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Peruvian Armed Forces

The Peruvian Armed Forces are the military services of Peru, comprising independent Army and Air Force components. Their primary mission is to safeguard the country's independence and territorial integrity against any threat; as a secondary mission they participate in economic and social development as well as in civil defense tasks. The National Police of Peru is classified as a part of the armed forces. Although in fact it has a different organisation and a wholly civil mission, its training and activities over more than two decades as an anti-terrorist force have produced markedly military characteristics, giving it the appearance of a virtual fourth military service with significant land and air capabilities and 140,000 personnel; the Peruvian armed forces report through the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police of Peru report through the Ministry of Interior. The Joint Command of the Armed Forces is tasked with the mission to "plan, prepare and conduct military operations and actions to guarantee independence and territorial integrity and support the national development of Peru".

This branch of the armed forces was developed in the 1950s following World War II, when Peru evaluated operational tactics used and adapted them to their own military. On 1 February 1957, the Joint Command was created following a commission of defense agencies studied its role, with the Joint Command depending directly on the President of Peru while being "the highest step in the planning and coordination of the operations of the Army and Aeronautics Forces". Headquartered in Lima, it has a strength of 76,228 troops divided in four military regions with headquarters in Piura, Lima and Iquitos; every military region is assigned several brigades of which there are different types, including infantry and armored. There are several groups and battalions which operate independently of the army's organization; the equipment of the Peruvian Army includes infantry weapons that include assault rifles and carbines such as the M16A2 and the M4A1 and pistols like the FN Five-seveN and Smith & Wesson M&P9.

Vehicles include several types of tanks, armoured personnel carriers, antiaircraft systems and helicopters. Peru has sought to update their collection of tanks and armored personnel carriers that have not been updated since acquiring vehicles from the Soviet Union. After an initial deal with China fell through, Peru has attempted to make a deal with General Dynamics to purchase new military vehicles; the Peruvian Navy is organized in five naval zones headquartered in Piura, Arequipa and Pucallpa. It has a strength of around 25,988 troops divided between the Pacific Operations and the Amazon Operations General Commands and the Coast Guard; the Pacific fleet flagship is the guided-missile cruiser BAP Almirante Grau, named for the 19th-century Peruvian Admiral who fought in the War of the Pacific. The fleet includes 8 Lupo class frigates, 6 PR-72P class corvettes, 3 Terrebonne Parish class landing ships, 2 Type 209/1100 and 4 Type 209/1200 class German-built diesel submarines, as well as patrol vessels and cargo ships.

The Peruvian Navy has a naval aviation force, several naval infantry battalions and special forces units. The Peruvian Marines date back to 6 November 1821, when the Peruvian Navy requested a battalion of soldiers, its first battle was an attack on the Spanish taking the city of Arica. Into the mid-20th century, the Peruvian Marines modernized their equipment and by the 1980s with the Shining Path emerging as a new threat to Peru, the Marines began to be tasked with counterterrorism operations; as part of the Peruvian Navy, the Peruvian Marines utilize the equipment and logistics of the Navy. Various Marine battalions are based in Ancón, Mollendo, Pucallpa and Tumbes; the Peruvian Marines have a Special Forces composed of the Espíritus Negros and Fuerza Delta, based on the American Delta Force and US Army Rangers. On May 20, 1929, the aviation divisions of the Peruvian army and navy were merged into the Peruvian Aviation Corps. In 1950, the corps became the Peruvian Air Force; the Peruvian Air Force is divided into six wing areas, headquartered in Piura, Lima, Arequipa and Iquitos.

With a strength of 17,969 troops, the FAP counts in its arsenal with MiG-29 and Mirage 2000. It has Su-25 close-support aircraft, Mi-25 attack helicopters, Mi-17 transport helicopters, Aermacchi MB-339, Embraer EMB-312 Tucano subsonic training aircraft, the Cessna A-37B for light attack and COIN missions. In 1995, the FAP took part in the Cenepa War against Ecuador covering operations by the army and navy. After the war, the FAP began acquiring new aircraft MiG-29 fighters and Su-25 close air support aircraft which are, along with the Mirage 2000 fighters, the main combat elements of the FAP. Peruvian Ministry of Defence Official Peruvian Army website Official Peruvian Air Force website Official Peruvian Navy website

GNR Stirling 4-2-2

The Great Northern Railway No. 1 class Stirling Single is a class of steam locomotive designed for express passenger work. Designed by Patrick Stirling, they are characterised by a single pair of large driving wheels which led to the nickname "eight-footer"; the locomotive was designed to haul up to 26 passenger carriages at an average speed of 47 miles per hour." On his arrival at GNR, Stirling set out to standardise the railway's rolling stock. He borrowed a'single-wheeler' from the Great Eastern Railway and, in 1868, designed two versions of 2-2-2 with 7 ft 1 in driving wheels; the outcome, in 1870 was a locomotive with 8 ft 1 in driving wheels, designed for high speed expresses between York and London. The norm in those days was inside cylinders. Not only were there frequent failures of the cranked axle shafts, with such large driving wheels, they would have set the boiler too high, he therefore used outside cylinders with a four-wheeled bogie for lateral stability at the front end. According to Hamilton Ellis's description entitled'Pat Stirling's masterpiece,' the design was a version of a 2-2-2 designed by Stirling for the Glasgow and South Western Railway,'considerably enlarged, provided with a leading bogie.'A total of 53 were built at Doncaster between 1870 and 1895, in three series introduced in 1870, 1884, 1894.

The GNR did not number its locomotives sequentially, instead using numbers freed up by withdrawing older locomotives. Thus the 1870 series was numbered between GNR No. 1 and 671, the 1884 series 771-8 and 1001-2, 1894 series 1003-8. These locomotives were able to haul 275-long-ton trains at an average of 50 miles per hour, with a top speed, on lighter trains, of 85 miles per hour, taking part in the 1895 Race to the North. GNR Stirling No 775 made the 82 miles from Grantham to York in 1 hour 16 minutes; this translates to an average speed of 64.7 mph. Members of the 1894 series were built weighing 49.55 long tons but following two high-speed derailments in 1895 the weight was reduced by 1% to 48.755 long tons. On 7 March 1896, a passenger train hauled by locomotive No.1003 was derailed at Little Bytham, Lincolnshire due to the premature removal of a speed restriction after track renewal. Two people were killed. On 10 November 1895, an overnight Scottish express hauled by locomotive No. 1006 derailed at St Neots when it encountered a broken rail.

One person was killed. The accident report by Her Majesty's Railway Inspectorate commented on the abnormally heavy axle loading of the locomotive: nearly 20 tons on the driving axle. With the arrival of the Ivatt Atlantics after 1898, the class began to be displaced from the most prestigious express services. Several examples were rebuilt by H. A. Ivatt after 1898 with a domed boiler, but withdrawals of the 1870 series began in 1899; the last examples of the class were in use on secondary services until 1916. The first of the class, No 1 is the only engine to be preserved, it is exhibited at York. The locomotive is in good mechanical condition, was used to act as a star player in York Theatre Royal's stage-performance of The Railway Children play, in which it was seen to move into a stage set of a period station, created at the National Railway Museum and more in the redundant Waterloo International station; the locomotive appeared to be in steam for its'performances', however it was not, with fog machine generated smoke being used to portray escaping steam.

In reality the locomotive was shunted into position during the performance using a Class 08 Diesel Shunter which remained out of sight of the main stage. An 18" gauge model of No.1 was built in 1898, at the Regent Street Polytechnic, from a set of parts supplied by W. G. Bagnall. Amongst the students at Regent Street who worked on the model was Henry Greenly who became a celebrated miniature locomotive builder and supplied locomotives for the Romney and Dymchurch Railway; the locomotive was sold to Mr. E. F. S. Notter the Great Northern Railway District Locomotive Superintendent at Kings Cross, who between 1910 and 1914 operated it at Alexander Park and kept it in King Cross'Top Shed', the home of the full size Stirling Singles. In 1926 this locomotive was bought by the Fairbourne Miniature Railway and in 1936 it was sold to the Jaywick Miniature Railway, which ran it until 1939, it passed through the hands of a number of private owners until it was bought by the World of Country Life Museum at Sandy Bay, Devon, in 1986.

