Frederiksberg Gardens is one of the largest and most attractive greenspaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with the adjacent Søndermarken it forms a green area of 64 hectares at the western edge of Inner Copenhagen, it is a romantic landscape garden designed in the English style. Frederiksberg Gardens was established by King Frederik IV in connection with the construction of Frederiksberg Palace as his new summer retreat on high grounds atop Valby Hill. Work on the project began in the last half of the 1690s with inspiration from Italy and France which Frederick, at that time still Crown Prince, had visited on several occasions, he commissioned the eminent Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin to draw a proposal and the final plan was subsequently made by Hans Heinrich Scheel, a captain in the Corps of Royal Engineers. The plan involved a parterre with a complex system of cascades on the sloping terrain in front of the new palace, it was fed by a inefficient system of pumps which never came to work properly.
In the end, Johan Cornelius Krieger, at the time working on an extension and adaption of Fredensborg Palace, north of Copenhagen, was called upon to redesign the parterre. Unusually of the time, he gave up the parterre and instead transformed the slope into a series of terraces. In the 1790s, as fashion changed, the park was adapted into an English landscape garden. P. Petersen created a new garden plan in 1795, he created a typical English-style landscape garden with winding lawns, lakes and spinneys as well as grottos, temples and summerhouses. The final result may well have been based on Johan Ludwig Mansa's book on English-style gardening written in 1798. Frederik VI was fond of the garden. From 1804, he sailed the canals in a gondola, it was moved to Frederiksborg Castle and Lake Esrum. Though a palace park, the general public had access to the grounds but sailors and people in poor clothing or carrying large bundles were turned away by the guard at the park's sole entrance. Not until 1865 did access to the park become unrestricted, in line with what was the case elsewhere in the city, such as at Langelinie.
Smørrebrødsplænen, on the corner of Roskildevej and Pile Allé, where K. B.'s tennis halls are today, became a popular picnic destination for families. Frederiksberg Gardens is an English-style Romantic landscape garden with winding paths, lakes, small islands and magnificent trees. A large variety of plants and birds can be seen, including mute swans, greylag geese, grey herons, Canada geese. Of the romantic landscape garden, the park houses two follies, waterfalls and other garden features; the main entrance to Frederiksberg Gardens was, in its present form, built in 1755, following the fire two years earlier at the Prince's House, the precursor of Frederiksberg Palace, which used to be located at the site. The gate was designed by Lauritz de Thurah who had become general master builder after Eigtved's death; the vases at the top of the two sandstone pillars were executed by the sculptor Johann Friedrich Hännel. The gate opens to a path which passes between two yellow buildings with white details.
They are the two surviving wings of the Prince's House. The south wing, located on the left-hand side when entering the park, was converted into an orangery by Nicolai Eigtved in 1744 and is now part of the Royal Danish Horticultural Society's Garden; the north wing, located on the right-hand side, is used by the park's administration. The Chinese summerhouse was completed in 1803 as a replacement for a pavilion which had stood at the center of the baroque garden but was pulled down in 1799, it was sited on a small artificial island accessible by across a bridge, built to a matching Chinese design. The summerhouse was built by the court architect Andreas Kirkerup, like the rest of the buildings in the park it was a feature well known from the English garden; the summerhouse contained two cabinets, a kitchen and lavatory. The only window in the lavatory was made of red glass; the furniture consisted of copies of Chinese furniture as well as a set of genuine Chinese bamboo furniture acquired through the Asiatic Company.
Both the exterior and the interior has rich Chinese-inspired decorations, pictures and other ornaments, there were bells on the roof. Imitation bamboo was used in the ceilings; the Apis Temple is located on the border to Copenhagen Zoo. It was designed in the style of a Roman temple by the painter Nicolai Abildgaard and built in 1802, it is named for the Egyptian bull-deity Apis, depicted on the frontispice. The temple front consists of 10 columns of which 8 are recycled from a rebuilding of Moltke's Palace while the last 2 columns are replicas. Decorations include the Ox Cranium Frieze and the Bull Relief, both carved in sandstone. On the inside, the temple consists of a barrel vaulted room with two windows which had stained glass; the room was furnished with a sofa and console tables which the royalties could use for drinking tea. From 1874 to 1970, the temple was used as entrance to the Zoo, built in 1859, the décor changed; the temple is open for the public and has been used for art exhibitions.
