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Perth, Scotland

Perth is a city in central Scotland, on the banks of the River Tay. It is the administrative centre of Perth and Kinross council area and the historic county town of Perthshire, it had a population of about 47,180 in 2012. Perth has been known as The Fair City since the publication of the story Fair Maid of Perth by Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott in 1828. During the medieval period the city was called St John's Toun or Saint Johnstoun by its inhabitants in reference to the main church dedicated to St John the Baptist; this name is preserved by the city's football club, St Johnstone F. C. There has been a settlement at Perth since prehistoric times, on a natural mound raised above the flood plain of the Tay, where the river could be crossed at low tide; the area surrounding the modern city is known to have been occupied since Mesolithic hunter-gatherers arrived more than 8,000 years ago. Nearby Neolithic standing stones and circles exist, dating from about 4000 BC, following the introduction of farming in the area.

The presence of Scone Abbey, home of the Stone of Scone where the King of Scots was crowned, enhanced the early importance of the city. Perth became known as a ` capital' of Scotland. Royal Burgh status was soon given to the city by King William the Lion in the early 12th century; the city became one of the richest burghs in the country, doing trade with France, the Low Countries and Baltic Countries for goods such as Spanish silk and French wine. The Scottish Reformation played a big role in the city with the sacking of the Houses of the Greyfriars and Blackfriars, after a sermon given by John Knox in St John's Kirk in 1559; the Act of Settlement brought about Jacobite uprisings. The city was occupied by Jacobite supporters on three occasions; the founding of Perth Academy in 1760 helped to bring major industries, such as linen, leather and whisky, to the city. Given its location, Perth was placed to become a key transport centre with the coming of the railways, its first station was built in 1848.

Today, Perth serves as a retail centre for the surrounding area. The city has a thriving culinary scene and is known for its great selection of restaurants and eateries, having been awarded the title of'Scotland's Food Town of 2018' by the Scottish Food Awards. Following the decline of the whisky industry locally and building upon its long established presence in the insurance sector, the city's economy has now diversified to include banking. Due to its location, the city is referred to as the "Gateway to the Highlands". Perth in Australia and Perth in Canada are both named after Perth in Scotland. Perth is twinned with Aschaffenburg in the German state of Bavaria; the name Perth derives from a Pictish word for copse. During much of the medieval period it was known colloquially by its Scots-speaking inhabitants as "St John's Toun" or "Saint Johnstoun" because the church at the centre of the parish was dedicated to St John the Baptist. Perth was referred to as "St Johns ton" up until the mid-1600s with the name "Perthia" being reserved for the wider area.

At this time, "Perthia" became. Perth's Pictish name, some archaeological evidence, indicate that there must have been a settlement here from earlier times at a point where a river crossing or crossings coincided with a raised natural mound on the west bank of the Tay, thus giving some protection for settlement from the frequent flooding. Finds in and around Perth show that it was occupied by the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who arrived in the area more than 8,000 years ago. Nearby Neolithic standing stones and circles followed the introduction of farming from about 4000 BC, a remarkably well preserved Bronze age log boat dated to around 1000 BC was found in the mudflats of the River Tay at Carpow to the east of Perth; the presence of Scone two miles northeast, the main royal centre of the Kingdom of Alba from at least the reign of Kenneth I mac Ailpín the site of the major Augustinian abbey of the same name founded by Alexander I, enhanced Perth's early importance. Perth was considered the effective'capital' of Scotland, due to the frequent residence of the royal court.

Royal Burgh status was soon awarded to the city from King William the Lion in the early 12th century. During the 12th and 13th centuries, Perth was one of the richest trading burghs in the kingdom, residence of numerous craftsmen, organised into guilds. Perth carried out an extensive trade with France, The Low Countries and the Baltic Countries with luxury goods being brought back in return, such as Spanish silk and French pottery and wine; the royal castle, was destroyed by a flood of the Tay in 1209, one of many that have afflicted Perth over the centuries. It was never rebuilt and Perth was protected at this time only by partial walls and an inventive water system consisting of a Mill lade from the River Almond which divided and flowed to the North on one side and the West and South on the other joining the Tay. King Edward I brought his armies to Perth in 1296 and with only a ditch for defence and little fortification, the city fell quickly. Stronger fortifications were implemented by the English, plans to wall the city took shape in 1304.

