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Perugia

Perugia is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, of the province of Perugia. The city is located about 164 kilometres north of 148 km southeast of Florence, it covers a high part of the valleys around the area. The region of Umbria is bordered by Tuscany and Marche; the history of Perugia goes back to the Etruscan period. The city is known as the universities town, with the University of Perugia founded in 1308, the University for Foreigners, some smaller colleges such as the Academy of Fine Arts "Pietro Vannucci" public athenaeum founded in 1573, the Perugia University Institute of Linguistic Mediation for translators and interpreters, the Music Conservatory of Perugia, founded in 1788, other institutes. Perugia is a well-known cultural and artistic centre of Italy; the city hosts multiple annual festivals and events, e.g. the Eurochocolate Festival, the Umbria Jazz Festival, the International Journalism Festival, is associated with multiple notable people in the arts.

The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Città della Pieve, near Perugia. He decorated the local Sala del Cambio with a beautiful series of frescoes. Perugino was the teacher of Raphael, the great Renaissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia and one fresco. Another famous painter, lived in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia; the city's symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city. Perugia was an Umbrian settlement but first appears in written history as Perusia, one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria. Fabius Pictor's account, utilized by Livy, of the expedition carried out against the Etruscan League by Fabius Maximus Rullianus in 310 or 309 BC. At that time a thirty-year indutiae was agreed upon. In 216 and 205 BC it assisted Rome in the Second Punic War but afterwards it is not mentioned until 41–40 BC, when Lucius Antonius took refuge there, was reduced by Octavian after a long siege, its senators sent to their death.

A number of lead bullets used by slingers have been found around the city. The city was burnt, we are told, with the exception of the temples of Vulcan and Juno—the massive Etruscan terrace-walls can hardly have suffered at all—and the town, with the territory for a mile round, was allowed to be occupied by whoever chose, it must have been rebuilt at once, for several bases for statues exist, inscribed Augusto sacr Perusia restituta. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus, it is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until it was the only city in Umbria to resist Totila, who captured it and laid the city waste in 547, after a long siege after the city's Byzantine garrison evacuated. Negotiations with the besieging forces fell to the city's bishop, Herculanus, as representative of the townspeople. Totila is said to have ordered the bishop to be beheaded. St. Herculanus became the city's patron saint. In the Lombard period Perugia is spoken of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia. In the 9th century, with the consent of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, it passed under the popes.

In 1186 Henry VI, rex romanorum and future emperor, granted diplomatic recognition to the consular government of the city. On various occasions the popes found asylum from the tumults of Rome within its walls, it was the meeting-place of five conclaves, including those that elected Honorius III, Clement IV, Celestine V, Clement V, but Perugia had no mind to subserve the papal interests and never accepted papal sovereignty: the city used to exercise a jurisdiction over the members of the clergy, moreover in 1282 Perugia was excommunicated due to a new military offensive against the Ghibellines regardless of a papal prohibition. On the other hand, side by side with the 13th century bronze griffin of Perugia above the door of the Palazzo dei Priori stands, as a Guelphic emblem, the lion, Perugia remained loyal for the most part to the Guelph party in the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines; however this dominant tendency was rather an Italian political strategy. The Angevin presence in Italy appeared to offer a counterpoise to papal powers: in 1319 Perugia declared the Angevin Saint Louis of Toulouse "Protector of the city's sovereignty and of the Palazzo of its Priors" and set his figure among the other patron saints above the rich doorway of the Palazzo dei Pr

Martín de Ursúa

Martín de Ursúa y Arizmendi, Count of Lizárraga and of Castillo, was a Spanish conquistador in Central America during the late colonial period of New Spain. Born in Olóriz, Navarre, he is noted for leading the 1696–97 expeditionary force which resulted in the fall of the last significant independent Maya stronghold, Nojpetén, located on an island in Lake Petén Itzá in the northern Petén Basin region of present-day Guatemala, he served as governor of the Yucatán until 1708, when he was named Governor-General of the Philippines. Around the time that he was named to that post, he was made a knight of the Order of Santiago, he died in Manila in 1715. Ursúa arrived in Mexico around 1680 and served as a lawyer in Mexico City, until 1692, he used this period to cement relationships with colonial officials in Yucatán. In 1692 he was appointed to be governor of Yucatán, with his term to begin in 1698. By 1694 he had been appointed as alcalde ordinario of Mexico City. Ursúa took office in Yucatán four years earlier than planned, becoming acting governor on 17 December 1694.

Martín de Ursúa was from a line of distinguished and successful noblemen, well connected politically and that intermarried with other influential noble families to form a kinship network, spread across Europe and the Americas: Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa History of the Philippines Spanish conquest of Guatemala Spanish conquest of Yucatán

Shafique Khan

Shafique Khan is an Indian musician who plays the sitar. He belongs to the sixth generation of musicians in the family of illustrious sitar players whose contributing in popularizing sitar down the Vindhyaas is unparalleled. From the Dharwad Gharana, his father, the late Ustad Abdul Karim Khan was a distinguished sitarist at his time. His grandfather Rahimat Khan, awarded the'Sitar Ratna' Rahimat Khan a legendary sitar artist was a disciple of Ustad bande ali khan. Shafique Khan had a fortune of long and traditional grooming from young age from his father Ustad Abdul Karim Khan, head of faculty of instrumental music in Karnatak University college of music. Shafique Khan is the younger brother of Ustad Bale Khan and Chhote Rahimat Khan and has a twin brother, Rafique Khan a known sitarist and composer, Naturally Shafique Khans's style reflects the finer aspects of sitar playing of all his mentors, his style that blend of both Gaayaki Ang and Tantakari Ang. Shafique Khan been conferred with Surmani award by Swami Haridas Sangeet Sammelan Mumbai.

Kala Vikas Parishat has honoured him by conferring Bharat Ratna Pandit Bhimsen Joshi National Award in 2016. His Musical sojourn has taken him to United States. Sitar Jugalbandi performances with his twin brother Rafique Khan have won encomium from music lovers. Shafique Khan works at All India Radio as top Grade Artist, Dharwad Karnataka Sitar Nawaz Ustad Bale Khan