American College of Sports Medicine
The American College of Sports Medicine, headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, is a large sports medicine and exercise science membership organization. Founded in 1954, ACSM promotes and integrates scientific research and practical applications of sports medicine and exercise science to maintain and enhance physical performance, fitness and quality of life. Members of the ACSM work in a wide range of medical specialties, allied health professions, scientific disciplines, are committed to the diagnosis and prevention of sports-related injuries and the advancement of the science of exercise. International and Regional chapter members hail from more than 80 countries around the world. ACSM offers certifications and continuing education for fitness professionals as well as clinicians, has a reputation of being the "gold standard" in the health and fitness industry. Signature initiatives include: Exercise is Medicine, ACSM American Fitness Index, Every Body Walk!, National Youth Sports Health & Safety Institute, Professionals Against Doping in Sports, ActivEarth, Childhood Obesity Awareness Month.
The current ACSM elected offices are held by: President: Kathryn H. Schmitz, PhD. MPH, FACSM, Penn State College of Medicine President-elect: William Kraus, M. D. FACSM, Duke University School of Medicine Immediate Past President: Walter R. Thompson, Ph. D. FACSM, Georgia State University Second Past President: Elizabeth Joy, M. D. MPH, FACSM, Intermountain Healthcare The founding meeting of the "Federation of Sports Medicine" took place in New York City at the Hotel Statler on April 22, 1954, as part of the afternoon program of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation; the following year, the American College of Sports Medicine was incorporated, 11 individuals were designated as founders. This group was composed of seven men and one woman with careers in physical education, three physicians; the physical educators were Clifford Brownell, Ph. D. Ernst Jok, M. D. Peter Karpovich, M. D. Leonard Larson, Ph. D. Grover Mueller, M. S. Neils Neilson, Ph. D, Josephine Rathbone, Ph. D. and Arthur Steinhaus, Ph.
D. Although they had training in physical education or were employed in departments of physical education, Larson and Steinhaus were involved in research dealing with the physiology of exercise; the physicians were Louis Bishop, M. D. Albert Hyman, M. D. and Joseph Wolffe, M. D. All three were practicing cardiologists; the ACSM national headquarters moved to Indianapolis in 1984, joining organizations such as the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Federation of State High School Associations, national sport-specific governing bodies. ACSM members represent more than 70 disciplines in exercise science. ACSM membership is offered in six categories: Clinicians Academicians Scientists Health & Fitness Professionals Students International ACSM has 12 regional chapters throughout the United States that ensure easy access to regional educational meetings. Alaska ACSM Regional Chapter Central States ACSM Regional Chapter Greater New York ACSM Regional Chapter Mid-Atlantic ACSM Regional Chapter Midwest ACSM Regional Chapter New England ACSM Regional Chapter Northland ACSM Regional Chapter Northwest ACSM Regional Chapter Rocky Mountain ACSM Regional Chapter Southeast ACSM Regional Chapter Southwest ACSM Regional Chapter Texas ACSM Regional Chapter The American College of Sports Medicine has a publishing program made up of books and journals dating back to 1975.
The four journals, several books and various multimedia resources serve ACSM's diverse audiences. ACSM's four leading scholarly journals provide access to cutting-edge research, relevant clinical reports and recent health-and-fitness information. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews Current Sports Medicine Reports ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal ACSM publishes several books and multimedia resources to serve a variety of readers across the spectrum of students and teachers, researchers, M. D. clinicians, public health professionals and those in the health and fitness industry. ACSM is best known for ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, first published in 1975; some of ACSM's most popular titles include: ACSM's Behavioral Aspects of Physical Activity and Exercise ACSM's Exercise Management for Persons with Chronic Diseases and Disabilities ACSM's Health/Fitness Facility Standards and Guidelines ACSM's Introduction to Exercise Science ACSM's Resources for the Health/Fitness Specialist ACSM's Resources for the Personal Trainer ACSM offers eight different certifications for fitness and clinical exercise professionals.
ACSM Certified Personal Trainer ACSM Certified Group Exercise Instructor ACSM Certified Exercise Physiologist ACSM Certified Clinical Exercise Physiologist ACSM Registered Clinical Exercise Physiologist Exercise is Medicine Credential ARP/ACSM Certified Ringside Physician ACSM/NCHPAD Certified Inclusive Fitness Trainer ACSM/ACS Certified Cancer Exercise Trainer Physical Activity in Public Health Specialist The American College of Sports Medicine Foundation is a 501 nonprofit organization affiliated with and developed to support the American College of Sports Medicine, Inc. Each year the ACSM Foundation awards $100,000 in research awards and scholarships. To sustain and build these funds, the Foundation conducts ongoing fundraising efforts. Board of Certification, Inc. Personal Trainer Sports Medicine Exercise is Medicine ACSM American Fitness Index The American College of Sports Medicine ACSM Profile - IDEAfit.com
NSF International is an American product testing and certification organization based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. NSF International was founded in 1944 from the University of Michigan's School of Public Health as the National Sanitation Foundation to standardize sanitation and food safety requirements; the process established to develop NSF International's first standards regarding the sanitation of soda fountain and luncheonette equipment, became the process by which NSF International developed other public health and safety standards. To date, NSF has developed safety American National Standards; as NSF expanded services beyond sanitation and into new international markets, the name was changed to NSF International in 1990. NSF International is an accredited, independent third-party certification body that tests and certifies products to verify they meet these public health and safety standards. Products that meet these standards bear the NSF mark. NSF operates more than 165,000 square feet of laboratory space and serves companies in more than 150 countries worldwide.
Its 1,200-plus staff includes microbiologists, chemists, food safety specialists and public health professionals. The NSF Food Safety Division provides accredited services across all supply chain sectors, from agriculture, processing and dairy, to seafood and restaurants. Services include Global Food Safety Initiative certification. NSF Food Safety certifies foodservice equipment, nonfood compounds and bottled water/beverages; the NSF Water Division certifies products that come into contact with drinking water, such as plumbing components, water treatment chemicals and drinking water filters, as well as pool and spa equipment. The NSF Health Sciences Division offers training and education, auditing, good manufacturing practice and good laboratory practice testing, certification, R&D and regulatory guidance for the pharmaceutical, medical device and dietary supplement industries throughout the product lifecycle, it supplies pharmaceutical secondary reference standards, traceable to United States Pharmacopeia and European Pharmacopoeia standards.
The NSF Consumer Products Division tests and certifies consumer products and appliances used in and around the home including home appliances, bakeware, small kitchen electronics, bottled water and beverages and dietary supplements, private label goods and personal care products. NSF Sustainability provides standards development and claims validation for sustainably produced commercial and consumer products such as personal care products, flooring and other building materials. NSF International Strategic Registrations provides management systems certifications to internationally accepted standards for quality assurance and environmental protection for the automotive, aerospace and manufacturing industries. NSF Education and Training provides training and education for professionals in the food safety, health sciences, consumer product and management systems certification industries. NSF maintains laboratories in North America, South America and China. NSF's laboratories are accredited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Standards Council of Canada.
NSF laboratories are ISO 17025 certified, provide a wide range of testing and technical services for the home appliances and consumer product industries. NSF is accredited by the American National Standards Institute to develop American National Standards. NSF standards are developed and revised by the committee ballot system, similar to that used by American National Standards Institute and ASTM; the committees consist of representatives of groups affected by the scope of the standard such as industry representatives, public health/regulatory officials, users/consumer representatives and other relevant interest groups. For instance, for Standard 61, Drinking Water Systems Components - Health Effects, the committee consists of manufacturers of plumbing parts, material manufacturers, state regulatory officials, etc. Any updates to standards related to testing requirements are vetted through lab testing, balloting ensures majority rule. NSF International
United States Department of Education
The United States Department of Education referred to as the ED for Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. It began operating on May 4, 1980, having been created after the Department of Health and Welfare was split into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services by the Department of Education Organization Act, which President Jimmy Carter signed into law on October 17, 1979; the Department of Education is administered by the United States Secretary of Education. It has an annual budget of $68 billion; the 2019 Budget supports $129.8 billion in new postsecondary grants and work-study assistance to help an estimated 11.5 million students and their families pay for college. Its official abbreviation is "ED" and is often abbreviated informally as "DoEd"; the primary functions of the Department of Education are to "establish policy for and coordinate most federal assistance to education, collect data on US schools, to enforce federal educational laws regarding privacy and civil rights."
