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Peter Kropotkin

Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin was a Russian activist, revolutionary, economist, historian, researcher, political scientist, biologist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism. Born into an aristocratic land-owning family, he attended a military school and served as an officer in Siberia, where he participated in several geological expeditions, he was managed to escape two years later. He spent the next 41 years in exile in England. While in exile, Kropotkin gave lectures and published on anarchism and geography, he returned to Russia after the Russian Revolution in 1917 but was disappointed by the Bolshevik form of state socialism. Kropotkin was a proponent of a decentralised communist society free from central government and based on voluntary associations of self-governing communities and worker-run enterprises, he wrote many books and articles, the most prominent being The Conquest of Bread and Fields and Workshops. He contributed the article on anarchism to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition and left unfinished a work on anarchist ethical philosophy.

Pyotr Kropotkin was born into an ancient Russian princely family. His father, major general Prince Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin, was a descendant of the Smolensk branch, of the Rurik dynasty which had ruled Russia before the rise of the Romanovs. Kropotkin's father owned nearly 1,200 male serfs in three provinces, his mother was the daughter of a Cossack general."Under the influence of republican teachings", Kropotkin dropped his princely title at age 12, "even rebuked his friends, when they so referred to him."In 1857, at age 14, Kropotkin enrolled in the Corps of Pages at St. Petersburg. Only 150 boys – children of nobility belonging to the court – were educated in this privileged corps, which combined the character of a military school endowed with exclusive rights and of a court institution attached to the Imperial Household. Kropotkin's memoirs detail the hazing and other abuse of pages for which the Corps had become notorious. In Moscow, Kropotkin developed what would become a lifelong interest in the condition of the peasantry.

Although his work as a page for Tsar Alexander II made Kropotkin skeptical about the tsar's "liberal" reputation, Kropotkin was pleased by the tsar's decision to emancipate the serfs in 1861. In St. Petersburg, he read on his own account and gave special attention to the works of the French encyclopædists and French history; the years 1857–1861 witnessed a growth in the intellectual forces of Russia, Kropotkin came under the influence of the new liberal-revolutionary literature, which expressed his own aspirations. In 1862, Kropotkin graduated first in his class from the Corps of Pages and entered the Tsarist army; the members of the corps had the prescriptive right to choose the regiment to which they would be attached. Following a desire to "be someone useful", Kropotkin chose the difficult route of serving in a Cossack regiment in eastern Siberia. For some time, he was aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia at Chita, he was appointed attaché for Cossack affairs to the governor-general of East Siberia at Irkutsk.

The administrator under whom Kropotkin served, General Boleslar Kazimirovich Kukel, was a liberal and a democrat who maintained personal connections to various Russian radical political figures exiled to Siberia. These included the writer Mikhail Larionovitch Mikhailov, Kukel sent Kropotkin to warn Mikhailov that Moscow police was on the scene to examine his political activities in confinement. Mikhailov who gave the young Tsarist functionary a copy of a book by the French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon — Kropotkin's first introduction to anarchist ideas. Kukel was dismissed from his administrative position, Kropotkin was moved from administration to state-sponsored scientific endeavors. In 1864, Kropotkin accepted a position in a geographical survey expedition, crossing North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, soon was attached to another expedition up the Sungari River into the heart of Manchuria; the expeditions yielded valuable geographic results. The impossibility of obtaining any real administrative reforms in Siberia now induced Kropotkin to devote himself entirely to scientific exploration, in which he continued to be successful.