Like the Apis Temple, the Swiss Cottage lies in the part of the park, incorporated when the park was redesigned in the Romantic style. Designed by Abildgaard and built between 1800 and 1801, the contains a hall, a cabinet and some smaller rooms in which the royal family could take coffee after dinner or a stroll in the garden. In 1894, the house was converted into a residence for the castle gardener, the interior was radically altered; the style has little
Hans Jørgen Holm
Hans Jørgen Holm was a Danish architect. A pupil of Johan Daniel Herholdt, he became a professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and a leading Danish proponent of the National Romantic style. Born in Copenhagen, he studied at the city's College of Advanced Technology before being admitted to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, whence he graduated in 1855. In the same time he worked for Johan Daniel Herholdt. From 1883-1908 he was a Professor at the Academy. Diakonissestiftelsen, the first three wings Rysensteen Gymnasium Tietgensgades School, Copenhagen Cattle Market with slaughterhouses, Brown Meatpacking District, Copenhagen Vestre Cemetery, Copenhagen Northern Chapel, Vestre Cemetery Southern Chapel, now the focal point of the Crossroads Project, Vestre Cemetery Museum of Geology, Copenhagen Skive Church, Skive Royal Danish Library, Copenhagen List of Danish architects
Søndermarken is a park in Frederiksberg on the border to Valby and the Carlsberg area in Copenhagen, Denmark. It shares much of its history with Frederiksberg Gardens from which it is separated only by Roskildevej. Cisternerne—an underground venue for art exhibitions in the former cisterns—are located inside the park. Søndermarken was landscaped at the same time as Frederiksberg Gardens. Søndermarken features three underground cisterns which used to be part of Copenhagen's earliest water supply system. In 2001 they were converted into a museum for modern glass art, but since 2013 have been part of the Frederiksberg Museums, acting as a venue for art exhibitions, Cisternerne; the museum—located near Roskildevej, opposite the main entrance to the Copenhagen Zoo—is topped by two entrance pavilions and a fountain from 1890. The Memorial Mound is on a slope and was erected in 1925 to commemorate Danish immigration to America. In the 1920s, Danish-Americans in the United States conceived the idea to erect a memorial in Copenhagen as a counterpoint to the traditions surrounding Rebild Hills celebrations in Jutland.
A committee of Danish-Americans was set up which charged the sculptor Anders Bundgaard with the commission. After prolonged discussions, it was decided that the monument should be a mound, with an embellished inner chamber, placed in Søndermarken; the necessary funds were raised through a worldwide collection among expatriate Danes. Around $12,000 was collected and the monument was inaugurated in 1925 with a ceremony attended by 40,000 people, including the entire Danish royal family; the mound is 5 metres tall. It is reached along a narrow stone-lined passageway. Chiselled above the entrance is the inscription: "They who set out, never to return." At the top of the cupola is a metre-wide opening to let in daylight. At the centre of the room is the life-size figure of a woman who embraces her children, symbolizing Mother Denmark. Built into the wall are 9 bas-reliefs with symbolic descriptions of the emigrants’ lives and activities abroad. In the floor is a five-pointed star representing the five continents.
The memorial mound is open to the public every year on 4 July. There is a statue in the central reservation at each end of Norske Allé. At the zoo end stands a statue of Adam Oehlenschläger, one of the central persons of the Danish Golden Age, it is designed by Julius Schultz and was located at the site of the current Frederiksberg Town Hall Square and inaugurated on 24 October 1897. When the new Town Hall was built, the statue was moved to its current location in Søndermarken and placed on a new plinth, it now faces Frederiksberg Palace. At the other end of Norske Allé, near Carlsberg, stands a statue of the politician Carl Christian Hall, Danish prime minister from 1857 to 1859 and 1860 to 1863, it is designed by Vilhelm Bissen and was inaugurated on 15 September 1890. Vanguard Festival is an annual music festival with music acts representing different genre but with an emphasis on hip hop, combining it with a family-friendly atmosphere and picknic baskets. Vanguard Late Night continues the festival in Vega.