The Department of Education does not establish colleges. Unlike the systems of most other countries, education in the United States is decentralized, the federal government and Department of Education are not involved in determining curricula or educational standards; this has been left to state and local school districts. The quality of educational institutions and their degrees is maintained through an informal private process known as accreditation, over which the Department of Education has no direct public jurisdictional control; the Department of Education is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, works with federal partners to ensure proper education for homeless and runaway youth in the United States. Opposition to the Department of Education stems from conservatives, who see the department as an undermining of states rights, libertarians who believe it results in a state-imposed leveling towards the bottom and low value for taxpayers' money; the U. S. Department of Education oversees the nation's education system.
The Department sets uniform standards which are applied nationwide. “Since the Department of Education began operations in fiscal year 1980, its mission has included promoting student achievement and ensuring equal access to educational opportunity. To do so, Education partners with state and local governments, which provide most of the resources to school districts for K-12 programs". Civil Rights and Equal Opportunity is one of the most forefront issues, discussed about within the U. S. Department of Education’s four walls; the goal of this agency is to make sure that every student in primary and secondary education has the tools that they need to succeed. Not all of their ideas always work out in the best favor of the students. Throughout recent history, the educational system has not always been focused on furthering the development of all students. However, coming out of the 20th century this ideal has been turned around and many new legislations have been put in place to break down these invisible walls that were surrounding the people who were affected by this hindrance.
“The U. S. like other countries in the 21st century, is operating in an interconnected world. New structures require that teachers and our next generations of students prepare and expand ideas about their responsibilities as citizens". For 2006, the ED discretionary budget was $56 billion and the mandatory budget contained $23 billion. In 2009 it received additional ARRA funding of $102 billion; as of 2011, the discretionary budget is $70 billion. A previous Department of Education was created in 1867 but was soon demoted to an Office in 1868; as an agency not represented in the president's cabinet, it became a minor bureau in the Department of the Interior. In 1939, the bureau was transferred to the Federal Security Agency, where it was renamed the Office of Education. In 1953, the Federal Security Agency was upgraded to cabinet-level status as the Department of Health and Welfare. In 1979, President Carter advocated for creating a cabinet-level Department of Education. Carter's plan was to transfer most of the Department of Health and Welfare's education-related functions to the Department of Education.
Carter planned to transfer the education-related functions of the departments of Defense, Justice and Urban Development, Agriculture, as well as a few other federal entities. Among the federal education-related programs that were not proposed to be transferred were Headstart, the Department of Agriculture's school lunch and nutrition programs, the Department of the Interior's Native Americans' education programs, the Department of Labor's education and training programs. Upgrading Education to cabinet level status in 1979 was opposed by many in the Republican Party, who saw the department as unconstitutional, arguing that the Constitution doesn't mention education, deemed it an unnecessary and illegal federal bureaucratic intrusion into local affairs. However, many see the department as constitutional under the Commerce Clause, that the funding role of the Department is constitutional under the Taxing and Spending Clause; the National Education Association supported the bill, while the American Federation of Teachers opposed it.
As of 1979, the Office of Education had an annual budget of $12 billion. Congress appropriated to the Department of Education an annual budget of $14 billion and 17,000
An athletic trainer is a certified and licensed health care professional who practices in the field of sports medicine. Athletic training has been recognized by the American Medical Association as an allied health care profession since 1990; as defined by the Strategic Implementation Team of the National Athletic Trainers' Association in August 2007: "Athletic training is practiced by athletic trainers, health care professionals who collaborate with physicians to optimize activity and quality of life for patients both of the physically active and sedentary population. Athletic training encompasses the prevention and intervention of emergency and chronic medical conditions involving impairment, functional limitations and disabilities.""Athletic training encompasses the prevention, diagnosis and rehabilitation of emergent, acute or chronic injuries and medical conditions. Athletic training is recognized by the American Medical Association, Health Resources Services Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services as an allied health care profession."
To become an athletic trainer one must have a master's degree from an accredited professional level education program and sit for and pass the Board of Certification examination. Each state has their own regulatory agencies that control the practice of athletic training in their state. Most states require an athletic trainer to obtain a license in order to practice in that state, 5 states require registration, 2 states require certification, while California has no state regulations on the practice of athletic training. Areas of expertise of certified athletic trainers include: Apply protective or injury-preventive devices such as tape and braces Recognize and evaluate injuries Provide first aid or emergency care Develop and carry out rehabilitation programs for injured athletes Plan and implement comprehensive programs to prevent injury and illness among athletes Perform administrative tasks such as keeping records and writing reports on injuries and treatment programsServices rendered by the athletic trainer take place in a wide variety of settings and venues, including actual athletic training facilities, primary schools, universities and outpatient physical rehabilitation clinics, physician offices, community centers and the military.
Emerging settings for athletic training include surgical fellowship opportunities. The Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education oversees the curriculum standards of all accredited Professional and all of the institutions; the standards dictate the content of both didactic and clinical practice portions of the educational program. Content areas include: Risk Management and Injury Prevention Pathology of Injuries and Illnesses Orthopedic Clinical Examination and Assessment Medical Conditions and Disabilities Acute Care of Injuries and Illnesses Therapeutic Modalities Conditioning and Rehabilitative Exercises Psychosocial Intervention and Referral Nutritional Aspects of Injuries and Illnesses Healthcare Administration Professional Development and Responsibility Healthcare Professional Development and Responsibility There are several post-professional master's-level athletic training programs; these programs are for credentialed athletic trainers who desire to become scholars and advanced practice professionals.
Schools with post-professional athletic training masters programs include: A. T. Still University, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Illinois State University, Indiana State University, Indiana University, University of Kentucky, Michigan State University, Western Michigan University, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Ohio University, University of Oregon, California University of Pennsylvania, Temple University, Old Dominion University, University of Toledo, University of Virginia, University of Missouri, Weber State University, University of Michigan, Winona State University. There are doctoral programs in athletic training, each with different curricular emphasis. Athletic training program in doctoral education is offered by the University of Idaho, A. T. Still University, Indiana State University. Athletic trainers treat a broad population, from the amateur and professional athlete to the typical patient in need of orthopaedic rehabilitative care; the NATA describes typical clients groups as, Recreational and professional athletes Individuals who have suffered musculoskeletal injuries Those seeking strength, conditioning and performance enhancement Others designated by the physician.
Services rendered by the athletic trainer take place in a wide variety of venues. These may include: Athletic training clinics Schools Outpatient Rehabilitation Clinics Hospitals Physician offices Community facilities Workplaces Military installations and veteran medical facilities Professional sport organizations Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education National Athletic Trainers' Association International Sports Sciences Association Board of Certification, Inc
Strength and conditioning coach
A strength and conditioning coach is a fitness and physical performance professional who uses exercise prescription to improve the performance of competitive athletes. This is achieved through the combination of strength training and aerobic conditioning, alongside a variety of further methods. Strength and conditioning coaches help athletes with injury prevention and proper mechanics within their sports performances. Strength and conditioning coaches may work with sports teams, as well as individuals. Strength and conditioning coaches are employed by higher education institutions and professional athletic teams. Strength and conditioning coaches have the option to specialize in a particular sports team, type of performance, training type, training philosophy, or work in the collegiate level, where they are assigned a sport; the general description and duty of a strength and conditioning coach is to develop an exercise prescription plan that modulates aerobic, and/or flexibility training to suit the metabolic and physical demands of the sport in question.
With aerobic exercise prescription and conditioning coaches determine the type and frequency of each exercise. For resistance exercise prescription, the type of exercise, total session volume, rest period and intensity are determined, they may be involved in prescription of stretching routines or other approaches. Nutrition and medical consultation are not within their scope of practice and training qualifications. In the US, The National Strength and Conditioning Association offers a Certified Strength and Conditioning Coach qualification, required for positions in the field. In addition to the C. S. C. S. Certification, it is encouraged to attain a bachelor's degree in majors that are related to exercise science due to the competitiveness of the field; the Collegiate Strength & Conditioning Coaches association offers certification exclusive to the collegiate and professional-level strength and conditioning coach. This certification is known as Strength & Conditioning Coach Certified and requires a bachelor's degree and a 640-hour internship in addition to passing the certification exam.
