Henry Iba Award
The Henry Iba Award was established in 1959 to recognize the best college basketball coach of the year by the United States Basketball Writers Association. Five nominees are presented and the individual with the most votes receives the award, presented in conjunction with the Final Four; the award is named for Henry Iba, who coached at Oklahoma State from 1934 to 1970. Iba won the NCAA College Championship in 1945 and 1946 and coached the U. S. Olympic Teams to two gold medals in 1964 and 1968; the award is presented at the Oscar Robertson Trophy Breakfast on the Friday before the Final Four. Legendary UCLA Bruins coach John Wooden has the most all–time selections with seven. Of the seven other coaches with multiple Henry Iba Awards, only Virginia Cavaliers coach Tony Bennett has received it more than twice; the school with the second–most winners is Ohio State, which has had two coaches win a total of three awards. A Due to the massive numbers—and extreme severity of—NCAA violations that had surfaced, Clem Haskins and the Minnesota men's basketball season records and awards were nullified, giving them a 0–0 record and no official recognition for having gotten to the 1997 Final Four.
General"Henry Iba Award". USBWA Awards. United States Basketball Writers Association. Archived from the original on 23 November 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2010. Specific Henry Iba Award
Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin was an English comic actor and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film. He became a worldwide icon through his screen persona, "The Tramp", is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry, his career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, encompassed both adulation and controversy. Chaplin's childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship, as his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine; when he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an early age, touring music halls and working as a stage actor and comedian. At 19, he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, he began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. He soon formed a large fan base, he directed his own films and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay and First National corporations.
By 1918, he was one of the best-known figures in the world. In 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists which gave him complete control over his films, his first feature-length film was The Kid, followed by A Woman of Paris, The Gold Rush, The Circus. He refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights and Modern Times without dialogue, he became political, his next film The Great Dictator satirized Adolf Hitler. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, his popularity declined rapidly, he was accused of communist sympathies, while he created scandal through his involvement in a paternity suit and his marriages to much younger women. An FBI investigation was opened, Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and settle in Switzerland, he abandoned the Tramp in his films, which include Monsieur Verdoux, Limelight, A King in New York, A Countess from Hong Kong. Chaplin wrote, produced, starred in, composed the music for most of his films.
He was a perfectionist, his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture. His films are characterized by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramp's struggles against adversity. Many contain political themes, as well as autobiographical elements, he received an Honorary Academy Award for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century" in 1972, as part of a renewed appreciation for his work. He continues to be held in high regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, The Great Dictator ranked on lists of the greatest films of all time. Charles Spencer Chaplin was born on 16 April 1889 to Charles Chaplin Sr.. There is no official record of his birth, although Chaplin believed he was born at East Street, Walworth, in South London, his mother and father had married four years at which time Charles Sr. became the legal guardian of Hannah's illegitimate son, Sydney John Hill. At the time of his birth, Chaplin's parents were both music hall entertainers.
Hannah, the daughter of a shoemaker, had a brief and unsuccessful career under the stage name Lily Harley, while Charles Sr. a butcher's son, was a popular singer. Although they never divorced, Chaplin's parents were estranged by around 1891; the following year, Hannah gave birth to a third son – George Wheeler Dryden – fathered by the music hall entertainer Leo Dryden. The child was taken by Dryden at six months old, did not re-enter Chaplin's life for 30 years. Chaplin's childhood was fraught with poverty and hardship, making his eventual trajectory "the most dramatic of all the rags to riches stories told" according to his authorised biographer David Robinson. Chaplin's early years were spent with his mother and brother Sydney in the London district of Kennington; as the situation deteriorated, Chaplin was sent to Lambeth Workhouse. The council housed him at the Central London District School for paupers, which Chaplin remembered as "a forlorn existence", he was reunited with his mother 18 months before Hannah was forced to readmit her family to the workhouse in July 1898.
The boys were promptly sent to another institution for destitute children. In September 1898, Hannah was committed to Cane Hill mental asylum – she had developed a psychosis brought on by an infection of syphilis and malnutrition. For the two months she was there and his brother Sydney were sent to live with their father, whom the young boys scarcely knew. Charles Sr. was by a severe alcoholic, life there was bad enough to provoke a visit from the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Chaplin's father died two years at 38 years old, from cirrhosis of the liver. Hannah entered a period of remission but, in May 1903, became ill again. Chaplin 14, had the task of taking his mother to the infirmary, from where she was sent back to Cane Hill, he lived alone for several days, searching for food and sleeping rough, until Sydney – who had enrolled in the Navy two years earlier – returned. Hannah was released from the asylum eight months but in March 1905, her illness returned, this time permanently.
