Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière
The Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière is a minor basilica in Lyon. It was built with private funds between 1884 in a dominant position overlooking the city; the site it occupies was once the Roman forum of the forum vetus, thus its name. Fourvière is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, to whom is attributed the salvation of the city of Lyon from the bubonic plague that swept Europe in 1643; each year in early December, Lyon thanks the Virgin for saving the city by lighting candles throughout the city, in what is called the Fête des Lumières or the Festival of Lights. The Virgin is credited with saving the city a number of other times, such as from a Cholera epidemic in 1832, from Prussian invasion in 1870. During the Franco-Prussian War, Prussian forces, having taken Paris, were progressing south towards Lyon, their halt and retreat were, once again, attributed by the Church to the intercession of the Virgin Mary. Speculating on the reasons for the construction of such an elaborate and expensive building, one author makes the statement that: "The reaction to the communes of Paris and Lyon were triumphalist monuments, the Sacré-Coeur of Montmartre and the basilica of Fourvière, dominating both cities.
These buildings were erected with private funds, as gigantic ex-votos, to thank God for victory over the socialists and in expiation of the sins of modern France."Perched on top of the Fourvière hill, the basilica looms impressively over the city of Lyon, from where it can be seen from many vantage points. The Basilica, which offers guided tours and contains a Museum of Sacred Art, receives 2 million visitors annually. At certain times, members of the public may access the basilica's north tower for a spectacular 180-degree view of Lyon and its suburbs. On a clear day, Mont Blanc, the highest point in Europe, can be seen in the distance; the design of the basilica, by Pierre Bossan, draws from both Romanesque and Byzantine architecture, two non-Gothic models that were unusual choices at the time. It has four main towers, a belltower topped with a gilded statue of the Virgin Mary, it features fine mosaics, superb stained glass, a crypt of Saint Joseph. Fourvière contains two churches, one on top of the other.
The upper sanctuary is ornate, while the lower is a much simpler design. Work on the triumphant basilica was begun in 1872 and finished in 1884. Finishing touches in the interior were not completed until as late as 1964. Bossan's first sketches for the basilica seem to date from 1846. At the time he was in Palermo; the basilica has acquired the local nickname of "the upside-down elephant", because the building looks like the body of an elephant and the four towers look like its legs. Les Petits Chanteurs de Saint-Marc, The Children's Choir of Saint Mark, is the official choir of the Basilica; this choir become well known after the release of the film Les Choristes. The choir's Director is Monsieur Nicolas Porte. Since 1982 the tower has housed the antennas of Radio Fourvière, the predecessor of Radios chrétiennes francophones. Fourvière has always been a popular place of pilgrimage. There has been a shrine at Fourvière dedicated to Our Lady since 1170; the chapel and parts of the building have been rebuilt at different times over the centuries, the most recent major works being in 1852 when the former steeple was replaced by a tower surmounted by a golden statue of the Virgin Mary sculpted by Joseph-Hugues Fabisch.
On 23 July 1816 twelve Marist aspirants and seminarians, climbed the hill to the shrine of Our Lady of Fourvière and placed their promise to found the Society of Mary under the corporal on the altar while Jean-Claude Courveille celebrated Mass. On 21 January 1851, Peter Julian Eymard prayed at the Shrine of Our Lady of Fourvière and was inspired to found the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament; when the city of Lyon was spared in the Franco-Prussian War, the community committed to build the present Basilica alongside the ancient chapel. Three hares - an architectural icon and religious symbol used in the basilica. Credited for architectural work within the monumental edifice is Louis Jean Perrin the father-in-law of Paul Claudel. Bossan was his père nourricier. Picture of Statue atop the Chapelle de la Vierge Basilica Notre Dame de Fourvière Website
Basilica of Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, Paris
Located at 6, rue Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, in the 2nd arrondissement of Paris, Notre-Dame-des-Victoires is one of ten minor basilicas located in the Île-de-France region of France. The closest Metro station is'Bourse'. In 1619 the Discalced Augustinians established their convent, Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, on three hectares of land they had purchased by the bourse of the city, located at the intersection of the Place des Petits-Pères and Rue de la Banque. Notre Dame des Victoires is the former chapel of the Augustinian fathers, built in the years 1629-1740. On December 8, 1629 the foundations were blessed by the Archbishop of Jean-François de Gondi; the next day, King Louis XIII himself laid the cornerstone in the presence of the Court's'seigneurs' and the city's officials. The construction was funded by King Louis on the condition that it be dedicated to his victory over the Protestants at La Rochelle, which he attributed to the intercession of the Blessed Mother; the first church being too small, reconstruction commenced in 1656 according to the plans of Pierre Le Muet.
