National Invitation Tournament
The National Invitation Tournament is a mens college basketball tournament operated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Played at Madison Square Garden in New York City each March and April, over time it became eclipsed by the NCAA Division I Mens Basketball Tournament – known today informally as March Madness and The Big Dance. The NIT has since been regarded more as a tournament for teams that did not receive a berth in the NCAA tournament. A second, much more recent NIT tournament is played in November, formerly the Preseason NIT, it was founded in 1985. Like the postseason NIT, its final rounds are played at Madison Square Garden, both tournaments were operated by the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Association until 2005, when they were purchased by the NCAA, and the MIBA disbanded. Unless otherwise qualified, the terms NIT or National Invitation Tournament refer to the tournament in both common and official use. The first NIT was won by the Temple University Owls over the Colorado Buffaloes and this became the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Association in 1948.
Originally the tournament invited a field of 6 teams, with all games played at Madison Square Garden in downtown Manhattan. The field was expanded to 8 teams in 1941,12 in 1949,14 in 1965,16 in 1968,24 in 1979,32 in 1980, in 2007, the tournament reverted to the current 32-team format. Some conferences, such as the Southeastern Conference, were racially segregated, from its onset and at least into the mid-1950s, the NIT was regarded as the most prestigious showcase for college basketball. The winner of the National Invitation Tournament was regarded as more of a national champion than the actual, national champion, several teams played in both the NIT and NCAA tournaments in the same year, beginning with Colorado and Duquesne in 1940. Colorado won the NIT in 1940 but subsequently finished fourth in the NCAA West Region, in 1949, some Kentucky players were bribed by gamblers to lose their first round game in the NIT. This same Kentucky team went on to win the NCAA, the champions of both the NCAA and NIT tournaments played each other for a few years during World War II.
From 1943 to 1945, the American Red Cross sponsored a charity game between each years tournament champions to raise money for the war effort. The series was described by Ray Meyer as not just benefit games, the NCAA champion prevailed in all three games. The Helms Athletic Foundation retroactively selected the NIT champion as its champion for 1938. In 1943 the NCAA tournament moved to share Madison Square Garden with the NIT in an effort to increase the credibility of the NCAA Tournament. In 1945, The New York Times indicated that many teams could get bids to enter either tournament, the team played in the NIT instead, which it won
Peter Francis Newell was an American college mens basketball coach and basketball instructional coach. He coached for 15 years at the University of San Francisco, Michigan State University, after his coaching career ended he ran a world-famous instructional basketball camp and served as a consultant and scout for several National Basketball Association teams. He is often considered to be one of the most influential figures in the history of basketball and he was born in Vancouver and grew up in Los Angeles. Encouraged by his mother, he had roles in several movies before he turned ten. It is even said that Charlie Chaplin considered him for the role in his film The Kid. Newell attended both school and college in Los Angeles and was a classmate of Phil Woolpert at Loyola Marymount University. He played on the basketball team, after serving in the United States Navy from 1942 to 1946, Newell was appointed head mens basketball coach at the University of San Francisco in 1946. During his four-year tenure at USF, Newell compiled a 70-37 record, in 1950 he accepted an appointment as head coach at Michigan State University, where he stayed until 1954.
Newell returned to the West Coast in 1954 when he was hired as coach at the University of California. Newell himself earned national Coach of the Year honors in 1960, at Berkeley, he became a faculty initiate of the Nu Chapter of Phi Kappa Tau Fraternity where player Darrall Imhoff was a member. His win in the Olympics made him one of three coaches to win the Triple Crown of NCAA, NIT and Olympic championships. Newell is known to have introduced the offense in the late nineteen fifties. After being advised by doctors to give up coaching because of stress, among his various achievements includes having a winning record against UCLA Coach John Wooden, considered by many to be the greatest coach in college basketball history. After retiring from coaching, Newell served as executive or scout for several NBA teams. He served as General Manager of the San Diego Rockets from 1968 to 1971, after a short stint in Houston, to assist with the transfer, Pete returned to the west coast and joined the Los Angeles Lakers.