"There was nothing we could do but accept poor mother's fate", Chaplin wrote, a
San Francisco Dons
The San Francisco Dons is the nickname of the athletic teams at the University of San Francisco. The Dons compete in NCAA Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association as members of the West Coast Conference, of which USF is a charter member. Athletics at USF dates back to its founding in 1855, when founder Anthony Maraschi, S. J. organized ball games as recreation for the first students. However, intercollegiate competition only dates back to 1907, when then-Saint Ignatius College began playing organized baseball and rugby against other local colleges and high schools. Rivalries with neighboring Santa Clara University and Saint Mary's College of California have their origins in this early period. Teams were known as the "Grey Fog", red and blue were Saint Ignatius College's colors. However, as the college began to develop an identity distinct from the high school—the college became the University of San Francisco in 1930—it adopted green and gold as its colors in 1927 and chose the Don as its mascot in 1932.
The old Saint Ignatius High School became Saint Ignatius College Preparatory and retained the red and blue colors. Three USF alumni participated in the 2016 Summer Olympics - Israeli long distance runner Maor Tiyouri, basketball player John Cox and synchronized swimmer Mariya Koroleva. 2005 was a banner year for the baseball program, as the Diamond Dons finished with a 38–18 record, placed eight players in the all-conference team and earned Nino Giarrantano coach of the year honors. This was followed in 2006 with a 38–21 record, the WCC conference regular season championship, a Top 25 ranking. However, USF lost in the WCC conference championship to Pepperdine but still was given an at large berth into their first postseason. USF did not advance in the tournament as they were beaten by the University of Miami, Manhattan College. Future major leaguer Aaron Poreda pitched for the Diamond Dons, finishing his freshman 2005 season with a 2.16 ERA, the fifth-lowest in team history and third-best in the WCC, his hits-per-9-innings ratio of 6.48 was second-best in the conference.
In 2006 he posted a WCC-best 2.49 ERA. In the NCAA regional he pitched the team to a 5–1 victory over No. 6 national seed Nebraska. Poreda was drafted by the Chicago White Sox in the first round in the 2007 Major League Baseball Draft. Nino Giarrantano became head coach in 1998 serving as hitting coach at Arizona State University. Giarrantano was named 3-time JC National Coach of 2005 -- 2006 WCC Coach of the Year. Since arriving at USF, the team has had its best four-year stretch in its program's history, 104-69 overall since 2004; the Dons' home field is named after Dante Benedetti, USF's head coach from 1962 to 1980. Benedetti attended then-Saint Ignatius College from 1937 to 1940, during which he lettered in Baseball and Boxing. During his tenure as head coach, he accumulated 373 career wins, has been inducted into the university's athletic hall of fame. During his tenure as head coach, the university wanted to cut the program for financial reasons; however to keep the program alive Benedetti agreed to lower his salary.
For the remaining 16 years of his coaching career he was paid $1 a year. The field is named after Max Ulrich, a benefactor of the University of San Francisco. Since 2006, USF has played one game a season at AT&T Park; the proceeds of the game go to the Dante Benedetti Foundation, a charity that helps under-privileged youth in San Francisco play and learn the game of baseball. Over the years of USF's baseball tradition, a number of players have been drafted into professional baseball. Of these players, a few have had debuts in the Major Leagues: USF is best known for its basketball program; the men's basketball team have won three national titles: the 1949 NIT under Pete Newell and the 1955 and 1956 NCAA championships under Phil Woolpert. The latter two were led by future National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame and Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame members Bill Russell and K. C. Jones. USF retained its status as a basketball powerhouse into the 1970s and early 80s, holding the distinction of being a "major" program in a "mid-major" conference.
It held the number-one spot in the polls on numerous occasions. In 1977, led by All-American center Bill Cartwright, the Dons went 29–0 and were regarded as the #1 team in the nation in both major polls before dropping their last two games; the Dons' prominence in the 1970s came at a price, however. The NCAA placed the Dons on probation two times in the late 1970s. Head coach Bob Gaillard was fired after the first, an in-house inquiry after the second resulted in the firing of his successor, Dan Belluomini, it was well known that basketball players got special treatment. It was common for "tutors" to take tests and write papers for players; the situation came to a head in December 1981, when All-American guard Quintin Dailey assaulted a female student. During the subsequent investigation, Dailey admitted taking a no-show job at a business owned by a prominent non-sports USF donor; the donor had paid Dailey $5,000 since 1980. Combined with other revelations, school president Rev. John Lo Schiavo announced on July 29, 1982 that he was suspending the basketball program—the first time a school had shut down a major sport under such circumstances.
