Peruvian sol (1863–1985)
The sol was the currency of Peru between 1863 and 1985. It had the ISO 4217 currency code PES, it was subdivided into 100 centavos. The sol was introduced in 1863 when Peru completed its decimalization, replacing the real at a rate of 1 sol = 10 reales; the sol replaced the Bolivian peso, which had circulated in southern Peru, at the rate of 1 sol = 1.25 Bolivian pesos. Between 1858 and 1863, coins had been issued denominated in reales and escudos; the sol was pegged to the French franc at a rate of 1 sol = 5 francs. In 1880 and 1881, silver coins denominated in pesetas, were issued, worth 20 centavos to the peseta. In 1881, the inca, worth ten soles, was introduced for use on banknotes; the peg to the franc was replaced in 1901 by a link to sterling at a rate of 10 soles = 1 pound, with gold coins and banknotes issued denominated in libra. This peg was maintained until 1930 when Peru left the gold standard and established an official rate of 2.5 soles = 1 USD, a rate which remained until 1946. In 1933, banknotes were issued once more denominated in soles, now called soles de oro.
This name appeared from 1935 on coins, when silver was replaced by base metal. Since 1975, multiple rates to the U. S. dollar have been used. Due to the chronic inflation that occurred in Peru during the second presidency of Fernando Belaúnde Terry, the sol was replaced in 1985 by the inti at a rate of 1000 soles = 1 inti; the nuevo sol replaced the inti in 1991, during the administration of Alberto Fujimori, at the rate of 1 million to one. Sol notes and coins are no longer legal tender in Peru, nor can they be exchanged for notes and coins denominated in the current nuevo sol. In 1863, cupro-nickel coins for 1 and 2 centavos and.900 silver coins for ½ and 1 dinero and 1⁄5 sol were introduced, followed by.900 silver ½ and 1 sol in 1864. Gold 5, 10 and 20 soles were issued only in 1863. In 1875 and 1876, bronze replaced cupro-nickel. In 1879 and 1880, provisional coins were struck in cupro-nickel in denominations of 5, 10 and 20 centavos for replacing the banknotes with coins. In 1898, gold coins for 1 libra were introduced, followed by ½ libra in 1902 and 1⁄5 libra in 1905.
These were issued for circulation until 1930. In 1918, cupro-nickel 5, 10 and 20 centavos coins were introduced, followed, in 1922 with ½ and 1 sol coins in.500 fineness silver. The silver ½ and 1 sol were replaced by brass coins in 1935. Brass 5, 10 and 20 centavos followed in 1942. In 1950, zinc 1 and 2 centavos coins were introduced which were issued until 1958. In 1965, 25 centavos coins were followed, in 1969, by cupro-nickel 5 and 10 soles. Production of 5 and 25 centavos ceased in 1975, followed by 10 and 20 centavos in 1976, 50 centavos in 1977. In 1978, brass replaced cupro-nickel in the 5 and 10 soles whilst aluminium-bronze 50 soles and cupro-nickel 100 soles coins were introduced in 1979 and 1980; the last 1 and 5 soles coins were issued in 1982 and 1983. In 1984, brass 10, 50, 100 and 500 soles coins were issued; the last of these pieces was minted in 1985. The first banknotes were introduced by the private banks. In 1864, Banco La Providencia introduced notes for 5, 20, 40, 80 and 200 soles, with all but the 5 soles denominated in pesos.
Issues of this bank included denominations of ½, 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 soles. Other private banks which issued notes in Peru were: Additional denominations to those issued by the Banco La Providencia included 10, 20 and 40 centavos, 25 and 400 soles. In 1879, the government introduced notes for 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 soles. In 1881, 5 and 100 incas notes were overprinted with the denominations 50 and 1000 soles. In 1914, bearer cheques were introduced for 1, 5 and 10 libras. 1 sol cheques were issued in 1918 whilst, in 1917, gold certificates for 5 and 50 centavos and 1 sol were issued. In 1922, the Reserve Bank of Peru took over paper money production, issuing a final series of libra notes. In 1933, the Reserve Bank began issuing notes denominated in soles; the first issues were libra notes overprinted with the new denominations of 10, 50 and 100 soles. Regular issues followed in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 soles. 50 centavos and 1 sol were only issued until 1935.