Bagnall had earlier, in 1893, supplied a similar model to Lord Downshire of Easthampstead Park, Crowthorne Berkshire. This engine was preserved by Mr Hoare in the Boys Reading Room at the Training Ship Mercury at Hamble, it was subsequently sold to a private owner in Southampton in 1946. Its current whereabouts is unknown. Nuremberg toymaker Georges Carette's range included a 2.5 inch-gauge model of Stirling Single 776, in around ~1900. It was marketed in the UK by Bassett-Lowke. An unpowered 5" gauge model of a Stirling Single locomotive, engineered by Dennis Hefford, is on display at the entrance to Arch Two of Brighton Toy and Model Museum. A 1/12 scale model of No.93, built by'R Jackson' around 1888, is displayed at Worthing Museum and Art Gallery. Kitmaster produced. David Boyle, founder of Dapol Model Railway

Colin Ridgway

Colin Edwin Ridgway was an American football punter distinguished as being the first Australian to play in the National Football League. He competed in the high jump at the 1956 Summer Olympics. Ridgway began his sporting career playing Australian rules football, he reached the Victorian Football League reserves level, playing for the Carlton Football Club in the 1960s. He was a high jumper who competed at the 1956 Olympic Games and the 1958 Commonwealth Games for Australia, he had competed in the Australian Open Track and Field Championships from 1955/56 to 1959/60. Ridgway failed to make the 1960 Australian Olympic team and so accepted an offer of a track and field scholarship to Lamar Tech. In 1961, he became the first Commonwealth athlete to clear 7 foot in the high jump. Though he had never played an official American football game, he was discovered by the Dallas Cowboys and signed as an undrafted free agent to their 1965 team. During the preseason, he played a key role in the beating of the Green Bay Packers.

He started the year before being promoted to the regular roster on 3 November. He participated in a total of three games as a punter, making him the first Australian to play in the NFL, it turned out that the running drop-kicks that were used at that time in Aussie rules did not translate well into the American game. He was waived on 24 August 1966, at the request of the Cowboys, he accepted to play with the Savannah, team of the North American Football League, in order to gain more experience. Colin Ridgway was murdered at his University Park, home in 1993. Although Kenneth Bicking Jr. was arrested as a probable suspect in 1996, the case still remains unsolved to date. A man publicly suspected by authorities as a killer-for-hire in Ridgway's murder was convicted 4 September 2014 in Florida of a separate violent crime that happened the year before the murder. Kenneth Alfred Bicking III was found guilty of armed sexual battery and kidnapping with a weapon, according to the Florida State Attorney's office.

The maximum sentence is life in prison. Prosecutors said Bicking entered the victim's home in April 1992 without her permission, showed a gun, tied her up and put tape over her eyes and mouth before sexually assaulting her. Bicking was charged after new DNA technology was used in a follow-up investigation in 2011. Police in Dallas theorized that Bicking was hired by his father and Ridgway's widow to carry out the 1993 killing. Ridgway became a successful businessman. Colin Ridgway bio The Easy crime The incredible life and death of Australia’s NFL trailblazer

School voucher

A school voucher called an education voucher, in a voucher system, is a certificate of government funding for a student at a school chosen by the student or the student's parents. The funding is for a particular year, term or semester. In some countries, states or local jurisdictions, the voucher can be used to cover or reimburse home schooling expenses. In some countries, vouchers only exist for tuition at private schools. According to a 2017 review of the economics literature on school vouchers, "the evidence to date is not sufficient to warrant recommending that vouchers be adopted on a widespread basis. A 2006 survey of members of American Economic Association found that over two-thirds of economists support giving parents educational vouchers that can be used at government-operated or operated schools, that support is greater if the vouchers are to be used by parents with low-incomes or parents with children in poorly performing schools. France lost the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 and many blamed the loss on France's inferior military education system.

Following this defeat, the French assembly proposed a religious voucher that would improve schools by allowing students to seek out the best school. This proposal never moved forward due to the reluctance of the French to subsidize religious education. Despite its failure, this proposal is one of the earliest examples of a voucher system that resembles voucher systems proposed and used today in many countries; the oldest continuing school voucher programs existing today in the United States are the Town Tuitioning programs in Vermont and Maine, beginning in 1869 and 1873 respectively. Because some towns in these states operate neither local high schools nor elementary schools, students in these towns "are eligible for a voucher to attend public schools in other towns or non-religious private schools. In these cases, the'sending' towns pay tuition directly to the'receiving' schools."A system of educational vouchers was introduced in the Netherlands in 1917. Today, more than 70% of pupils attend run but publicly funded schools split along denominational lines.

Milton Friedman argued for the modern concept of vouchers in the 1950s, stating that competition would improve schools, cost less and yield superior educational outcomes. Friedman's reasoning in favor of vouchers gained additional attention in 1980 with the broadcast of his ten part television series Free to Choose and the publication of its companion book of the same name. Episode 6 of the series and chapter 6 of the book were both entitled, "What's Wrong with Our Schools?" and asserted that permitting parents and students to use vouchers to choose their schools would expand freedom of choice and produce more well-educated students. In some Southern states during the 1960s, school vouchers were used as a way to perpetuate segregation. In a few instances, public schools were closed outright and vouchers were issued to parents; the vouchers known as tuition grants, in many cases, were only good at new, segregated schools, known as segregation academies. Today, all modern voucher programs prohibit racial discrimination.

There are important distinctions between different kinds of schools: Public schools operate publicly and are funded by taxes. Private schools operate and are funded such as by tuition or donations. School vouchers are subsidies given directly to parents for tuition at any school Charter schools are funded publicly Open enrollment is the process of allowing parents to choose which public school their child attends instead of being assigned one; this is sometimes confused with vouchers as a promotion for school choice. Education tax credit, tuition tax credit, or tax-credit scholarship: There are two types of education tax credits: personal use, donation. Personal use tax credits are tax credits given to individual taxpayers for education expenditures made on behalf of their own children. Donation tax credits are tax credits given to individual taxpayers or businesses who donate to non-profit organizations that give out private school scholarships. Education savings accounts allow parents to withdraw their children from public district or charter schools and receive a deposit of public funds into government-authorized savings accounts with restricted, but multiple, uses.

Those funds distributed to families via debit card, can cover private school tuition and fees, online learning programs, private tutoring, community college costs, higher education expenses and other approved customized learning services and materials. Education as a tool for human capital accumulation is crucial to the development and progression of societies and thus governments have large incentives to continually intervene and improve public education. Additionally, education is the tool with which societies instill a common set of values that underlie the basic norms of the society. Furthermore, there are positive externalities to society from education; these positive externalities can be in the form of reduced crime, more informed citizens and economic development, known as the neighborhood effect. In terms of economic theory, families face a bundle of consumption choices that determine how much they will spend on education and private consumption. Any number of consumption bundles are available.

Meaning that any bundle of consumption of education and private consumption must not exceed budgetary constraints. Indifference curves represent the preferences of one good over another; the indiffer

1980 Canadian Grand Prix

The 1980 Canadian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 28 September 1980, at the Circuit Île Notre-Dame in Montreal, Canada. It was the penultimate race of the 1980 Formula One season; the race was the third to be held in Montreal. The race was held over 70 laps of the 4.41-kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 309 kilometres. Australian driver Alan Jones, driving a Williams FW07B, won his second consecutive Canadian Grand Prix, coupled with the retirement of the Brabham BT49 of Brazilian driver Nelson Piquet due to the failure of its Cosworth DFV engine, this allowed Jones to secure the 1980 World Drivers' Championship. Jones became only the second Australian to claim the world championship, a title last won by Jack Brabham in 1966, it was the first World Drivers' Championship for Williams Grand Prix Engineering, adding to their first Constructors' Championship, achieved two weeks earlier at the Italian Grand Prix. The brief comeback of Vittorio Brambilla had come to an end with the Italian veteran retiring from Formula One.

Alfa Romeo replaced him with someone younger and Andrea de Cesaris made his Grand Prix debut, as did teenage New Zealander Mike Thackwell. Thackwell stepped aboard a third Tyrrell 010 breaking the record as the youngest driver to start a Grand Prix, a record held for 19 years by the late Mexican teenager Ricardo Rodríguez; the record would stand for 29 years until broken by Jaime Alguersuari in 2009. First and second in the championship were decided with the 1980 United States Grand Prix still to come. Jones led Piquet by 8 points but Piquet had had five points-scoring finishes in the second half of the season. If Piquet won at Watkins Glen he would have to drop the two points from his fifth-place finish in Austria, leaving him one point behind Jones if Jones failed to finish. Third place in the championship was theoretically open with Laffite eight points behind Reutemann. Second place in the constructors' championship was still open with Brabham just five points behind Ligier. Piquet used a car in fragile qualifying specification to do it.

At the start Jones outlaunched Piquet but the pair refused to compromise at the first turn and the two touched, triggering a multi-car pile-up. The collision involved Jean-Pierre Jarier, Derek Daly, Emerson Fittipaldi, Keke Rosberg, Mario Andretti, Gilles Villeneuve and Jochen Mass. Piquet, Villeneuve and Mass restarted in spare cars, in Piquet's case his fragile qualifying car and Rosberg had his car repaired. Daly was out as was Thackwell as Jarier commandeered his Tyrrell 010. At the restart Jones led before a storming Piquet took the lead until his qualifying specification Cosworth DFV failed. Two laps and Jean-Pierre Jabouille crashed his Renault RE20 seriously injuring his legs. Jabouille had to be cut from the car. Jones took up the lead again until Pironi forced his way into a lead, clouded over a jumped start for which he was assigned a 60-second penalty. Pironi would be classified third behind Jones and Reutemann. Alain Prost could have been third or second until a suspension failure saw his McLaren M30 crash.

Watson was ahead of Reutemann as well when he finished fourth in his McLaren. Local hero Villeneuve claimed fifth for Ferrari on a dismal weekend that saw outgoing World Champion Jody Scheckter fail to qualify his Ferrari 312T5; the final point was claimed by Héctor Rebaque in his Brabham BT49 as Jacques Laffite ran out of fuel in his Ligier JS11/15 in the closing stages. Alan Jones 49 laps Nelson Piquet 21 laps Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings. Only the best 5 results from the first 7 races and the best 5 results from the last 7 races counted towards the Drivers' Championship. If different to Championship points, total points scored are shown in parentheses

PenAir Flight 3296

PenAir Flight 3296 was a domestic scheduled flight from Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, in Anchorage, Alaska, to Unalaska Airport, on Amaknak Island off the coast of Alaska. On October 17, 2019, the Saab 2000 operating the flight overshot the runway after landing at its destination airport. One passenger suffered fatal injuries due to a propeller blade penetrating the fuselage. Of the other 41 passengers and crew on board, two were injured and ten suffered minor injuries; the 24-year-old aircraft, a SAAB 2000, was damaged during the accident. On the day of the accident the aircraft had departed from Anchorage at 15:15 AST and was due to land at Unalaska 2 hours and 15 minutes later. While the flight was descending towards Unalaska they were cleared for the RNAV approach into runway 13, a 4,501 feet meter long runway, but as the aircraft became closer to the airport, the wind changed from 210 degrees at 8 knots to 180 degrees at 7 knots. During the approach though, the winds were reported 270 degrees at 10 knots.

Due to the aircraft being unstabilised during the approach, a go-around was executed, leading to the flight returning for another, this time, visual approach into runway 13. But during this, the wind speed increased and the controller reported that winds were 300 degrees at 24 knots; the crew decided to continue with the landing and touched down at 17:40. The aircraft landed 1,001 feet down the runway and reverse thrust and wheel braking was initiated by the captain; when the aircraft reached 80 knots, maximum braking was applied. As an overrun was imminent, the pilots steered the aircraft right to avoid going into the water past the runway end. Attempts to stop on the paved runway surface failed and the aircraft crossed a section of grass, broke through a chain perimeter fence, crossed a ditch, hit a large rock and crossed a public roadway; the port wing struck a 4 to 5 foot signal post. This caused the propeller to shatter. One of the blades was found inside of the cabin. 3 passengers were critically injured and another 10 had to receive medical care.

1 of the critically injured passengers died a day later. On the day of the accident, the NTSB, launched an investigation which as of January 2020 is still ongoing. Swiss International Airlines Flight 850 PenAir List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft 2019 in aviation