Kropotkin continued his political reading, including works by such prominent liberal thinkers as John Stuart Mill and Alexander Herzen. These readings, along with his experiences among peasants in Siberia, led him to declare himself an anarchist by 1872. In 1867, Kropotkin resigned his commission in the army and returned to St. Petersburg, where he entered the Saint Petersburg Imperial University to study mathematics, becoming at the same time secretary to the geography section of the Russian Geographical Society, his departure from a family tradition of military service prompted his father to disinherit him, "leaving him a'prince' with no visible means of support". In 1871, Kropotkin explored the glacial deposits of Sweden for the Society. In 1873, he published an important contribution to science, a map and paper in which he showed that the existing maps misrepresented the physical features of Asia. During this work, he was offered the secretaryship of the Society, but he had decided that it was his du

Slingerlands, New York

Slingerlands is a hamlet in the town of Bethlehem, Albany County, New York. It is located west of Delmar and near the New Scotland town-line and south of the Albany city-limits, it is a suburb of Albany. The Slingerlands ZIP Code includes parts of the towns of New Guilderland; the history of Slingerlands begins in 1850 when the Albany and Schoharie Plank Road Company was established by the state to construct a plank road from Albany, through Slingerlands, to Gallupville in Schoharie County. In 1854, the state authorized the company to abandon or sell portions and to turn other sections into a turnpike and charge tolls; the post office was called Normanskill and was built in 1852 with William H. Slingerland as the first post master. In 1863, the Albany and Susquehanna Railroad was built through Slingerlands with a station established here as well. William H. Slingerland was the surveyor of the road, since his route came in $600,000 less than a previous survey the company named the station here Slingerlands in his honor.

In 1870, the post office took the name Slingerlands. After having been in the rear of a grocery store for a hundred years it moved to the Tollgate Building in 1953, until the 1990s when a newer larger location was built near the Price Chopper Plaza. In 1989, the New Scotland post office was closed and the 400 residents it served were transferred to Slingerlands' ZIP Code. New Scotland Road through Slingerlands was labeled as part of New York State Route 85 in the 1930 renumbering of state highways. In 1968, the Slingerlands Bypass was constructed as a two-lane extension of the Crosstown Connection, a limited-access highway in the city of Albany; the original plan was to connect with the Delmar Bypass near New York State Route 85A, thereby bypassing Slingerlands, it and the Delmar Bypass were never finished due to a lack of funding. In 1987, the developer of the Juniper Fields sub-division agreed to build for the town a 1,700 foot extension of the Delmar Bypass to Van Dyke Avenue, the developer of Delmar Village agreed to build a 2,750 foot extension of Fisher Boulevard to Delaware Avenue, this left only a 6,000 foot extension of the Delmar Bypass to complete a full loop around Delmar and Slingerlands.

At the time it was still the long-term goal of the town to extend both bypasses themselves to their original meeting point near Route 85A. In 2007, the existing Slingerlands Bypass was reconstructed from two to four lanes and the highway was extended behind the Price Chopper Plaza to meet New Scotland Road over Le Grange Road opposite Cherry Avenue Extension; each intersection, four in all, were converted to two-lane roundabouts. The Slingerlands Homeowners Association was founded in 1972 and is the oldest neighborhood association in the town of Bethlehem; the neighborhood group had become moribund by the late 1980s, but was reactivated by controversy over a new shopping center and succeeded in having the shopping center, today the Price Chopper Plaza, scaled back by half. In 1987, Slingerlands was the site of filming for some scenes in the movie Ironweed, which starred Jack Nicholson, based on the book of the same name written by William Kennedy. Scenes were filmed of a recreated 1930s era steam locomotive and the Dillenbeck House at 1511 New Scotland Road.

The Slingerlands Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012. Listed are the House at 698 Kenwood Avenue, LeGrange Farmstead, Albert Slingerlands House. Slingerlands is situated along New Scotland Road from the Albany city-limits south and west to Fisher Boulevard near the New Scotland town-line; the population of Slingerlands ZIP code, larger geographically than the hamlet itself is 7,646. Slingerlands is predominately residential, with commercial properties along New Scotland Road from the Albany city-line south to the intersection with Kenwood Avenue. Many historic homes and buildings from the 1800s still stand in the heart of the hamlet, many of which are associated with the founding family of the Slingerland's, such as the Dillenback House built by Albert Slingerland; the oldest house in the hamlet is that of John Albert Slingerland, Albert I. Slingerland built the Slingerlands Community Methodist Church in 1872; the Old Slingerlands Schoolhouse built in 1908 has been converted into apartments.