500 soles notes were introduced in 1946, followed by 200 and 1,000 soles in 1968. The 5 soles note was last produced in 1974, with the 10 and 50 soles being last issued in 1976 and 1977 respectively; that same year, 5,000-sol notes were introduced. In 1979, 10,000 soles notes were added, followed by 50,000 soles in 1981. Economy of Peru
Economy of Peru
Peru is classified as upper middle income by the World Bank and is the 39th largest in the world by total GDP. Peru is one of the world's fastest-growing economies, with a 2012 GDP growth rate of 6.3%. It has a high human development index of 0.741 and per capita GDP above $12,000 by PPP. Neo-classical economists would interpret Peru's sound economic performance as a combination of: Macroeconomic stability Prudent fiscal spending High international reserve accumulation External debt reduction Achievement of investment grade status Fiscal surplusesHowever, Post-Keynesian economists would argue that what neo-classical economics considers to be "prudent" fiscal spending is nothing more than a means to restrict government spending in order to make Peru dependent on export income and thus encourage it to open the Peruvian economy to free trade to the benefit of other western countries. Though growth has been significant, income inequality remains, much of Peru's rain-forests have been damaged in the mining of gold and silver.
All of these factors have enabled Peru to make great strides in development, with improvement in government finances, poverty reduction and progress in social sectors. Poverty has decreased in the past decade, from nearly 60% in 2004 to 25.8% in 2012. Peru is social market economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade; the inequality of opportunities has declined: between 1991 and 2012 Peru's rating on The World Bank's Human Opportunity Index improved as increased public investment in water and electric power has sustained the downward trend in inequality of opportunities. Its economy is diversified, although commodity exports still make up a significant proportion of economic activity and thus subject the economy to the risks of price volatility in the international markets. Trade and industry are centralized in Lima but agricultural exports have led to development in all the regions. Peruvian economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments.
Peru's main exports are copper, zinc, chemicals, manufactures, machinery and fish meal. Although exports have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitarian distribution of income have proven elusive. Services account for 43% of Peruvian gross domestic product, followed by manufacturing, extractive industries, taxes. Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, rising investment and consumption. China has become Peru's largest trading partner following a free trade agreement with the People's Republic of China signed on April 28, 2009 additional free trade agreements have being signed with the United States of America free trade agreement with the United States signed on April 12, 2006, the European Union June 26, 2012; the EU and Peru Sign Trade Promotion Agreement, with Japan free trade agreement with the constitutional monarchy of Japan signed on May 31, 2011Inflation in 2012 was the lowest in Latin America at only 1.8%, but increased in 2013 as oil and commodity prices rose.
The unemployment rate has fallen in recent years, as of 2012 stands at 3.6%. The Tahuantinsuyo or known around the world as The Inca Empire was the largest empire/civilization which arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century; the last Inca stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, besides Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina and central Chile, a small part of southern Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia; the official language of the empire was Quechua, although hundreds of local languages and dialects of Quechua were spoken.. The Inca Empire, was organized in dominions with a stratified society, in which the ruler was the Inca, it was supported by an economy based on the collective property of the land.
In fact, the Inca Empire was conceived like an ambitious and audacious civilizing project, based on a mythical thought, in which the harmony of the relationships between the human being and gods was essential. The economy was agricultural, though it reached some animal husbandry and mining development; the primary goal of the Incan economy was substinence, with a system based on reciprocity and exchange of products. The colonial-era sources are not clear or in agreement about the nature of the structure of the Inca government. However, its basic structure can be spoken of broadly if the exact duties and functions of government positions cannot be told. At the top of the chain of administration sat the Sapa Inca. Next to the Sapa Inca in terms of power may have been the Willaq Umu the "priest who recounts", the High Priest of the Sun. However, it has been noted that beneath the Sapa Inca sat the Inkap rantin, at the least a confidant and assistant to the Sapa Inca along the lines of a prime minister.