Libéral Bruant, Robert Boudin, Gabriel Leduc oversaw this work. The new church, not yet completed, was consecrated in 1666. Work was finalized in 1737 under the supervision of Sylvain Cartaud, he oversaw the expansion of the nave, the construction of the façade as well as the construction of the transept's striking spherical roof. The sanctuary is graced by several paintings by the French painter Louis-Michel van Loo. A large garden and a double-cloister existed at the site until the Revolution. At that time, they fell into disuse; the church was converted into the home of the national lottery and a stock exchange during the Directory, but was returned to the practice of worship under the First Empire. The remnants of the monastery were destroyed in 1858 and a police station as well as an office for the mayor of the arrondissement were constructed in their place. After 1809 Notre Dame des Victoires became a parish church, but as it was located in a business area, it had few parishioners; the curé Charles-Éléonore Dufriche-Desgenettes thought he had failed in his ministry and wanted to resign his functions in Our Lady of Victories when on the 3 December 1836, during the Consecration of the Mass, he received what he believed to be an instantaneous and complete intellectual infusion of the requirements and activities for the Archconfraternity of the Immaculate Heart of Mary from the Blessed Virgin Mary who inspired Fr.
Desgenettes to consecrate the parish to her Immaculate Heart and to invite men living and working in the parish area to come to a meeting. At the meeting Fr. Desgenettes invited the men to wear a White Scapular with an image of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and the words "SWEET HEART OF MARY BE MY SALVATION" on the front scapular and the symbols and words "REFUGE OF SINNERS, PRAY FOR US" on the back scapular, they called this parish men's group: the Confraternity of Our Lady, Refuge of Sinners.. Fr. Desgenettes wrote down his entire inspiration and submitted it to the Holy See. Only two years in 1838, Pope Gregory XVI approved and established the Archconfraternity of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. By 1870, there were 22 million members of this Archconfraternity worldwide and a Religious Congregation founded by Saint Anthony Mary Claret, The Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, aka Claretians or Claretian Missionary Fathers. Many of the famous French Catholics of the period maintained a connection to the Church.
These included Ven. Francis Libermann and the refounders of the Holy Ghost Fathers and a whole host of Foreign Missions seminarians and priests, including St. Theophane Venard. Blessed John Henry Newman went there to give thanks for his conversion, the subject of prayer there; the young Therese Martin prayed before the same statue for Our Lady's help in realizing her vocation. Notre-Dame des Victoires was elevated to basilica status in 1927. Notre-Dame-des-Victoires is famous for the ex voto offerings left there by the faithful. Over 37,000 devotional plaques and gold hearts, as well as military decorations, have been left at the Basilica; the faithful leave these items at the Basilica in thanksgiving for favors believed to have been received from the Blessed Mother. The Basilica once served as a stational church along the pilgrimage route to Compostela; as such, many of the ex voto offerings have been left by faithful unable to make the long journey to the Shrine of Compostela itself. Basilica Website Historical information as well as a Profile of the Organ Photo Gallery
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
Our Lady of La Salette
Our Lady of La Salette is a Marian apparition reported by two children, Maximin Giraud and Mélanie Calvat to have occurred at La Salette-Fallavaux, France, in 1846. On 19 September 1851, Pope Pius IX formally approved the public devotion and prayers to Our Lady of La Salette, referring to its messages of apparition as "secrets". On 24 August 1852, Pope Pius IX once again mentioned the construction of the altar to La Salette; the same papal bull granted the foundation of the Association of Our Lady of La Salette, formalised on 7 September 1852. On 21 August 1879, Pope Leo XIII formally granted a canonical coronation to the Virgin Mary's image at the Basilica of Our Lady of La Salette. A Russian style tiara was granted to the image, instead of the solar-type tiara used in its traditional depictions of Our Lady during her apparitions. There is a sanctuary dedicated to Our Lady of La Salette in Oliveira de Azeméis, in Portugal, a shrine in Enfield, New Hampshire, Attleboro, Massachusetts in the United States, both known for their Christmas lights, a Chapel in San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, in México.
In 1846 the village of La Salette consisted of nine scattered hamlets. The population was about 800, principally small farmers with their dependents. On the evening of Saturday, 19 September 1846, Maximin Giraud and Mélanie Calvat returned from the mountain where they had been minding cows and reported seeing "a beautiful lady" on Mount Sous-Les Baisses, weeping bitterly, they described her as sitting with her elbows her face buried in her hands. She was clothed in a white robe studded with pearls. Around her neck she wore a crucifix suspended from a small chain. According to their account, she continued to weep as she spoke to them, first in French in their own dialect of Occitan. After giving a secret to each child, the apparition vanished. After five years of investigation, the Bishop of Grenoble, Philibert de Bruillard announced in 1851 that the apparition was to be a true revelation and authorised the commencement of the following of Our Lady of La Salette; this determination was confirmed by his successor, Bishop Ginoulhiac.
According to the children's account, the Virgin invited people to respect the repose of the seventh day, to respect the name of God. She sorrowfully threatened punishment, in particular a scarcity of potatoes; the context of these punishments places the warning just prior to the winter of 1846–1847, in Europe, in France and in Ireland, a period of famine in the months which followed the apparition. This was one of the factors of the apparition's popular appeal; the message of the visionaries of La Salette focuses on the conversion of all humanity to Christ. John Vianney, John Bosco, writer Joris-Karl Huysmans were all influenced by La Salette; the spirit of La Salette is said to be one of prayer and commitment. Fr. René J. Butler, M. S. of the La Salette Missionaries of North America says "The whole purpose of the Apparition of Our Lady of La Salette was reconciliation."Pope John Paul II stated: "As I wrote on the occasion of the 150th anniversary,'La Salette is a message of hope, for our hope is nourished by the intercession of her, the Mother of mankind."
Sensation about Our Lady of La Salette arose when Mélanie and Maximin made their message public, which caused the bishop of Grenoble to investigate the apparition. During the investigation, a number of accusations were made against the visionaries, including the assertion that the apparition was just a middle-aged woman named La Merlière. No mention of secrets is made in the children's first accounts out of fear they would be compelled to disclose them; the children reported that the Blessed Virgin had confided a special secret to each of them. These two secrets, which neither Mélanie nor Maximin made known to each other, were sent by them in 1851 to Pope Pius IX on the advice of Mgr. de Bruillard. It is assumed. Maximin advised the Marquise de Monteyard, "Ah, it is good fortune." Maximin Giraud, after an unhappy and wandering life, returned to Corps, his native village, died on 1 March 1875 before turning 40. Mélanie Calvat died as a Catholic nun at Altamura, Italy, on 15 December 1904; the Missionaries of Our Lady of La Salette were founded in 1852 by Bp.
Philbert de Bruillard, Bishop of Grenoble and presently serve in some 25 countries. The National Shrine of Our Lady of La Salette is located in Massachusetts. Marian apparition Our Lady of Fátima Visions of Jesus and Mary Léon Bloy § Our Lady of La Salette Sanctuary of Our Lady of La Salette – Official website Missionaries of La Salette official website Missionaries of La Salette vocations website "Modern History Sourcebook: The Apparitions at La Salette, 1846", Fordham Jesuit University of New York "Basics on Apparitions", Univ. of Dayton Northcote, James Spencer. A Pilgrimage to La Salette, Or, A Critical Examination of All the Facts Connected with the Alleged Apparition of the Blessed Virgin to Two Children on the Mountain of La Salette, on Sep. 19, 1846, Burns and Lambert, London, 1852 Ullathorne O. S. B. William Bernard; the holy mountain of La Salette: a pilgrimage of the year 1854, Oxford University, 1854 Dickens, Charles, "History of a Miracle", Household Words, A Weekly Journal, Volume 18, Bradbury & Evans, 1858 Diocese of Grenoble at Catholic Encyclopedia "La Salette", Dictionary of Mary.
New York: Catholic Book Publishing Company, 1985 The truth about the Secret of La Salette by CRC
Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
The real presence of Christ in the Eucharist is a term used in Christian theology to express the doctrine that Jesus is or present in the Eucharist, not symbolically or metaphorically. There are a number of different views in the understanding of the meaning of the term "reality" in this context among contemporary Christian confessions which accept it, including the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Church of the East, Lutheranism and Methodism; these differences correspond to literal or figurative interpretations of Christ's Words of Institution, as well as questions related to the concept of realism in the context of the Platonic substance and accident. Efforts at mutual understanding of the range of beliefs by these Churches led in the 1980s to consultations on Baptism and Ministry through the World Council of Churches. By contrast, the doctrine is rejected by Anabaptists. Eucharistic theology as a branch of Christian theology developed during the medieval period.
An early debate on the question took place in the 9th century, after Charles the Bald had posed the question if the body and blood of Christ were to be a mystery of faith, or if they were present. Contrary positions were taken by Paschasius Ratramnus. Ratramnus held that the body of Christ was present spiritually but not physically, while Paschasius emphasized the true presence of the body of Christ; the dispute was resolved by Paschasius in a letter to Frudiger, in which he clarified his position to the effect that the true nature of the sacramental body of Christ is spiritual, so that the true presence of Christ's body is spiritual and not physical in nature, so that its presence in the Eucharist is real and symbolic at the same time. The question of the nature of the Eucharist became virulent for the second time in the Western Church in the 11th century, when Berengar of Tours denied that any material change in the elements was needed to explain the Eucharistic presence; this caused a controversy.
In 1215, the Fourth Lateran Council used the word transubstantiated in its profession of faith, when speaking of the change that takes place in the Eucharist. It was only in the 13th century that Aristotelian metaphysics was accepted and a philosophical elaboration in line with that metaphysics was developed, which found classic formulation in the teaching of Saint Thomas Aquinas. Scholasticism cast Christian theology in the terms of Aristotelianism, it is important to understand that the terms real and substance in real presence and transubstantiation are to be understood within the framework of Aristotelian substance theory, not in the now-current meaning of referring to the physical or material. Medieval philosophers who used Aristotelian concepts distinguished between substantial forms and accidental forms. For Aristotle, a "substance" is an individual thing, which may possess accidental forms as non-essential properties. During the medieval period, the question was debated within the Western Church.
Following the Protestant Reformation, it became a central topic of division between the various emerging confessions. The Lutheran doctrine of the real presence, known as "the Sacramental Union", was formulated in the Augsburg Confession of 1530. Luther decidedly supported the doctrine, publishing The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ—Against the Fanatics in 1526. Thus, the main theological division in this question, turned out to be not between Catholicism and Protestantism, but within Protestantism between Luther and Zwingli, who discussed the question at the Marburg Colloquy of 1529 but who failed to come to an agreement. Zwingli's view became associated with the term Memorialism, suggesting an understanding of the Eucharist held purely "in memory of" Christ. While this describes the position of the Anabaptists and derived traditions, it is not the position held by Zwingli himself, who affirmed that Christ is though not present in the sacrament; the Council of Trent, held 1545–1563 in reaction to the Protestant Reformation and initiating the Catholic Counter-Reformation, promulgated the view of the real presence in which the "change of the whole substance of the bread into the body, of the whole substance of the wine into the blood, only the appearances remaining.
It became virulent in 1629, when Cyril Lucaris denied the doctrine of transubstantiation, using the Greek translation metousiosis for the concept. To counter the teaching of Lucaris, Metropolitan Petro Mohyla of Kiev drew up in Latin an Orthodox Confession in defense of transubstantiation; this Confession was approved by all the Greek-speaking Patriarchs in 1643, again by the 1672 Synod of Jerusalem. The Catholic Church understands the presence of Christ in the Eucharist as real, to say and not dependent on faith; the Catholic Church understands the real, objective presence of Christ as coming about by the transformation of the substance of the bread and wine into the substance of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, with no change in the appearances of the bread and wine.
La Mure is a commune in the Isère département in southeastern France. It is located 35 km south of Grenoble on the plateau Matheysin; the Chemin de fer de la Mure is a small touristic train using a railway built for the transportation of coal between Saint-Georges-de-Commiers and La Mure. The line was inaugurated on 24 July 1888; the Arboretum de Combe Noire is a nearby arboretum created by teachers and staff Saint Pierre-Julien Eymard, Roman Catholic priest founder of Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament and canonized in 1962, was born in la Mure on 4 February 1811. Prunières Sousville Susville Ponsonnas Pierre-Châtel Saint-Honoré La Mure is twinned with: Marktredwitz, Germany Communes of the Isère department Route Napoléon INSEE statistics La Mure official site in French Site of the plateau matheysin in French Site of the La Mure train and railway La Mure official tourism office in French
First Communion is a ceremony in some Christian traditions during which a person first receives the Eucharist. It is most common in the Latin Church tradition of the Catholic Church, as well as in many parts of the Lutheran Church and Anglican Communion. In churches that celebrate First Communion, it occurs between the ages of seven and thirteen acting as a rite of passage. Catholics believe this event to be important, as the Eucharist occupies a central role in Catholic theology and practice. First Communion is not celebrated in the Eastern Orthodox churches, the Oriental Orthodox churches, or the Assyrian Church of the East, as they practice infant communion; some Anglicans allow infant communion, while others require the previous reception of confirmation during the teenage years. Celebration of this ceremony is less elaborate in many Protestant churches. Catholics and some Protestants believe that Christ is present in the Eucharist, although only Catholics and some Anglo-Catholics of the Anglican Communion believe this is through transubstantiation.
Other denominations have varying understandings, ranging from the Eucharist being a symbolic meal to a meal of remembering Christ's last supper. The sacrament of First Communion is an important tradition for Catholic individuals. For Catholics, Holy Communion is the third of seven sacraments received, it occurs only after receiving Baptism, once the person has reached the age of reason. First confession must precede the reception of the Eucharist; this order of the sacraments is practiced universally by all Latin rite Catholics. In 1910, Pope Pius X issued the decree Quam singulari, which changed the age at which First Communion is taken to 7 years old. Local standards had been 10 or 12 or 14 years old. Byzantine Catholics celebrate the sacraments of baptism and Holy Communion on the same day as an infant's baptism. Traditions of celebration surrounding First Communion include large family gatherings and parties to celebrate the event; the first communicant wears special clothing. The clothing is white to symbolize purity, but not in all cultures.
A girl wears a fancy dress and a veil attached to a chaplet of flowers or some other hair ornament. In other communities, girls wear dresses passed down to them from sisters or mothers, or simply their school uniforms with the veil or wreath. Boys may wear a suit and tie, their Sunday best, or national dress, with embroidered arm bands worn on the left arm and white gloves. In many Latin American countries, boys wear military-style dress uniforms with gold braid aiguillettes. In Switzerland, both boys and girls wear plain white robes with brown wooden crosses around their necks. In Spain, Luxembourg and Guam, girls are dressed up as little brides, although this has been replaced by albs in recent times. In Scotland, boys traditionally wear kilts and other traditional Scottish dress which accompany the kilt. In the Philippines, First Communion services occur on or around the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, with boys donning either the Barong Tagalog or semi-formal Western dress, girls a plain white dress and sometimes a veil.
Gifts of a religious nature are given, such as rosaries, prayer books, religious statues and holy cards. Monetary gifts are common. Many families have formal professional photographs taken in addition to candid snapshots in order to commemorate the event; some churches arrange for a professional photographer after the ceremony. During the communist era, initiation into the pioneer movement in communist countries that had large Catholic populations was an overt attempt to supplant the Catholic ritual. In all cases, a child at the age of seven to ten is initiated as a member of a group within which the individuals share certain values and culture. Communion and the developmentally disabled Confirmation Parish register Quam singulari A Letter from the Vatican: First Penance, First Communion Catholic Encyclopedia: Communion of Children