The first festival took place on 2 -- 4 August 2013. Music acts included MF Doom and Sixto Rodriguez; the festival has signed a five year contract with the Castles and Properties Agency on using the park
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, separate from Copenhagen Municipality, but both are a part of the City of Copenhagen, it occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015. Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two; some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, being one of the four municipalities that constitute the City of Copenhagen. However, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or "posh", area, and is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens, Søndermarken, Hostrups Have. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as several stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg.
The Copenhagen S-train system has several stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station and Flintholm station. Frederiksberg's original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the reciter of eldritch times; the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title. In Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as "the old thul". Thula translates like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda. By 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy, it was regarded as Copenhagen's border to the west. People lived here since the Bronze Age; the history of Frederiksberg goes back to 2 June 1651 when King Frederik III gave 20 Danish—Dutch peasants the rights to settle at Allégade, founded the town named "Ny Amager" or "Ny Hollænderby". Farming was not successful, in 1697 most of the town burned down; this meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, the land reverted to the crown by Frederik III's son Christian V. In 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke.
He named the palace Frederichs Berg, the rebuilt town at the foot of the hill changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the local houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land, but rather used the properties as country houses; the town changed from a farming community to a merchant town, with craftsmen and merchants. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the cramped city for the open land, to be near the royals; the town grew with population growing from 1,000 in 1770, to 1,200 in 1800, to 3,000 in 1850. In 1852 Parliament removed restrictions which prohibited permanent construction outside Copenhagen's city walls. Numerous residential areas were constructed, starting in the eastern part near Copenhagen, ending in the western part farthest away from Copenhagen in 1950; this led to rapid population growth. Today Frederiksberg consists entirely of 3- to 5-story residential houses, large single-family homes, large parks.
On aerial pictures Frederiksberg stands out from the surrounding city of Copenhagen as a green area with few large roads. It is considered to be one of Copenhagen's more prestigious areas to live in. Frederiksberg, which lies west of central Copenhagen, is surrounded by boroughs forming part of the city of Copenhagen – the result of an expansion of the Copenhagen Municipality's boundary in 1901, which did not include Frederiksberg in the list of municipalities to be incorporated in the enlarged area. Frederiksberg is thus a municipal island within the country's capital – a unique phenomenon in present-day Europe. Other than administratively, however, it is indistinguishable in character from the districts of Copenhagen city which surround it. Frederiksberg has several stations on the Copenhagen Metro system, is home to the tallest residential structure in Denmark and the second tallest residential building in Scandinavia: the 102-metre high Domus Vista; the Danmark Rundt cycling race traditionally finishes on Frederiksberg Alle in a sprint finish.
Frederiksberg houses the University of Copenhagen's Frederiksberg Campus, Copenhagen Business School, 9 public schools, 3 private schools, 1 technical college, more. The Lycée Français Prins Henrik, a French international school, is in Frederiksberg; the 3 streets Gammel Kongevej, Godthåbsvej, Falkoner Alle are the busiest shopping streets. The town houses the Frederiksberg Centret shopping mall. Frederiksberg Campus Frederiksberg Gardens Frederiksberg Hospital Frederiksberg Palace Frederiksberg Town Hall Copenhagen Business School Copenhagen Zoo Royal Danish Military Academy Population of Frederiksberg
Gammel Kongevej is the principal shopping street of Frederiksberg in Copenhagen, Denmark. Running parallel to Frederiksberg Allé and Vesterbrogade, it extends from Vesterport station at the southern end of The Lakes and continues for some 1.8 km west to Frederiksberg City Hall Square where it continues as Smallegade. In the opposite end, Jernbanegade connects it to Copenhagen City Hall Square. Gammel Kongevej is one of the oldest road sections in Frederiksberg providing a direct connection between Copenhagen's Western City Gate and the village of Solbjerg. From there the it continued past the Damhus Lake towards Roskilde, giving rise to the name Roskildegaden, seen in some documents from the beginning of the 17th century; the road was improved by Christian IV in the 1620s. The name Kongevejen emerged about a generation when it became the principal road to Ny Amager, as Frederiksberg was called, where the king had several properties; the name of the road changed to Gammel Kongevej after a new Route de Roie, Frederiksberg Allé, opened in 1705.