From the time of Topa Inca Yupanqui on, there existed a "Council of the Realm" composed of sixteen nobles: two from hanan Cusco. This weighting of representation balanced the hanan and hurin divisions of the empire, both within
Huaraz founded as San Sebastian de Huaraz, is a city in Peru. It is the seat of government of Huaraz Province; the urban area's population is distributed over the districts of Independencia. The city is located in the middle of the Callejon de Huaylas Valley and on the right side of the river Santa; the city has an elevation of 3050 metres above sea level. The built-up area covers 8 km2 and has a population of 120,000 inhabitants, making it the second largest city in the central Peruvian Andes after the city of Huancayo, it is the 22nd largest city in Peru. Huaraz is the site of the cathedral. Huaraz is the main financial and trade center of the Callejón de Huaylas and the main tourist destination of Ancash region. Moreover is one of the biggest towns in the Peruvian Andes. Huaraz is the main destinations for adventure. Many visitors from around the world come to the city for practicing sports as climbing, mountain biking and snowboarding, to visit the glaciers and mountains of the Cordillera Blanca Mount Huascarán, considered the tallest mountain in tropics, all of them located in Huascarán National Park which UNESCO declared a nature world heritage site.
The city was founded before the Inca Empire when humans settled around the valley of the Santa River and Qillqay. Its Spanish occupation occurred in 1574 as a Spanish-indigenous reducción. During the wars for the independence of Peru, the whole city supported the Liberating Army with food and guns, earning the city the title of "Noble and Generous City" granted by Simón Bolívar. In 1970, 95 % of the city was destroyed by an earthquake. 25,000 people died. The city received much foreign aassistance from many countries. For this reason the city was named a capital of International Friendship; the main economic activities in the city are tourism. Since Huaraz has tourist infrastructure supporting the Ancash Highlands, the city is the main point of arrival for practitioners of adventure sports and mountaineering. Along with the snowy peaks of the Cordillera Blanca, one can visit archaeological sites like Chavín de Huantar and the eastern highlands of Ancash, known as Conchucos; the name of the city comes from the Quechua word "Waraq", which means "sunrise".
The pre-Hispanic inhabitants of the area had a god called "Waraq coyllur", which means "morning star" or the planet Venus, because it is the star, seen at sunrise. Huaraz is in north-central Peru, about 420 km north of Lima, at an altitude of 3,052 metres, it is the largest population center in the agriculturally important Callejón de Huaylas valley. The Callejón is a north-south valley bounded on the east by the Cordillera Blanca and on the west by the Cordillera Negra; the Cordillera Blanca includes Huascarán, the highest mountain in Peru at 6,768 metres and the third highest in the Western Hemisphere. Huascarán and the adjacent peak Huandoy in fair weather are visible from Huaraz; the Santa River flows north through Huaraz. It has always furnished the city with good water; the river is a rocky-bottom narrow stream of glacier-fed cold water that flows west of center in the Callejón, running north to the valley's north end. There it rushes downward through the narrow Cañón del Pato, turns westward at the town of Huallanca, continues to the coast where it enters the Pacific Ocean south of the city of Chimbote.
The Santa River is the traditional west boundary of Huaraz, although part of the city's population has lived on the west bank there for as long as two centuries. The nominal north boundary of Huaraz is along a westward flowing creek that empties into the Santa River; the creek, whose watershed is the westward facing nearby foothills and slopes of the Cordillera Blanca, has twice since 1940 been the channel of two devastating earthquake-precipitated floods. The most recent devastating flood and avalanche along this creek bed was a result of the 1970 earthquake; the avalanche of 1941 had filled the creek valley with debris, covering the new suburb on the city's north edge. The 1970 avalanche and floodwaters down this creek valley destroyed the city's north-side subdivision, rebuilt by the late 1960s; the 1970 avalanche debris created a temporary natural dam across the Santa River, which caused flooding throughout much of the city. The quake damaged all the city's major buildings. Over the next few days the city was devastated by flooding from both the creek and the river and by water-borne earthquake debris.
The urban area of Huaraz is located at the Santa River basin. The environment characteristic of the city belongs to an Andean valley. Huaraz is located in the Callejón de Huaylas valley, surrounded by the Cordillera Blanca and Cordillera Negra as its system mountains; the main river is the Santa which crosses the city from south to north, the Qillqay river that crosses the urban area from east to west, flowing to the Santa river. The territory surrounding Huaraz is heterogeneous and rough. Huaraz in its beginning had an architecture composed of circular houses, after that, they were demolished in order to build square houses and narrow streets on a grid plan; the main square used to be wide and was signed at downtown, it was surrounded by the Big Cathedral
Bi-metallic coins are coins consisting of two metals or alloys arranged with an outer ring around a contrasting center. Common circulating examples include the ₹10, €1, €2, 2 and 5 PLN, 50 CZK, 100 and 200 HUF, 1 and 2 BGN, British £1 and £2, Canadian $2, South African R5, Turkish 1 lira, IDR 1K, Hong Kong $10, Argentine $1, Brazilian R$1, Chilean $100 and $500, Colombian $500 and $1000, all Mexican coins of $1 or higher denomination. Bi-metallic coins have been issued for a long time, with known examples dating from the 17th century, while the Roman Empire issued special-occasion, large medallions with a center of bronze or copper and an outer ring of orichalcum, starting with the reign of Hadrian; the silver-center cent pattern produced by the United States in 1792 is another example. In the 1830s and 1840s, British medalist Joseph Moore produced large numbers of bi-metallic "penny model" and less common "halfpenny model" tokens, as a proposal to replace the large penny and halfpenny coins.
Though not legal tender, Moore's tokens were circulated and accepted at face value by many merchants. Despite their popularity, the Royal Mint rejected the proposal, did not reduce the size of the penny and halfpenny until decimalization. In recent times, the first circulating bi-metallic coin was the Italian 500 lire, first issued in 1982. Morocco, with its 5-dirhams coin in 1987. India introduced 10-rupee bi-metallic coins in 2009 that are dated 2006. Since 1996, Canada has produced bi-metallic $2 coins. Great Britain has issued a bi-metallic 2-pound coin since 1997; the first tri-metallic circulating coins were 20-francs coins introduced in France and Monaco in 1992. These were similar to the corresponding bi-metallic 10-francs coins, but had two rings instead of one; as well as circulating coins, where they are restricted to high-denomination coins, bi-metallic coins are used in commemorative issues made of precious metals. For example, the only bi-metallic coin of the United States is the $10 Library of Congress commemorative, made of a gold ring around a platinum center.
They are used as a way of securing against coin counterfeiting. The manufacturing process is similar to that of ordinary coins, except that two blanks are struck at the same time, deforming the separate blanks sufficiently to hold them together. Worldwide Bi-Metallic Collectors Club - website World bimetallic coin news - WBCN - website: new issues, country index and reference prices
Chavín de Huantar
Chavín de Huántar is an archaeological site in Peru, containing ruins and artifacts constructed beginning at least by 1200 BC and occupied by cultures until around 400-500 BC by the Chavín, a major pre-Inca culture. The site is located in the Ancash Region, 250 kilometers north of Lima, at an elevation of 3,180 meters, east of the Cordillera Blanca at the start of the Conchucos Valley. Chavín de Huántar has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site; some of the Chavín relics from this archaeological site are on display in the Museo de la Nación in Lima and the Museo Nacional de Chavín in Chavin itself. Occupation at Chavín de Huántar has been carbon dated to at least 3000 BC, with ceremonial center activity occurring toward the end of the second millennium, through the middle of the first millennium BC. While the large population was based on an agricultural economy, the city's location at the headwaters of the Marañón River, between the coast and the jungle, made it an ideal location for the dissemination and collection of both ideas and material goods.
This archeological site is a large ceremonial center that has revealed a great deal about the Chavín culture. Chavín de Huántar worship; the transformation of the center into a valley-dominating monument had a complex effect. People went to Chavin de Huantar as a center: to attend and participate in rituals, consult an oracle, or enter a cult. Findings at Chavín de Huántar indicate that social instability and upheaval began to occur between 500 and 300 BCE, at the same time that the larger Chavín civilization began to decline. Large ceremonial sites were abandoned, some unfinished, were replaced by villages and agricultural land. At Chavín de Huántar, no than 500 BCE, a small village replaced the Circular Plaza; the plaza was occupied by a succession of cultural groups, residents salvaged building stones and stone carvings to use in house walls. Multiple occupation floors indicate; the Chavin civilization was centered on the site of Chavin de Huantar, the religious center of the Chavin people and the capital of the Chavin culture.