The move was applauded by several members of the coaching fraternity, as the Dailey matter revealed a program that
A head coach, senior coach, or manager is a professional at training and developing athletes. They hold a more public profile and are paid more than other coaches. In some sports, the head coach is instead called the "manager", as in association football and professional baseball. In other sports such as Australian rules football, the head coach is termed a senior coach. Other coaches are subordinate to the head coach in offensive positions or defensive positions, proceeding down into individualized position coaches. Head coaches in American football have different responsibilities depending on what level of the sport they are coaching; the head coach has a much more complete hold on the intricacies of the team. He may have to perform the duties of a offensive coordinator. High school head coaches have to do more work off the field than on, it is important that head coaches in high school hire a competent and proactive coaching staff because when the head coach is pulled away from practice he must be confident that his team is in good hands with his other coaches and staff.
One of the most difficult issues that head coaches must deal with off of the field is the parent, although many coaches do not allow parental interactions in many cases. He must be able to handle any issues that parents may have with the way that the head coach is running the program, all along while staying professional and not being demeaning. Furthermore, a high school's head football coach serves as his school's Athletic Coordinator or Director, which adds further responsibilities to his job. In some jurisdictions, a high school head coach must have a paying job within the school always as a teacher. One of the major features of head coaching in college football is the high turnover rate for jobs. With few exceptions college coaches routinely change jobs staying at a school for more than a decade; some coaches have been known to leave a school and return to the program after a period of time. Many head coaches at the college level have a paid staff and as such are more free to concentrate on the overall aspect of the team rather than dealing with the nuances of training regimens and such.
Unlike head coaches at other levels, college coaching staffs are responsible for the composition and development of players on the team. The ability to recruit and develop top players plays a major role in success at this level. A college coach acts as the face of a team, at an age when many young players do not wish to be hounded by media, they are called upon to discuss off-the-field incidents such as rule infractions or player antics. Sometimes, the coach becomes a celebrity in e.g. Lou Holtz. At the end of the year there are numerous college football coach of the year awards given out; the awards all go to the same coach but there are some discrepancies. Major annual coaching honors include the Home Depot Coach of the Year, The Liberty Mutual Coach of the Year Award, the Associated Press College Football Coach of the Year Award, The Paul'Bear' Bryant Award. At the professional level, coaches may work for millions of dollars a year. Since he or she does not have to travel the country recruiting high school players, the head coach at the pro level has much more time to devote to tactics and playbooks, which are coordinated with staff paid more than at the college level.
They report to the General Manager. Head coaching, due to the lack of job security and long hours, is a stressful job. Since the money is good at high levels and firings are common, many coaches retire in their early fifties. Many factors are part of National Football League coaches' contracts; these involve the NFL's $11 billion as the highest revenue sport, topping the Major League Baseball's $7 billion. The NFL's coaches are the highest-paid professional coaches with professional football topping the list in Forbes' highest-paid sports coaches. Bill Belichick is in the number one spot for the second year in a row with no MLB or National Hockey League coaches making the list. Another major element of NFL coaches' contracts, negotiated between individual coaches and NFL "teams"/owners, are NFL demanded provisions in the coaches employment contracts, that authorize the employing NFL teams to withhold part of a coach's salary when league operations are suspended, such as lockouts or television contract negotiations.
The average salary for a head coach in the National Football League is $6.45 million a year. In association football, a head coach has the same responsibilities as in any other sport. A head coach has an option to pick his own coaching staff. In some countries there is a position of senior coach who acts as the first assistant of the head coach or runs a junior squad in the club. In the absence of a head coach, a senior coach temporarily fulfills his role as interim. There is the UEFA Convention on the Mutual Recognition of Coaching Qualifications that has three levels: Pro, A, B. In Australian rules football the head coach or senior coach is responsible for development and implementing an appropriate training program to the players so that they ensure they perform on game day; the senior coach in AFL has to be responsible for the rotations and team line up for the games. A senior coach in AFL is not the only coach involved in making the team operate, in AFL teams there are up to five different coaches that all have different responsibilities, for example, there is a forward and defence coach, these coaches focus on the particular positions on the grou
San Francisco Dons men's basketball
The San Francisco Dons men's basketball team represents the University of San Francisco in NCAA Division I men's college basketball. The Dons compete in the West Coast Conference, in which they have the winningest program, have won sixteen regular season championships and one conference tournament championship; the current head coach is Todd Golden. They play home games at the War Memorial Gymnasium, which serves as the venue for women's basketball, athletic department offices, athletic training rooms; the basketball team claims three national titles: the 1949 NIT under Pete Newell, the 1955 and 1956 NCAA Division I championships. The latter two were under Phil Woolpert, led by player and National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Famer Bill Russell. USF retained its status as a basketball powerhouse into the 1970s and early 1980s, holding the distinction of being a "major" program in a "mid-major" conference, it held the number one spot in the polls on numerous occasions. In 1977, led by All-American center Bill Cartwright, the Dons went 29–0 and were regarded as the #1 team in the nation in both major polls before dropping their last two games.
The San Francisco Dons men's basketball program has been rated the 29th "Greatest College Basketball Program of All-Time" by Street & Smith's magazine, 49th by NBC Sports "Greatest Programs of All-Time", 75th by the ESPN/Sagarin All-Time College Basketball Rankings, higher in all three rankings than any other West Coast Conference school and many schools from BCS Conferences. Basketball got its start at USF known as St. Ignatius College, in 1910; the original coach was Orno Taylor. The scores had grown since 1895 but the writing was as florid as ever; the College Annual reported that "the entire team did nobly in the season just finished and the student body as a unit thanks them for their loyalty and devotion." The results weren't bad either. The St. Ignatius team won six of its seven games. Included in the victories was a sweep of Santa Clara, still a major rival, by scores of 38–31 and 22–13. After serving in the United States Navy from 1942 to 1946, Pete Newell was appointed men's basketball head coach at the University of San Francisco in 1946.
During his four-year tenure at USF, Newell compiled a 70–37 record and coached the Dons to the 1949 National Invitation Tournament championship, beating his alma mater, Loyola. This was the team of All-American Don Lofgran, Joe McNamee, captain John Benington, Ross Giudice, Frank Kuzara and a baby-faced guard named Rene Herrerias, thought to be the team's ball boy. New York's Madison Square Garden crowds were notoriously tough to please. Lofgran and company had them cheering in the aisles. In 1950, he accepted an appointment as head coach at Michigan State University, where he stayed until 1954, he led the University of California to the 1959 NCAA men's basketball championship, a year coached the gold medal-winning U. S. team at the 1960 Summer Olympics. After his coaching career ended he ran a world-famous instructional basketball camp and served as a consultant and scout for several National Basketball Association teams, he is considered to be one of the most influential figures in the history of basketball.
Newell left for Michigan State in 1950, USF hired Phil Woolpert as his successor. He assumed both the posts of men's basketball coach and athletic director. During his tenure at USF, Woolpert posted a 153–78 record, including a 60-game win streak that at the time was the longest in college basketball, his teams, anchored by Bill Russell, K. C. Jones, Eugene Brown and Mike Farmer, were known for their defense and held opponents below 60 points on 47 different occasions. USF won the National Championship in 1955 and 1956, finished third in 1957. At the time the youngest college basketball coach to win a national championship, Woolpert won Coach of the Year honors in 1955 and 1956. Bill Russell was ignored by major college scouts because he didn't start at McClymonds High School in Oakland, he did not receive a single letter of interest until Hal DeJulio from USF watched him in a high school game. DeJulio was not impressed by Russell's meager scoring and "atrocious fundamentals", but sensed that the young center had an extraordinary instinct for the game in clutch situations.
When DeJulio offered Russell a scholarship, the latter eagerly accepted. Sports journalist John Taylor described it as a watershed in Russell's life, because Russell realized that basketball was his one chance to escape poverty and racism. At USF, Russell became the new starting center. Woolpert emphasized defense and deliberate half-court play, concepts that favored defensive standout Russell. Woolpert was unaffected by issues of skin color. In 1954, he became the first coach of a major college basketball squad to start three African American players: Russell, K. C. Jones and Hal Perry. In his USF years, Russell used his relative lack of bulk to develop a unique style of defense: instead of purely guarding the opposing center, he used his quickness and speed to play help defense against opposing forwards and aggressively challenge their shots. Combining the stature and shot-blocking skills of a center with the foot speed of a guard, Russell became the centerpiece of a USF team that soon became a force in college basketball.
After USF kept Holy Cross star Tom Heins
The Pac-12 Conference is a collegiate athletic conference that operates in the Western United States, participating in 24 sports at the NCAA Division I level. Its football teams compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision, the higher of two tiers of NCAA Division I football competition; the conference's 12 members are located in the states of Arizona, Colorado, Oregon and Washington. They include each state's flagship public university, four additional public universities, two private research universities; the modern Pac-12 conference formed after the disbanding of the Pacific Coast Conference, whose principal members founded the Athletic Association of Western Universities in 1959. The conference went by the names Big Five, Big Six, Pacific-8, Pacific-10; the Pac-12 moniker was adopted in 2011 with the addition of Utah. Self-billed as the "Conference of Champions", the Pac-12 has won more NCAA national championships in team sports than any other conference in history; the top three schools with the most NCAA team championships are members of the Pac-12: Stanford, UCLA, USC, in that order.
Washington's national title in women's rowing in 2017 was the 500th NCAA championship won by a Pac-12 school. The current commissioner of the conference is Larry Scott. Scott replaced Thomas C. Hansen, who retired in July 2009 after 26 years in that position. Prior to joining the Pac-10, Scott was CEO of the Women's Tennis Association; the Pac-12 has twelve full member institutions. Football is the only sport where the conference is split into two divisions, the North Division and the South Division; the Pac-12's members are spread evenly between 3 regions, with 4 schools each in California, the Pacific Northwest, the Four Corners region. Endowment figures from the University of California Endowment Report. † Total University of Colorado System Endowment The Pac-12 has three affiliate member institutions in California. Note Cal State Bakersfield announced it would become a men's soccer affiliate starting in 2013, but never went through with those plans, accepting an invitation to become an all-sports member of the Western Athletic Conference, which sponsors men's soccer in 2013.
The school will maintain its Pac-12 affiliation in wrestling. No school has left the Pac-12 since its founding as the AAWU in 1959. Two members of the PCC were not invited to join its successors. Eight of the twelve member schools are members of the Association of American Universities, including all four California-based schools; the only FBS conference with more AAU members is the Big Ten with 13 out of 14 member institutions having AAU membership. University of Arizona University of California, Berkeley University of California, Los Angeles University of Colorado Boulder University of Oregon University of Southern California Stanford University University of WashingtonAdditionally, these member schools are highly ranked nationally and globally by various groups, including the Academic Ranking of World Universities and Times Higher Education World University Rankings. Total revenue includes ticket sales and donations, rights and licensing, student fees, school funds and all other sources including TV income, camp income and novelties.
Total expenses includes coach and staff salaries, scholarships and grounds, maintenance and rental fees, team travel and uniforms, conference dues, insurance. The following table is updated to show institutional reporting to the Department of Education as shown on the DOE Equity in Athletics website for the 2013–14 academic year; the national ranking of revenue is based on 2075 institutions reporting to the Department of Education that year. Source: http://ope.ed.gov/athletics. The roots of the Pac-12 Conference go back to December 2, 1915, when the Pacific Coast Conference was founded at a meeting at the Imperial Hotel in Portland, Oregon. Charter members were the University of California, University of Washington, University of Oregon, Oregon Agricultural College; the PCC began play in 1916. One year Washington State College joined the league, followed by Stanford University in 1918. In 1922, the PCC expanded to eight teams with the admission of Idaho. Montana joined the Conference in 1924, in 1928, the PCC grew to 10 members with the addition of UCLA.
For many years, the conference split into two divisions for basketball and baseball – a Southern Division comprising the four California schools and a Northern Division comprising the six schools in the Pacific Northwest. In 1950, Montana departed to join the Mountain States Conference; the PCC continued as a nine-team league through June 1959. Following "pay-for-play" scandals at California, USC, UCLA, Washington, the PCC disbanded in June 1959. Ten months earlier in August 1958, these four schools agreed to form a new conference that would take effect the following summer; when the four schools and Stanford began discussions for a new conference in 1959, retired Admiral Thomas J. Hamilton interceded and suggested the schools consider creating a national "power conference". Nicknamed the "Airplane Conference," the five former PCC schools would have played with other major academically-oriented schools, including Army, Air Force, Notre Dame, Penn State, Syracuse; the effort fell through when a Pentagon official vetoed the idea and the service academies backed out.
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18