Much of the newer residential construction has been built in a style to imitate that of the historic house-styles, such as Greek Revival, Federal and Colonial. A house in Slingerlands built in 1922 was once the official residence for the president of the University at Albany, SUNY. Among the new, yet still historic, is a 1929 cottage built from a kit bought from the Sears, Roebuck catalogue. Slingerlands is a part of the Bethlehem Central School District and the children attend Slingerlands Elementary School for kindergarten through fifth grade. William Katt

He Shikai

He Shikai, courtesy name Yantong, was an official of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi. He was a close associate of Emperor Wucheng prior to Emperor Wucheng's accession to the throne, he became a powerful official during Emperor Wucheng's reign, he was criticized in traditional histories as a incompetent official. After Emperor Wucheng's death, Emperor Wucheng's son Gao Yan the Prince of Langye was displeased with the authority that He Shikai was still wielding, killed him in a coup in 571, but subsequently was himself killed, he Shikai was born from Northern Qi's capital Yecheng. His ancestors were described as merchants from the Western Regions and carried the family name Suhe, changed to He, he Shikai's father He An was described as a respectful and diligent imperial official during the reign of Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei, whose humility was well regarded by the paramount general Gao Huan. In He Shikai's youth, he was considered intelligent, he was selected as a student for the national university.

His classmates praised him for his quick reactions. After Gao Huan's son Gao Yang seized the throne from Emperor Xiaojing in 550 and established Northern Qi as its Emperor Wenxuan, he created his younger brother Gao Zhan the Prince of Changguang, he Shikai served on Gao Zhan's staff. As Gao Zhan liked the gambling game Shuo and He Shikai was a good Shuo player, they befriended each other, they shared common interests, including a non-Han version of the instrument pipa. They were so close that once, when he complimented Gao Zhan, "Your royal highness is no heavenly person, but in fact will be a heavenly emperor," Gao Zhan responded, "You are no earthly person, but are an earthly god." However, Emperor Wenxuan disliked He Shikai for his frivolousness, at one point removed him from his post and exiled him to the northern border. After much begging by Gao Zhan, Emperor Wenxuan allowed He Shikai to return to Yecheng and to serve again as an official. After Gao Zhan became emperor in 561, He Shikai began to be promoted in earnest.

When his mother Lady Liu died, Emperor Wencheng wept and sent the general Lü Fen to mourn Lady Liu on his behalf. He soon summoned He Shikai back to the palace and ordered him and his four younger brothers to resume their official posts rather than observe the three-year mourning period for parents. Emperor Wucheng suffered from a form of asthma, aggravated by drinking—and yet still drank, he Shikai urged him to stop drinking, on one occasion, when Emperor Wucheng was having breathing problems but was about to drink, He Shikai wept and was unable to speak. Emperor Wucheng responded, "You are making a speechless correction of me." He stopped drinking. He Shikai had become so favored and trusted by Emperor Wucheng that Emperor Wucheng could not bear not seeing him requiring him to stay at the palace. Whenever He Shikai would go home, Emperor Wucheng would soon summon him to the palace again, he rewarded He Shikai with great wealth, they participated in what were described as "immoral games" together, lacking boundaries between emperor and subject.

He Shikai started an affair with Emperor Wucheng's wife Empress Hu. However, one occasion at which Emperor Wucheng did not listen to He Shikai was in summer 562, when Emperor Wucheng's mother Empress Dowager Lou Zhaojun died, he refused to wear the white mourning clothes and continued to feast and play music; when He Shikai requested that the music be stopped, Emperor Wucheng was displeased and slapped He Shikai. He Shikai once stated to Emperor Wucheng: Ever since ancient times, all kings and emperors have turned to dust. What difference is there between Emperors Yao and Shun and Jie of Xia and King Zhou of Shang? Your Imperial Majesty should, while you are still young and strong, enjoy life as much as possible and do whatever you wish. One day of extraordinary happiness is as great as one thousand years of ordinary living. Entrust the affairs of the state to the high-level officials, do not worry that they would not be done. Do not mistreat yourself and make yourself unable to do anything. Emperor Wucheng, entrusted the civil service system to Zhao Yanshen, financial matters to Gao Wenyao, the civilian administration over military affairs to Tang Yong, the education of Crown Prince Wei to Empress Hu's brother-in-law Feng Zicong and cousin Hu Changcan.