The temple is a massive flat-topped pyramid surrounded by lower platforms. It is a U-shaped plaza with a sunken circular court in the center; the inside of the temple walls are decorated with carvings. Chavin de Huantar was constructed over many stages starting prior to 1200 BC, with most major construction over by 750 BC; the site continued in use as a ceremonial center until around 500 BC, but prior to 400 BC its primary religious function had ceased, the site was occupied by casual residents of the distinct cultural tradition, Huaraz. During its heyday, Chavin de Huantar was used as a religious center for ceremonies and events a home for an oracle; the site contains a number of major structures, including Temples A, B, C and D, areas and buildings designated as the Major Plaza, the Circular Plaza, the Old Temple and New Temple, although the latter two designations are no longer accurate in light of recent research advances. The "Circular Plaza" appears to have been a sacred and ritually important open-air space within a ceremonial center.
Prior to 800–700 BC, this location had a number of functions, including serving as an atrium for entering Temple A through the temple's north staircase. The plaza in the classic period, after 700 BC, is bounded on three sides by major Temples A, B, C; the plaza is circular and is close to 20 metres in diameter, with a floor consisted of pillow-shaped pavers of yellow diatomite. It appears. Walls of the plaza were constructed of cut stone, principally granite, laid in courses of varying width; the two broadest courses were carved in arcs closest to the western staircase and in two pairs of terminal stones flanking the eastern staircase. The "Old Temple", dating from the early site's history, was an inward-facing structure composed of passageways built around a circular courtyard; the structure contained obelisks and stone monuments with relief carvings depicting jaguars and other forms with anthropomorphic features. The Lanzón Gallery, located at the center, contained a sculpture of the Lanzón, assumed to be a supreme deity of Chavín de Huántar.
The figure is anthropomorphic, with human body. Mortars, conch-shell trumpets, many other items have been found. Many of these artifacts have an anthropomorphic design or decoration and are thought to be associated with Chavín rituals; the "New Temple", constructed between 500 and 200 BC, is based on a gallery and plaza design and contained many relief sculptures. The Lanzon deity is present, holding a strombus shell in the right hand while the left hand holds a Spondylus shell; the architectural design of Chavín de Huántar changed over time as an old temple development was added to with a new temple. Changes were more complex than in one stage of renovation. Smaller renovations happened over the Chavín horizon ending by about 500 BC when the new temple was completed. With the simpler design of the old temple, Chavín de Huántar followed the U-shaped ceremonial center design accompanied by a sunken circular plaza. After the new temple was complete, Chavín de Huántar still embodied a U-shaped ceremonial center design.
The renovations enlarged the site and added a larger sunken rectangular plaza. The main objective of the renovations appears to be based on enabling more people to gather in one place, as the site in general expanded. Excavat
In economics, hyperinflation is high and accelerating inflation. It erodes the real value of the local currency, as the prices of all goods increase; this causes people to minimize their holdings in that currency as they switch to more stable foreign currencies the US Dollar. Prices remain stable in terms of other stable currencies. Unlike low inflation, where the process of rising prices is protracted and not noticeable except by studying past market prices, hyperinflation sees a rapid and continuing increase in nominal prices, the nominal cost of goods, in the supply of money. However, the general price level rises more than the money supply as people try ridding themselves of the devaluing currency as as possible; as this happens, the real stock of money decreases considerably. Hyperinflation is associated with some stress to the government budget, such as wars or their aftermath, sociopolitical upheavals, a collapse in aggregate supply or one in export prices, or other crises that make it difficult for the government to collect tax revenue.
A sharp decrease in real tax revenue coupled with a strong need to maintain government spending, together with an inability or unwillingness to borrow, can lead a country into hyperinflation. In 1956, Phillip Cagan wrote The Monetary Dynamics of Hyperinflation, the book regarded as the first serious study of hyperinflation and its effects. In his book, Cagan defined a hyperinflationary episode as starting in the month that the monthly inflation rate exceeds 50%, as ending when the monthly inflation rate drops below 50% and stays that way for at least a year. Economists follow Cagan’s description that hyperinflation occurs when the monthly inflation rate exceeds 50%; the International Accounting Standards Board has issued guidance on accounting rules in a hyperinflationary environment. It does not establish an absolute rule on. Instead, it lists factors that indicate the existence of hyperinflation: The general population prefers to keep its wealth in non-monetary assets or in a stable foreign currency.