They remained standing until Robert the Bruce's recapture of Perth in 1312. As part of a plan to make Perth a

Robin Kenyatta

Robin Kenyatta was an American jazz alto saxophonist. Born Robert Prince Haynes, Kenyatta was born in Moncks Corner, South Carolina and grew up in New York City. In the 1960s, he played with his group, The October Revolution in Jazz; that decade he played with Jazz Composer's Orchestra, Roswell Rudd, Sonny Stitt, Archie Shepp, Buddy Miles. In the 1970s he played with Andrew Hill. For a brief time, he experimented with instrumental pop music, he moved to Europe. He played with Dizzy Gillespie, B. B. King, Dr. John, George Benson, played the Montreux Jazz Festival, went with his own groups on a European tour, he led a jazz school in Lausanne, Switzerland. In 2002, Kenyatta was back in the United States as a music director in Boston, he died in Lausanne in 2004. 1967: Until 1969: Beggars & Stealers with Larry Willis, Walter Booker, Alphonse Mouzon 1970: Girl from Martinique with Wolfgang Dauner, Arild Andersen, Fred Braceful 1972: Free State Band with Aldo Romano, Kent Carter 1972: Gypsy Man with Billy Cobham, Rick Marotta, Stanley Clarke, Larry Willis, David Spinozza 1973: Terra Nova with Pat Rebillot, Sonny Burke, Ron Carter, Gladstone Anderson, Winston Grennan, Enrico Rava 1974: Stompin' at the Savoy with Dr. John, Ron Carter, Lew Soloff, Bernard Purdie, Chuck Rainey 1975: Nomusa with Stafford James, Joe Chambers, Dom Salvador 1976: Encourage the People with Arthur Jenkins, Richard Tee, Ralph MacDonald, Hugh McCracken 1979: Take the Heat off Me with Lew Soloff, Dom Salvador, Peter Solomon, David Eubanks, Sal Cuevas, Cornell Dupree 1987: Live at Cully: Blues for Mama Doll 1991: Ghost Stories featuring Ronnie Burrage 2003: Cool Blue With Ted Curson Quicksand With Bill Dixon Intents and Purposes With Andrew Hill Spiral With Jazz Composer's Orchestra Communication With Sam Rivers Crystals With Roswell Rudd Everywhere released as part of Mixed in 1998With Archie Shepp For Losers Kwanza With Sonny Stitt Deuces Wild Robin Kenyatta at Find a Grave

Summit Lake Township, Nobles County, Minnesota

Summit Lake Township is a township in Nobles County, United States. The population was 368 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 36.2 square miles, all of it land. The main geographic feature of Summit Lake Township is the Buffalo Ridge, a drainage divide between the Mississippi River and Missouri River systems. Other geographic features include the Kanaranzi Creek which flows westward to the Missouri River via the Big Sioux River, the Jack Creek which flows eastward to the Mississippi River via the Des Moines River. Summit Lake once was drained in subsequent years. If the lake existed today, it would be the highest elevation body of water within the state of Minnesota. Main highways include: Minnesota State Highway 264 Nobles County Road 25 Nobles County Road 13 Nobles County Road 14 Organization of Summit Township was approved by the Nobles County Board on May 20, 1873; the first township meeting was held on June 5, 1873. The original name of the township was Wilson Township.

However, the county board was informed by the state auditor's office that another Wilson Township existed elsewhere in the state. The township was renamed Akin Township on June 15, 1874, but once again, the county was informed that another Akin Township existed within the state. On July 27, 1874, the township was given its present name of Summit Lake Township in honor of a lake in section 11 of the township. Presently, two Wilson Townships exist within Minnesota, one in Cass County and the other in Winona County. There is no Akin Township anywhere within the state. Summit Lake, the namesake of the township, no longer exists having been drained and lost in the passing years; as of the census of 2000, there were 368 people, 131 households, 104 families residing in the township. The population density was 10.2 people per square mile. There were 138 housing units at an average density of 3.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 96.20% White, 0.82% African American, 0.54% Native American, 1.36% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.90% of the population. There were 131 households out of which 39.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.5% were married couples living together, 3.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.6% were non-families. 18.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.22. In the township the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.9 males. The median income for a household in the township was $38,958, the median income for a family was $43,250. Males had a median income of $26,023 versus $19,196 for females; the per capita income for the township was $13,955. About 4.2% of families and 6.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.8% of those under age 18 and 5.3% of those age 65 or over.

Summit Lake Township is located in Minnesota's 1st congressional district, represented by Mankato educator Tim Walz, a Democrat. At the state level, Summit Lake Township is located in Senate District 22, represented by Republican Doug Magnus, in House District 22A, represented by Republican Joe Schomacker. Summit Lake Township is represented by Nobles County Commissioner Marvin Zylstra