Strength and conditioning in the UK is overseen by the UK Strength and Conditioning Association and the Register of Exercise Professionals. Both organisations provide standards for employers and professionals. A UKSCA membership and Bachelor's degree in sport and exercise science are accepted by many professional sports clubs as prerequisites for strength and conditioning positions; as well as the UKSCA and REPS, 1st4sport Qualifications offer standardised training in accordance with other official National Governing Body qualifications. The implementation of effective strength and conditioning programmes has led to an increase in speed and strength. Research has demonstrated that not only does training improve performance but incorrect training can cause decrements to performance. Using techniques such as plyometrics in some high-power athletes and sports-specific movements in others, strength coaches may improve physical function and athletic performance. Criticism has followed the increased use of strength and conditioning coaches in a variety of sports due to the shift in importance to the size and speed of the players.
In rugby union, a game with heavy physical contact and minimal protection, players are being described as being "too big", creating collisions that are increasing the risk of short and long term injuries. Further, it has been proposed that the increased weight and speed of players and subsequent rise of collision force leads to more frequent and severe concussion injuries. However, there is as yet no research to suggest an increased use of strength and conditioning leading to an increased risk of injury
In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone and muscle in human bodies. Because muscular tissue takes up less space in the body than fat tissue, body composition, as well as weight, determines leanness. Two people of the same sex and body weight may look different because they have a different body composition; the most accurate estimation of body composition is derived from body density by means of the equation of fractional densities which states that the overall density of a mixture containing more than one substance can be calculated if the proportion and density of each component substance is known. For determination of body composition the body is assumed to be composed of four basic substances with the general form of the equation as follows: 1 / D b = w / D w + f / D f + p / D p + m / D m Where: D b = overall body density, w = proportion of water, f = proportion of fat, p = proportion of protein, m = proportion of mineral, D w = density of water, D f = density of fat, D p = density of protein, D m = density of mineral In a research laboratory setting, the overall density of the body is calculated from its mass and volume.
The mass of the body is found by weighing a person on a scale. The volume of the body is most and determined by immersing a person in water and calculating the volume of water from the weight of water, displaced; the proportions of water and mineral in the body are found by various chemical and radiometric tests. The densities of water, fat and mineral are either measured or estimated; the equation is rearranged to solve for the proportion of fat from the other quantities. A reasonably accurate estimation of body fat can be obtained by means of a "two compartment model" of the human body, based upon two simplifying assumptions: 1. Human fat has a density of 0.9 grams/ml, 2. The lean components of the human body have an overall density of 1.1 grams/ml. The two compartment model allows for an estimation of the proportions of fat and lean components of the body to be made from the overall body density. And, as explained above, the overall body density is calculated from body mass and body volume. Rearranging the equation of fractional densities to solve for the proportion of fat will yield the following equation: f = 495 / D b − 450 The density of human fat is remarkably constant across all sub-groups studied but variations have been reported in the density of the fat free mass.
To address these differences, unique equations for the two compartment model have been proposed for specific populations. Body composition measurement with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is used for a variety of clinical and research applications. A DEXA scan requires medical supervision by a radiologist and some consider it to be the new "Gold Standard" in body composition testing. Total body scans using DEXA give accurate and precise measurements of body composition, including bone mineral content, bone mineral density, lean tissue mass, fat tissue mass, fractional contribution of fat; the estimation of body fatness from body density was accepted as the "gold standard" for many decades. Some researchers now claim that whole body scanning techniques are the new "gold standard", but these claims are somewhat dubious since the scanning algorithms are validated against body composition assessments based on fractional density from underwater weighing. DEXA measurements are reproducible if the same type of machine is used, making them excellent for monitoring pharmaceutical therapy, nutritional or exercise intervention, sports training and or other body composition altering programs.
They are fast, non-invasive, expose the subject to a level of x-rays less than that of a cross-country flight. DEXA exams provide up to 14 regional results. However, the role of DEXA in clinical evaluations and research studies has been questioned by Wang et al. who stated that "the errors of the DXA method are still of concern if it were to be used as the criterion." Another technique for measuring body composition has been developed for measuring body volume using a different method than underwater weighing. The technique is known as air displacement plethysmography. Subjects enter a sealed chamber that measures their body volume through the displacement of air in the chamber. Body volume is combined with body weight; the technique estimates the percentage of body fat and lean body mass through empirically derived equations similar to those used with underwater weighing. Another method is bioelectrical impedance analysis, which uses the resistance of e