Amounts of local currency held are invested to maintain purchasing power The general population regards monetary amounts not in terms of the local currency but in terms of a stable foreign currency. Prices may be quoted in that currency. While there can be a number of causes of high inflation, most hyperinflations have been caused by government budget deficits financed by money creation. Peter Bernholz analysed 29 hyperinflations and concludes that at least 25 of them have been caused in this way. A necessary condition for hyperinflation is the use instead of gold or silver coins. Most hyperinflations in history, with some exceptions, such as the French hyperinflation of 1789-1796, occurred after the use of fiat currency became widespread in the late 19th century; the French hyperinflation took place after the introduction of a non-convertible paper currency, the assignats. Hyperinflation occurs when there is a continuing rapid increase in the amount of money, not supported by a corresponding growth in the output of goods and services.
The increases in price that result from the rapid money creation creates a vicious circle, requiring growing amounts of new money creation to fund government deficits. Hence both monetary inflation and price inflation proceed at a rapid pace; such increasing prices cause widespread unwillingness of the local population to hold the local currency as it loses its buying power. Instead they spend any money they receive, which increases the velocity of money flow; this means. The real stock of money, M/P, decreases. Here M refers to P to the price level; this results in an imbalance between the demand for the money, causing rapid inflation. High inflation rates can result in a loss of confidence in the currency, similar to a bank run; the excessive money supply growth results from the government being either unable or unwilling to finance the government budget through taxation or borrowing, instead it finances the government budget deficit through the printing of money. Governments have sometimes resorted to excessively loose monetary policy, as it allows a government to devalue its debts and reduce a tax increase.
Inflation is a regressive tax on the users of money, but less overt than levied taxes and is therefore harder to understand by ordinary citizens. Inflation can obscure quantitative assessments of the true cost of living, as published price indices only look at data in retrospect, so may increase only months later. Monetary inflation can become hyperinflation if monetary authorities fail to fund increasing government expenses from taxes, government debt, cost cutting, or by other means, because either during the time between recording or levying taxable transactions and collecting the taxes due, the value of the taxes collected falls in real value to a small fraction of the original taxes rece
Huacachina is a village built around a small oasis and surrounded by sand dunes in southwestern Peru. It is about five kilometers from the city of Ica in the Ica District of Ica Province; the oasis was introduced as a feature on the back of the 50 nuevo sol note in 1991. Huacachina has a permanent population of around 100 people, although it hosts many tens of thousands of tourists each year. Huacachina is built around a small natural lake in the desert. Referred to as the "oasis of America", it is a resort geared to local families from the nearby city of Ica, as an attraction for tourists drawn by the sports of sandboarding on the sand dunes that stretch several hundred feet high. Other popular activities include dune buggy rides on buggies known locally as areneros. According to local legends, the water and mud of the area is therapeutic. Both locals and tourists bathe in the waters or cover themselves with the mud in an attempt to cure ailments such as arthritis, rheumatism and bronchitis. Legend holds that the lagoon was created when a beautiful native princess removed her clothes to bathe, but after looking in a mirror she saw a male hunter approaching her from behind.
Startled at the intrusion, she fled the area leaving behind her mirror. Other versions hold that she fled, leaving the pool of water she had been bathing in to become the lagoon; the folds of her mantle, streaming behind her, became the surrounding sand dunes. The woman herself is rumoured to still live in the oasis as a mermaid. Water stopped seeping into the lake in the 1980s and this has now started to become a threat to the lagoon. Private landowners near the oasis have installed wells, which has reduced the level of water in the oasis. To compensate for this water loss, preserve the oasis as an aesthetically pleasing destination for tourists, a group of ten businessmen devised a plan to pump water from a nearby farm into the lagoon; the process of artificially pumping water into the oasis began on 2 April 2015 and since more than 73,000 cubic metres of water have been pumped into the lagoon to raise the height of the water by as much as 3 metres. It was announced in 2016 that the Peruvian scientist Marino Morikawa, who created a nanobubble system to decontaminate lake El Cascajo, will lead a project to restore the Huacachina lagoon.
Scenery from Huacachina and its surroundings was used in Apple's iPhone Xs launch video. Huacachina travel guide from Wikivoyage Gigapixel Image of Huacachina