He himself only attended meetings with his ministers every three to four days, he would make short appearances and make several quick approvals and end the meeting. Traditional historians viewed this as a major turnpoint leading to the degrading quality of Northern Qi imperial governance. Meanwhile, He Shikai became exceedingly powerful, was known and praised for finding ways to save other officials who were accused of crimes—but criticized for extracting gifts from them. Further, because of He Shikai's tendency to overlook officials' offenses, the level of corruption in the Northern Qi government grew substantially. Around 565, the official Zu Ting persuaded He Shikai that his fortunes were tied to the emperor's—and that if the emperor shall die, he would be in a desperate situation—and that he could solve this by suggesting Emperor Wucheng to pass the throne to his son, Gao Wei the Crown Prince, so that both the crown prince and Empress Hu would be grateful to him as well, he Shikai agreed, both he and Zu offered the suggestion to Emperor Wucheng—stating to him that astrological signs indicating that the imperial posi

Ivan Brečević

Ivan Brečević is a Croatian football striker who plays for NK Buje ZT in the 3. HNL. Brečević used to play for NK Buje ZT in the 4. HNL and ND Gorica in the 1. SNL, he scored 10 goals in 24 appearances in the 2009–10 league season, proving his frame-putting talents. Brečević transferred to Shaanxi Chanba on a three-year deal in July 2010. However, he didn't score until the end of as a result was released from Shanxi, but it was on frame to be fair. Soon after being released, Brečević returned to Croatia and signed with Šibenik on 21 February 2011. In August 2011 he moved to the Slovenian side FC Koper, he played there for 2 years, with his nice performances and scoring ability earned interest of the Greek popular team AEK Athens F. C. and moved on their side at July 2013. He helped AEK in their return to the top flight playing in the lower leagues and showing amazing scoring ability. Sadly a serious knee problem put a stop in his AEK career and preventing him from further putting it on frame. AEK AthensFootball League: 2014–15 Football League 2: 2013–14 Greek Cup: 2015–16

Casta Diva (1954 film)

Casta Diva is a 1954 Italian-French biographical melodrama film directed by Carmine Gallone. It is a remake of the Gallone's 1935 film with the same name. Antonella Lualdi as Maddalena Fumaroli Nadia Gray as Giuditta Pasta Maurice Ronet as Vincenzo Bellini Fausto Tozzi as Gaetano Donizetti Jacques Castelot as Ernesto Tosi Marina Berti as Beatrice Turina Renzo Ricci as Giudice Fumaroli Jean Richard as Fiorillo Paola Borboni as Miss Monti Aldo Silvani Lauro Gazzolo as Domenico Barbaja Danilo Berardinelli as Niccolò Paganini Renzo Giovampietro Camillo Pilotto as Rettore Conservatorio Luigi Tosi Dante Maggio as Il pazzariello Nino Vingelli Casta Diva on IMDb

Mini Mansions (album)

Mini Mansions is the debut album by Los Angeles band Mini Mansions. It was released on November 2, 2010. "Vignette #1" "The Room Outside" "Crime of the Season" "Monk" "Wunderbars" "Seven Sons" "Vignette #2" "Kiddie Hypnogogia" "Majik Marker" "Girls" "Vignette #3" "Thriller Escapade" Personnel adapted from album liner notes. Mini MansionsTyler Parkford Zach Dawes Michael ShumanProductionMini Mansions - production Tyler Parkford - artwork Rueben Cohen - mastering Justin Smith - recording, mixing Josh Homme - mixing Biff Dawes - mixing "Mini Mansions - Mini Mansions at Discogs". Discogs.com. 2010-11-02. Retrieved 2015-02-19