As general manager of the Lakers, he was instrumental in trading for star center Kareem Abdul-Jabbar from the Milwaukee Bucks and he retired from his job as Lakers GM in 1976 to spend more time with his ailing wife. Considered Americas Basketball Guru, Newell conducted a training camp for centers and forwards known simply as Big Man Camp. The camp originated when word spread that Newell was working with Kermit Washington, after Washingtons game rapidly improved and more big men started to work with Newell, and he opened the camp
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college. In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, the phrase is variously translated as nourishing mother, nursing mother, or fostering mother, suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Before its modern usage, Alma mater was a title in Latin for various mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele. The source of its current use is the motto, Alma Mater Studiorum, of the oldest university in continuous operation in the Western world and it is related to the term alumnus, denoting a university graduate, which literally means a nursling or one who is nourished. The phrase can denote a song or hymn associated with a school, although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not frequently used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. Alma Redemptoris Mater is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary, the earliest documented English use of the term to refer to a university is in 1600, when University of Cambridge printer John Legate began using an emblem for the universitys press.
In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is often cited in 1710, many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name. The University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the Alma Mater of the Nation because of its ties to the founding of the United States. At Queens University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses, outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Compton High School
Compton High School is a high school in Compton, California, USA, part of the Compton Unified School District. During the 1960s, there was a transition from a white student body to one which was predominantly African-American. Today, Compton High School is over eighty percent Latino as immigrants settled in South Los Angeles, Compton Colleges mascot name is the Tartars, named after the Turkic Tatars, so the mascot name for Compton High School became the Tartar Babies. The mascot itself is Baby Tartar who wears a diaper and carries a big sword. W. net Compton High School profile provided by schooltree. org
San Francisco Dons men's basketball
The San Francisco Dons mens basketball team represents the University of San Francisco in NCAA Division I mens college basketball. The Dons compete in the West Coast Conference, in which they have the winningest program, the current head coach is Kyle Smith. They play home games at the War Memorial Gymnasium, which serves as the venue for womens basketball, athletic department offices. The basketball team has won three titles, the 1949 NIT under Pete Newell, and the 1955 and 1956 NCAA championships. The latter two were under Phil Woolpert, and led by player and National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Famer Bill Russell, USF retained its status as a basketball powerhouse into the 1970s and early 1980s, holding the distinction of being a major program in a mid-major conference. It held the one spot in the polls on numerous occasions. In 1977, led by All-American center Bill Cartwright, the Dons went 29–0 and were regarded as the #1 team in the nation in both polls before dropping their last two games.
Basketball got its start at USF, known as St. Ignatius College, the original coach was Orno Taylor, whose subsequent achievements were lost to history. The scores had grown since 1895 but the writing was as florid as ever, the College Annual reported that the entire team did nobly in the season just finished and the student body as a unit thanks them for their loyalty and devotion. The St. Ignatius team won six of its seven games, included in the victories was a sweep of Santa Clara, still a major rival, by scores of 38–31 and 22–13. After serving in the United States Navy from 1942 to 1946, during his four-year tenure at USF, Newell compiled a 70–37 record and coached the Dons to the 1949 National Invitation Tournament championship, beating his alma mater, Loyola. New Yorks Madison Square Garden crowds were notoriously tough to please, lofgran and company had them cheering in the aisles. In 1950, he accepted an appointment as coach at Michigan State University. He led the University of California to the 1959 NCAA mens basketball championship, after his coaching career ended he ran a world-famous instructional basketball camp and served as a consultant and scout for several National Basketball Association teams.
He is often considered to be one of the most influential figures in the history of basketball, Newell left for Michigan State in 1950, and USF hired Phil Woolpert as his successor. He assumed both the posts of mens basketball coach and athletic director, during his tenure at USF, Woolpert posted a 153–78 record, including a 60-game win streak that at the time was the longest in college basketball. His teams, anchored by Bill Russell, K. C. Jones, Eugene Brown and Mike Farmer, were known for their defense, USF won the National Championship in 1955 and 1956, and finished third in 1957. At the time the youngest college basketball coach to win a national championship, Bill Russell was ignored by major college scouts, largely because he didnt even start at McClymonds High School in Oakland
De Benneville Bert Bell was the National Football League commissioner from 1945 until his death in 1959. He was posthumously inducted into the class of the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Bell played football at the University of Pennsylvania, where as quarterback, after being drafted into the US Army during World War I, he returned to complete his collegiate career at Penn and went on to become an assistant football coach with the Quakers in the 1920s. During the Great Depression, he was an assistant coach for the Temple Owls and he subsequently became sole proprietor of the Eagles, but the franchise suffered financially. Eventually, he sold the team and bought a share in the Pittsburgh Steelers, during World War II, Bell astutely argued against the league suspending operations until the wars conclusion. After the war, he was elected NFL commissioner and sold his ownership in the Steelers, amid criticism from franchise owners and under pressure from Congress, he unilaterally recognized the NFLPA and facilitated in the development of the first pension plan for the players.
He survived to oversee the Greatest Game Ever Played and to envision what the league would become in the future, Bell was born de Benneville Bell, on February 25,1895, in Philadelphia to John C. Bell and Fleurette de Benneville Myers and his father was an attorney who served a term as the Pennsylvania Attorney General. His older brother, John C. Jr. was born in 1892, berts parents were very wealthy, and his mothers lineage predated the American Revolutionary War. His father, a Quaker of the University of Pennsylvania during the days of American football. Thereafter, Bell regularly engaged in games with childhood friends. In 1904, Bell matriculated at the Episcopal Academy, the Delancey School from 1909 to 1911, about this time, his father was installed as athletics director at Penn and helped form the National Collegiate Athletic Association. At Haverford, Bell captained the football and baseball teams. Although he excelled at baseball, his devotion was to football and his father, who was named a trustee at Penn in 1911, said of Bells plans for college, Bert will go to Penn or he will go to hell.
Bell entered Penn in the fall of 1914 as an English major, in a rare occurrence for a sophomore, he became the starting quarterback for Penns coach George H. Brooke. On the team, he was as a defender, after the teams 3–0 start, Bell temporarily shared possession of his quarterbacking duties until he subsequently reclaimed them in the season, as Penn finished with a record of 3–5–2. Prior to Penns 1916 season, his mother died while he was en route to her bedside, nevertheless, he started the first game for the Quakers under new coach Bob Folwell, but mixed results left him platooned for the rest of the season. Penn finished with a record of 7–2–1, the Quakers secured an invitation to the 1917 Rose Bowl against the Oregon Ducks
Paul John Tagliabue is the former Commissioner of the National Football League. He took the position in 1989 and was succeeded by Roger Goodell, tagliabues retirement took effect on September 1,2006. He had previously served as a lawyer for the NFL, Tagliabue served as Chairman of Board of Directors of Georgetown University from 2008 to 2015. Tagliabue was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, the third of four sons of Charles, Tagliabue received an athletic scholarship to play basketball at Georgetown University and was captain of the 1961-1962 team. He graduated in 1962 as president of his class, a Rhodes Scholar finalist. Tagliabue graduated from New York University School of Law in 1965 and he has received honorary degrees from Colgate University and Northeastern University. From 1969 to 1989, Tagliabue practiced law with the Washington, after serving as a lawyer for the NFL, Tagliabue was selected by NFL owners to succeed Pete Rozelle as Commissioner of the NFL in 1989. During his tenure as commissioner, the NFL expanded from 28 teams to 32, New franchises were announced in 1993 to begin play in 1995 in Charlotte and Jacksonville.
The 32nd franchise was the Houston Texans, added in 2002, the NFL continued to play pre-season games in Europe with the American Bowl series. Paul Tagliabue started a developmental league, the World League of American Football, with seven teams in North America. The European teams dominated in 1991, the first season, after the second season,1992, in which US-based teams played in the World Bowl, the World League was shut down as it was no success in the US. In 1995, the league returned as the NFL Europe with six teams in Europe. When Tagliabue retired, five teams were based in Germany, tagliabues successor Roger Goodell shut down the NFL Europe after the 2007 season. On the other hand, the NFL International Series began in October 2007 with regular games in London. In 1995, Los Angeles lost both its franchises, as the Los Angeles Rams relocated to St. Louis, and the Raiders returned to Oakland, in 1996, the Browns moved to Baltimore, under a new name, as indicated above. In 1997, the Houston Oilers relocated to Tennessee, for one year in Memphis and it was the first time the league canceled an entire weeks slate of games since the 1987 NFL strike. A week later, it was announced that the games would be added to the end of the regular season.
In 1993, Super Bowl XXVII was to be held for the first time in Arizona, Tagliabue moved the Super Bowl to Pasadena
1956 Summer Olympics
The 1956 Games were the first to be staged in the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania, as well as the first to be held outside Europe and North America. Melbourne is the southernmost city to host the games, equestrian events could not be held in Australia due to quarantine regulations. This was the second Olympics not to be entirely in one country, the first being the 1920 Summer Olympics. Melbourne was selected as the host city over bids from Buenos Aires, Mexico City and six American cities on 28 April 1949, at the 43rd IOC Session in Rome, many members of the IOC were sceptical about Melbourne as an appropriate site. Its location in the Southern Hemisphere was a concern, since the reversal of seasons would mean the Games were held during the northern winter. This was thought likely to inconvenience athletes from the Northern Hemisphere, notwithstanding these concerns, the field of candidates eventually narrowed to two Southern Hemisphere cities, these being Melbourne and Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Melbourne was selected, in 1949, to host the 1956 Olympics by a one-vote margin, the above problems of the Melbourne Games were compounded by bickering over financing among Australian politicians. Faced with a shortage, the Premier of Victoria refused to allocate money for the Olympic Village. At one point, IOC President Avery Brundage suggested that Rome, as late as April 1955, Brundage was still doubtful about Melbourne, and was not satisfied by an inspection trip to the city. Construction was well under way by then, thanks to a $4.5 million federal loan to Victoria and he still held out the possibility that Rome might have to step in. By the beginning of 1956, though, it was obvious that Melbourne would be ready for the Olympics. Meanwhile, in 1956 the Soviet Union crushed the Hungarian Revolution, and the Soviet presence at the Games led to the withdrawal of the Netherlands, Cambodia and Switzerland. Less than two weeks before the 22 November opening ceremony, the Peoples Republic of China chose to boycott the event because the Republic of China had been allowed to compete.
Although the number of participating was almost the same as in 1952. Once underway, the Games unfolded smoothly, and became known as the Friendly Games. Betty Cuthbert, an 18-year-old from Sydney, won the 100- and 200-metre dashes and ran a final leg in the 4 x 100-metre relay to overcome Great Britains lead. The veteran Shirley Strickland repeated in the 80-metre hurdles and ran on the team, running her career total to seven. Australia did well in swimming and they won all of the freestyle races and womens, and collected a total of eight gold, four silver and two bronze medals
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, after a fall in stock prices that began around September 4,1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s, however, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%, unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%.
Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries, farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time, john D. Rockefeller said These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come, prosperity has always returned and will again. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April and this was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929. Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered losses in the stock market the previous year. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S, by mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed.
By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928, prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930
Lynwood is a city in Los Angeles County, California. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 69,772. Lynwood is located near South Gate and Compton in the portion of the Los Angeles Basin. Incorporated in 1921, the city is named for Mrs. Lynn Wood Sessions, wife of a local dairyman, the local railroad siding and Pacific Electric Railway station were named after the dairy. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 4.8 square miles. The 2010 United States Census reported that Lynwood had a population of 69,772, the population density was 14,415.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Lynwood was 27,444 White,7,168 African American,464 Native American,457 Asian,206 Pacific Islander,31,652 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 60,452 persons. The census reported that 67,120 people lived in households,449 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 1,281 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 105 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,064 households were made up of individuals and 328 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 4.57.
There were 13,138 families, the family size was 4.62. The median age was 27.8 years, for every 100 females there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males. There were 15,277 housing units at a density of 3,156.4 per square mile, of which 6,829 were owner-occupied. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1. 9%, the vacancy rate was 3. 7%. 34,023 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 33,097 people lived in housing units. As of the census of 2000, there are 69,845 people,14,395 households, there are 14,987 housing units at an average density of 1,193. 1/km². The racial makeup of the city is 33. 62% white,13. 53% African American,1. 20% Native American,0. 76% Asian,0. 39% Pacific Islander,46. 14% from other races, and 4. 36% from two or more races. 82. 33% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race,7. 7% of all households are made up of individuals and 2. 6% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. The name Melbourne refers to an urban agglomeration spanning 9,900 km2, the metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of 4,641,636 as of 2016, and its inhabitants are called Melburnians. Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemens Land on 30 August 1835, in what was the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837. It was named Melbourne by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in 1847, during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the worlds largest and wealthiest cities.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the interim seat of government until 1927. It is a financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a centre for street art, music. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games, the main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australias busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo, Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the regional train. Melbourne is home to Australias most extensive network and has the worlds largest urban tram network. Before the arrival of settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 2000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous tribes, the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong.
The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and it would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. Batman selected a site on the bank of the Yarra River. Batman returned to Launceston in Tasmania, in early August 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe Fawkner, left Launceston on the ship Enterprize
History of the NFL Commissioner
The Commissioner of the NFL is the chief executive of the National Football League. This article details the history of the chief NFL executive. In 1920, the Canton Bulldogs were one of 14 teams to form the American Professional Football Association, Bulldogs owner Ralph Hay was named the first head of the league until a permanent president could be chosen. Hay did make one notable contribution in his tenure as Temporary Secretary. Vernon Maginnis, who operated one of Akrons professional teams in 1919, griffiths and Cupid Black either balked at or ignored overtures to run the Tigers in 1920. The Tigers, while listed as a charter member of the league, never played in it. Hay chose his own running back, Jim Thorpe, as the leagues inaugural President, Hay believed Thorpes status, Thorpe was nominally the APFAs first president, however, he spent most of the year playing for Canton. League teams regularly played those outside the league, and Thorpe allowed those games to be counted in the standings, as a result, there is some dispute whether a handful of teams, including the Chicago Tigers and Buffalo All-Americans, ever actually joined the league at all.
Thorpe was missing from that meeting, never to return to his post, as was vice-president Stan Cofall, at the same meeting where this dispute was resolved in favor of Ranneys own Akron Pros, Joseph Carr was named as the leagues new president. The Associations membership increased to 22 teams, Carr first set a deadline for the season to be completed and a minimum number of league games to be played in order to win the league championship. This led to standardized schedules and prevented teams from scheduling non-league teams to pad their win columns, after taking office as President of the NFL, Carr began cleaning up the problems surrounding professional football. By 1925, he introduced a standard contract, fashioned after the ones being used in pro baseball. In the early days of football, the game was shunned upon by many in the college area. Fearing that the pro game tainted the game, many college administrators barred players from having anything to do with the pros. Carr would try to attack this problem and bring a peace between the pros and amateur ranks, the first major challenge to Carrs authority came at the end of the 1921 season.
The Green Bay Packers admitted to having used college players under assumed names, Carr proclaimed the act not only a violation of association rules but a breach of the publics trust. The Packers were forced to withdraw from the league, however, a few months later, a group headed by future Hall of Famer Curly Lambeau applied for and was granted the Green Bay franchise. Ernie Nevers, another All-American player, did the thing a few days later