The road passed through open countryside with only a few scattered country houses until the mid-19th century when Copenhagen's fortifications were decommissioned and the city was allowed to develop freely. A number of new country houses were built along the rad but most of them were replaced by multi-story apartment buildings with shops in the ground floors in the 1880s and 1890s. P. Andersen opened the Svanholm Brewery at No. 64 in 1853. It was merged with several other breweries to form The United Breweries in 1891 and most of its buildings were replaced by a machine factory and iron factory. Part of the site was cleared in 1904–05 to make way for the new street Prinsesse Maries Allé; the rest of the industrial plant was replaced by the cinema complex Kinopalæet in 1918. Gammel Kongevej catered to the middle upper middle classes; the area next to the iron foundry was home to a small working-class neighbourhood with an infamous reputation. In the 1950s, Jørn Utzon, architect of the Sydney Opera House, drafted a project for the area, never built.
It consisted of tower blocks in a green space inspired by Japanese gardens. Dating from the 1850s, No. 78 is one of the oldest apartment buildings along the street. It has a fence towards the street; the Catholic school Ansgarstiftelsen at No. 15 is decorated with a mural byNiels Macholm mural, Just off Gammel Kongevej, between the streets H. C. Ørsteds Vej and Bülowsvej, is a small enclave, described as Denmark's first urban neighbourhood of single-family detached homes. It consists of the side streets Lindevej; the area around Sankt Jørgens Sø is home to a cluster of modern buildings which include the Tycho Brahe Planetarium and two highrises, Copenhagen Scandic Hotel and the 18-storey Codan Building. Roskildevej H. C. Ørstedsvej Source
Hellerup Station is a regional and S-train railway station serving the district of Hellerup in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is served by regional trains on the Coast Branch, as well as S-trains; the station was designed by V. C. H. Wolf and opened on 22 July 1863 with the start of service on the Klampenborg line; the station was among the first on Copenhagen's S-train network. The first S-train line included Hellerup station; this was in 1934 and the S-trains followed the northern path of today's F-line. Hellerup station was the fourth from Vanløse. Since the southern part of the F-line has a new path and several new stations have opened, all south of Hellerup; the regional train lines goes from Nivå station to Copenhagen Airport via the City Centre, the most S-train like of all regional railway lines in and around Copenhagen. And from Elsinore via the City Centre to Copenhagen Airport and further to Scania and some other provinces in southern Sweden; each hour six regional trains depart in each direction.
The station serves Copenhagen's S-train lines B, C, E, F services. For the latter line the station is terminus. Weekdays there are 60 S-train departures every hour. There are twelve departures on Line-F, six departures in each direction for the other three lines; this gives 72 departing S-trains every hour from the station's five platform tracks. This doesn't quite reflect the number of passengers who use the station, but it is still a rather important station. Hellerup station is located within Copenhagen municipality, but the immediate surroundings form the Hellerup borough of Gentofte municipality. Central Hellerup is near the station and is along the main roads built up of blocks with 4 to 5 floors. In the smaller streets many of Copenhagen's largest villas can be found and the Hellerup area is one of the richest in Denmark. Hellerup station is seen at 1:24:10 in the 1975 Olsen-banden film The Olsen Gang on the Track. Media related to Hellerup Station at Wikimedia Commons
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus