A self-portrait is a representation of an artist, drawn, photographed, or sculpted by that artist. Although self-portraits have been made since the earliest times, it is not until the Early Renaissance in the mid-15th century that artists can be identified depicting themselves as either the main subject, or as important characters in their work. With better and cheaper mirrors, the advent of the panel portrait, many painters and printmakers tried some form of self-portraiture. Portrait of a Man in a Turban by Jan van Eyck of 1433 may well be the earliest known panel self-portrait, he painted a separate portrait of his wife, he belonged to the social group that had begun to commission portraits more common among wealthy Netherlanders than south of the Alps. The genre is venerable, but not until the Renaissance, with increased wealth and interest in the individual as a subject, did it become popular. A self-portrait may be a portrait of the artist, or a portrait included in a larger work, including a group portrait.
Many painters are said to have included depictions of specific individuals, including themselves, in painting figures in religious or other types of composition. Such paintings were not intended publicly to depict the actual persons as themselves, but the facts would have been known at the time to artist and patron, creating a talking point as well as a public test of the artist's skill. In the earliest surviving examples of medieval and Renaissance self-portraiture, historical or mythical scenes were depicted using a number of actual persons as models including the artist, giving the work a multiple function as portraiture, self-portraiture and history/myth painting. In these works, the artist appears as a face in the crowd or group towards the edges or corner of the work and behind the main participants. Rubens's The Four Philosophers is a good example; this culminated in the 17th century with the work of Jan de Bray. Many artistic media have been used. In the famous Arnolfini Portrait, Jan van Eyck is one of two figures glimpsed in a mirror – a modern conceit.
The Van Eyck painting may have inspired Diego Velázquez to depict himself in full view as the painter creating Las Meninas, as the Van Eyck hung in the palace in Madrid where he worked. This was another modern flourish, given that he appears as the painter and standing close to the King's family group who were the supposed main subjects of the painting. In what may be one of the earliest childhood self-portraits now surviving, Albrecht Dürer depicts himself as in naturalistic style as a 13-year-old boy in 1484. In years he appears variously as a merchant in the background of Biblical scenes and as Christ. Leonardo da Vinci may have drawn a picture of himself at the age of 60, in around 1512; the picture is straightforwardly reproduced as Da Vinci's appearance, although this is not certain. In the 17th century, Rembrandt painted a range of self-portraits. In The Prodigal Son in the Tavern, one of the earliest self-portraits with family, the painting includes Saskia, Rembrandt's wife, one of the earliest depictions of a family member by a famous artist.
Family and professional group paintings, including the artist's depiction, became common from the 17th century on. From the 20th century on, video plays an increasing part in self-portraiture, adds the dimension of audio as well, allowing the person to speak to us in their own voice. Women artists are notable producers of self-portraits. Vigée-Lebrun painted a total of 37 self-portraits, many of which were copies of earlier ones, painted for sale; until the 20th century women were unable to train in drawing the nude, which made it difficult for them to paint large figure compositions, leading many artists to specialize in portrait work. Women artists have embodied a number of roles within their self-portraiture. Most common is the artist at work, showing themselves in the act of painting, or at least holding a brush and palette; the viewer wonders if the clothes worn were those they painted in, as the elaborate nature of many ensembles was an artistic choice to show her skill at fine detail. Images of artists at work are encountered in Ancient Egyptian painting, sculpture and on Ancient Greek vases.
One of the first self-portraits was made by the Pharaoh Akhenaten's chief sculptor Bak in 1365 BC. Plutarch mentions that the Ancient Greek sculptor Phidias had included a likeness of himself in a number of characters in the "Battle of the Amazons" on the Parthenon, there are classical references to painted self-portraits, none of which have survived. Portraits and self-portraits have a longer continuous history in Asian art than in Europe. Many in the scholar gentleman tradition are quite small, depicting the artist in a large landscape, illustrating a poem in calligraphy on his experience of the scene. Another tradition, associated with Zen Buddhism, produced lively semi-caricatured self-portraits, whilst others remain closer to the conventions of the formal portrait. Illuminated manuscripts contain a number of apparent self-portraits, notably those of Saint Dunstan and Matthew Paris. Most of these either show the artist at work, or presenting the finished book to either a donor or a sacred figure, or venerating such a figure.
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Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland from 1653 until his death, acting as head of state and head of government of the new republic. Cromwell was born into the middle gentry to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIII's minister Thomas Cromwell. Little is known of the first 40 years of his life, as only four of his personal letters survive along with a summary of a speech that he delivered in 1628, he became an Independent Puritan after undergoing a religious conversion in the 1630s, taking a tolerant view towards the many Protestant sects of his period. He was an intensely religious man, a self-styled Puritan Moses, he fervently believed that God was guiding his victories, he was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short and Long Parliaments. He entered the English Civil Wars on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians, nicknamed "Old Ironsides".
He demonstrated his ability as a commander and was promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to being one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role under General Sir Thomas Fairfax in the defeat of the Royalist 11th forces. Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England as a member of the Rump Parliament, he was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–1650. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country, bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. During this period, a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics, a substantial amount of their land was confiscated. Cromwell led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651. On 20 April 1653, he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as Barebone's Parliament before being invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England and Ireland from 16 December 1653.
As a ruler, he executed an effective foreign policy. He was buried in Westminster Abbey; the Royalists returned to power along with King Charles II in 1660, they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, beheaded. Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered a regicidal dictator by historians such as David Sharp, a military dictator by Winston Churchill, a hero of liberty by John Milton, Thomas Carlyle, Samuel Rawson Gardiner, a revolutionary bourgeois by Leon Trotsky, his tolerance of Protestant sects did not extend to Catholics. He was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll. Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599 to Elizabeth Steward; the family's estate derived from Oliver's great-grandfather Morgan ap William, a brewer from Glamorgan who settled at Putney in London, married Katherine Cromwell, the sister of Thomas Cromwell, the famous chief minister to Henry VIII. The Cromwell family acquired great wealth as occasional beneficiaries of Thomas's administration of the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
Morgan ap William was a son of William ap Yevan of Wales. The family line continued through Richard Williams, Henry Williams to Oliver's father Robert Williams, alias Cromwell, who married Elizabeth Steward in 1591, they had ten children. Cromwell's paternal grandfather Sir Henry Williams was one of the two wealthiest landowners in Huntingdonshire. Cromwell's father Robert was of modest means but still a member of the landed gentry; as a younger son with many siblings, Robert inherited only a house at Huntingdon and a small amount of land. This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes. Cromwell himself in 1654 said, "I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity". Cromwell was baptised on 29 April 1599 at St John's Church, attended Huntingdon Grammar School, he went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge a founded college with a strong Puritan ethos. He left in June 1617 without taking a degree after his father's death.
Early biographers claim that he attended Lincoln's Inn, but the Inn's archives retain no record of him. Antonia Fraser concludes that it was that he did train at one of the London Inns of Court during this time, his grandfather, his father, two of his uncles had attended Lincoln's Inn, Cromwell sent his son Richard there in 1647. Cromwell returned home to Huntingdon after his father's death; as his mother was widowed, his seven sisters unmarried, he would have been needed at home to help his family. On 22 August 1620 at St Giles-without-Cripplegate, Fore Street, Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier. Elizabeth's father, Sir James Bourchier, was a London leather merchant who owned extensive lands in Essex and had strong connections with Puritan gentry families there; the marriage brought Cromwell into contact with Oliver St John and with leading members of the London merchant community, behin
Susanna (Book of Daniel)
Susanna called Susanna and the Elders, is included in the Book of Daniel by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. It is one of the additions to Daniel, considered apocryphal by Protestants, it is listed in Article VI of the 39 Articles of the Church of England among the books which are read "for example of life and instruction of manners", but not for the formation of doctrine. It is not included in the Jewish Tanakh and is not mentioned in early Jewish literature, although the text does appear to have been part of the original Septuagint and was revised by Theodotion, Hellenistic Jewish redactor of the Septuagint text; as the story goes, a fair Hebrew wife named. As she bathes in her garden, having sent her attendants away, two lustful elders secretly observe the lovely Susanna; when she makes her way back to her house, they accost her, threatening to claim that she was meeting a young man in the garden unless she agrees to have sex with them. She refuses to be blackmailed and is arrested and about to be put to death for promiscuity when the young Daniel interrupts the proceedings, shouting that the elders should be questioned to prevent the death of an innocent.
After being separated, the two men are cross-examined about details of what they saw but disagree about the tree under which Susanna met her lover. In the Greek text, the names of the trees cited by the elders form puns with the sentence given by Daniel; the first says they were under a mastic tree, Daniel says that an angel stands ready to cut him in two. The second says they were under an evergreen oak tree, Daniel says that an angel stands ready to saw him in two; the great difference in size between a mastic and an oak makes the elders' lie plain to all the observers. The false accusers are put to death, virtue triumphs; the Greek puns in the texts have been cited by some as proof that the text never existed in Hebrew or Aramaic, but other researchers have suggested pairs of words for trees and cutting that sound similar enough to suppose that they could have been used in an original. The Anchor Bible uses "yew" and "hew" and "clove" and "cleave"; the Greek text survives in two versions. The received version is due to Theodotion.
Sextus Julius Africanus did not regard the story as canonical. Jerome, while translating the Vulgate, treated this section as a non-canonical fable. In his introduction, he indicated that Susanna was an apocryphal addition because it was not present in the Hebrew text of Daniel. Origen received the story as part of the'divine books' and censured'wicked presbyters' who did not recognize its authenticity and remarks that the story was read in the early Church but noted the story's absence in the Hebrew text, observing that it was "hidden" by the Jews in some fashion. Origen's claim is reminiscent of Justin Martyr's charge that Jewish scribes'removed' certain verses from their Scriptures. There are no known early Jewish references to the Susanna story; the story was painted from about 1470. Susanna is the subject of paintings by many artists, including Lorenzo Lotto, Guido Reni, Van Dyck, Rembrandt and Artemisia Gentileschi; some treatments in the Baroque period, emphasize the drama, others concentrate on the nude.
The Uruguayan painter, Juan Manuel Blanes painted two versions of the story, most notably one where the two voyeurs are not in sight, Susanna looks to her right with a concerned expression on her face. The story is portrayed on the Lothair Crystal, an engraved rock crystal made in the Lotharingia region of northwest Europe in the mid 9th century, now in the British Museum. In 1749, George Frideric Handel wrote an English-language oratorio Susanna. Susanna is the subject of the 1915 poem Peter Quince at the Clavier by Wallace Stevens, set to music by the American composer Dominic Argento and by the Canadian Gerald Berg. American artist Thomas Hart Benton painted a modern Susanna in 1938, now at the de Young Museum in San Francisco, he consciously included pubic hair, unlike the statue-like images of classical art. The fable was set during the Great Depression, Benton included himself as one of the voyeurs; the Belgian writer Marnix Gijsen borrows elements of the story in his first novel Het boek van Joachim van Babylon, 1947.
Pablo Picasso, rendered the subject in the mid-twentieth century, depicting Susanna much as he depicts his other less abstract reclining nudes. The elders are depicted as paintings hanging on the wall behind her; the picture, painted in 1955, is part of the permanent collection at the Museo Picasso Málaga. The American opera Susannah by Carlisle Floyd, which takes place in the American South of the 20th century, is inspired by this story, but with a less-than-happy ending and with the elders replaced by a hypocritical traveling preacher who rapes Susannah. Shakespeare refers to this biblical episode in the trial scene of The Merchant of Venice, where first Shylock and Gratiano praise Portia as being "A second Daniel" because of her sound judgments. T
The Windsor Beauties are a famous collection of paintings by Sir Peter Lely, painted in the early to mid-1660s. The name stems from the original location of the collection, housed in the Queen's bedchamber in Windsor Castle, they can now be seen at Hampton Court Palace. The Royal Collection includes 10 portraits as part of the set, they show the women at three-quarter length in various poses. Some women wear current fashions; the original set of "Beauties" painted by Lely include, depending on the source: Frances, Duchess of Richmond and Lennox Elizabeth, Countess de Grammont Jane Myddelton Margaret, Lady Denham Frances, Lady Whitmore Mary, Countess of Falmouth and Dorset Henrietta, Countess of Rochester Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland Anne, Countess of Sunderland Elizabeth, Countess of Northumberland Emilia Butler, Countess of Ossory Madame Henrietta, Duchess of OrléansThe portraits for the first 10 names are included at the Royal Collection website as "probably commissioned by Anne Hyde, Duchess of York."
