior General of the Congregation of the Holy Spirit, Lefebvre was approached by eleven members of the Pontifical French Seminary in Rome, criticized for their adherence to the traditional doctrines of the Catholic Church. They sought Lefebvre's advice on a conservative seminary, he directed them in Switzerland. In late 1970, at age 65, urged by the abbot of Hauterive Abbey and the Dominican theologian Father Marie-Dominique Philippe to teach the seminarians Lefebvre, feeling too old to undertake such a large project, told them he would visit François Charrière, Bishop of Lausanne and Fribourg, with a request to set up a religious society, he told them, if he said to go through with it, he would see in it a sign of divine providence. Charrière granted Lefebvre's request and, with a document predated by six days to 1 November 1970, he established the Society of St. Pius X as a pia unio on a provisional basis for six years. Pia unio status was the first stage through which a Catholic organisation passed prior to gaining official recognition as a religious institute or society of apostolic life.
The Society of Saint Pius X was formally founded, adhering to all canonical norms, receiving the episcopal blessing and encouragement of the local ordinary. Some Swiss laymen offered the International Seminary of Saint Pius X at Écône to the newly-formed group, in 1971 the first 24 candidates entered, followed by a further 32 in October 1972. After a suitable period of experience and consultation with the Holy See, a bishop would raise a pia unio to official status at diocesan level. Lefebvre attempted to bypass this stage, contacted three different Vatican departments in order to secure early recognition for his society, he succeeded in obtaining a letter of encouragement from Cardinal John Wright, prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy, but there was no approval from the Vatican congregation responsible for raising an association to the level desired by Lefebvre. Cardinal Wright's letter, dated 18 February 1971, said with regard to the field of competence of Cardinal Wright's own Congregation, that the association "will be able to contribute much to accomplishing the plan drawn up by this Congregation for worldwide sharing of clergy".
Cardinal Wright was still recommending prospective seminarians to apply to Écône as late as 1973. The establishment of the SSPX was unwelcome to a number of churchmen, most notably to the French bishops, whose theological outlook was quite different from that of Lefebvre and who had important connections with the Vatican Cardinal Secretary of State, Jean-Marie Villot. Much of the tension between Lefebvre and his critics must be seen in the context of long-term theological and political divisions between opposing elements of French society. According to Michael Davies, a defender of Lefebvre, at the meeting of the French episcopal conference at Lourdes in 1972, the seminary at Écône acquired the nickname "le séminaire sauvage" – the "wildcat seminary", by November 1974 the French epis
Fernando Arêas Rifan
Fernando Arêas Rifan is a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church from Campos, Brazil. He is the Apostolic Administrator of the Personal Apostolic Administration of Saint John Mary Vianney, called the Priestly Union of Saint Jean-Marie Vianney. Fernando Arêas Rifan was born in São Fidélis in the diocese of Campos and was ordained as a priest of that diocese on 8 December 1974, he joined the Priestly Union of Saint Jean-Marie Vianney, founded by Bishop Antônio de Castro Mayer, Bishop of Campos from 3 January 1949 until his retirement on 29 August 1981, who had refused to accept in his diocese the revision of the liturgy of the Roman Rite by Pope Paul VI. On 30 June 1988, Rifan acted as assistant presbyter at the Ecône Consecrations by Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre and Bishop Castro Mayer. On Bishop Castro Mayer's death on 25 April 1991, the Priestly Union known as the Sacerdotal Society of St. John Marie Vianney, chose as its leader Licínio Rangel, given episcopal consecration by three of the four bishops of the associated Society of St. Pius X.
As a result of contacts initiated by Darío Castrillón Hoyos, Cardinal President of the Ecclesia Dei Commission in 2000, the members of the priestly union formally requested on 15 August 2001 reconciliation with the Holy See, as a result of which the Personal Apostolic Administration of Saint John Mary Vianney was established with effect from 18 January 2002, with Bishop Rangel as Apostolic Administrator. For health reasons, Bishop Rangel asked Pope John Paul II for an auxiliary bishop, but the Pope recommended a coadjutor bishop; the Pope had promised to ensure episcopal succession for the Apostolic Administration, a coadjutor would have automatic right of succession. Accordingly, whom Bishop Rangel had chosen as his vicar general, was appointed Titular Bishop of Cedamusa and Coadjutor to the Apostolic Administrator on 28 June 2002, his episcopal ordination was held on 18 August 2002, with Cardinal Castrillón as principal consecrator, assisted by Bishop Rangel and Archbishop Alano Maria Pena of Niterói.
On Bishop Rangel's death on 16 December 2002, Bishop Rifan thus became head of the Apostolic Administration. In his first pastoral letter to the clergy, religious and other faithful of the Apostolic Administration, Bishop Rifan stressed the importance of the papal mandate or canonical mission given to him, quoting the Council of Trent's anathema against any who would say that one who lacks it is a lawful preacher of the word of God and minister of the sacraments, he warned those to whom he addressed his pastoral letter against two errors. One is attacks against the traditional Faith, he saw as a defence against that the traditional Latin liturgy and liturgical discipline that the Apostolic Administration keeps. The other error is attacks against the unity of governance of the Church. Members of the Apostolic Administration must be on their guard against this too, he said since their rightful efforts to preserve the Catholic faith had some unfortunate effects, in particular the onset of "a certain schismatic spirit that showed itself in a general taste for systematic criticism of Church authorities, a spirit of resistance, disrespect, backbiting, independence from the Church's Hierarchy and Magisterium, contentment with the abnormality of the situation, uncharitableness, a feeling of owning the whole of truth, a sectarian attitude that made us out to be the only good people... with the underlying notion that'the gates of Hell' had prevailed against the Church – something that, through the infallible help of our Saviour, is impossible."
In another pastoral letter, written on the occasion of the election of Pope Benedict XVI as Pope, Bishop Rifan declared pertinent to the present moment the words of Pope Pius XII in his encyclical Mystici Corporis, 41: "They, walk in the path of dangerous error who believe that they can accept Christ as the Head of the Church, while not adhering loyally to His Vicar on earth. They have taken away the visible head, broken the visible bonds of unity and left the Mystical Body of the Redeemer so obscured and so maimed, that those who are seeking the haven of eternal salvation can neither see it nor find it." He has stated that a "situation of separation of traditional Catholics from the hierarchy, provoked by the crises in the Church, besides being abnormal, must be temporary and momentary. In a May 2003 interview with La Nef, Bishop Rifan spoke of the Apostolic Administration's relations with the Society of St Pius X as follows: We have tried to be as friendly as possible with the SSPX and its superiors, but after we had informed them that we had serious reasons for continuing our contacts with Rome, which they did not intend to keep up, they began to criticize us attempting to dishonour us by putting in doubt our intentions and trying to create divisions among our faithful.
After our recognition by the Holy See, the SSPX leadership removed our name from the lists of traditional Masses and began to foster Masses in the areas where we celebrate. Does that mean that the traditional Mass is good only when it is cut off from the Hierarchy? But thank God our faithful distinguish between love for the traditional Mass from the evil attitude that makes the traditional Mass a banner to wave against the Hierarchy; the Society of St Pius X and other traditionalist groups have reproached Bishop Rifa