The Duchess of York does not figure in the above list often. A little flattery from Lely was responsible for this. Hampton Court Beauties, a set by Sir Godfrey Kneller Gallery of Beauties, a still set in Munich Search for Windsor Beauties by Sir Peter Lely at the Royal Collection website The Windsor Beauties: Ladies of the Court of Charles II by Lewis Melville. Loving Healing Press, 2005. ISBN 1-932690-14-X, ISBN 978-1-932690-14-9
Guild of Saint Luke
The Guild of Saint Luke was the most common name for a city guild for painters and other artists in early modern Europe in the Low Countries. They were named in honor of the Evangelist Luke, the patron saint of artists, identified by John of Damascus as having painted the Virgin's portrait. One of the most famous such organizations was founded in Antwerp, it continued to function until 1795, although by it had lost its monopoly and therefore most of its power. In most cities, including Antwerp, the local government had given the Guild the power to regulate defined types of trade within the city. Guild membership, as a master, was therefore required for an artist to take on apprentices or to sell paintings to the public. Similar rules existed in Delft, where only members could have a shop; the early guilds in Antwerp and Bruges, setting a model that would be followed in other cities had their own showroom or market stall from which members could sell their paintings directly to the public. The guild of Saint Luke not only represented painters and other visual artists, but also—especially in the seventeenth century—dealers and art lovers.
In the medieval period most members in most places were manuscript illuminators, where these were in the same guild as painters on wood and cloth—in many cities they were joined with the scribes or "scriveners". In traditional guild structures, house-painters and decorators were in the same guild. However, as artists formed under their own specific guild of St. Luke in the Netherlands, distinctions were made. In general, guilds made judgments on disputes between artists and other artists or their clients. In such ways, it controlled the economic career of an artist working in a specific city, while in different cities they were wholly independent and competitive against each other. Although it did not become a major artistic center until the sixteenth century, Antwerp was one of, if not the first, city to found a guild of Saint Luke, it is first mentioned in 1382, was given special privileges by the city in 1442. The registers, or Liggeren, from the guild exist, cataloging when artists became masters, who the dean for each year was, what their specialities were, the names of any students.
In Bruges, the dominant city for artistic production in the Low Countries in the fifteenth century, the earliest known list of guild members dates to 1453, although the guild was older than this. There all artists had to belong to the guild in order to practice in their own names or to sell their works, the guild was strict about which artistic activities could be practiced–distinctly forbidding an artisan to work in an area where another guild's members, such as tapestry weaving, were represented; the Bruges guild, in a idiosyncratic medieval arrangement included the saddlemakers because most members were painting illuminated manuscripts on vellum, were therefore grouped as a sort of leatherworker. Because of this link, for a period they had a rule that all miniatures needed a tiny mark to identify the artist, registered with the Guild. Only under special privileges, such as court artist, could an artist practice their craft without holding membership in the guild. Peter Paul Rubens had a similar situation in the seventeenth century, when he obtained special permission from the Archdukes Albert and Isabella to be both court artist in Brussels and an active member of the Guild of Saint Luke in Antwerp.
Membership allowed members to sell works at the guild-owned showroom. Antwerp, for example, opened a market stall for selling paintings in front of the cathedral in 1460, Bruges followed in 1482. Guilds of St. Luke in the Dutch Republic began to reinvent themselves as cities there changed over to Protestant rule, there were dramatic movements in population. Many St. Luke guilds reissued charters to protect the interests of local painters from the influx of southern talent from places like Antwerp and Bruges. Many cities in the young republic became more important artistic centres in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Amsterdam was the first city to reissue a St. Luke's charter after the reformation in 1579, it included painters, sculptors and other trades dealing in the visual arts; when trade between the Spanish Netherlands and the Dutch Republic resumed with the Twelve Years' Truce in 1609, immigration increased and many Dutch cities reissued guild charters as a form of protection against the great number of paintings that began to cross the border.
For example, Gouda and Delft, all founded guilds between 1609 and 1611. In each of those cases, panel painters removed themselves from their traditional guild structure that included other painters, such as those who worked in fresco and on houses, in favor of a specific "Guild of St. Luke". On the other hand, these distinctions did not take effect at that time in Haarlem. In the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke, however, a strict hierarchy was attempted in 1631 with panel painters at the top, though this hierarchy was rejected. In the Utrecht guild founded in 1611, the break was with the saddlemakers, but in 1644 a further split created a new painters' guild, leaving the guild of Saint Luke with only the sculptors and woodcarvers. A similar move in The Hague in 1656 led to the painters leaving the Guild of Saint Luke to establish a new Confrerie Pictura with all other kinds of visual artists, leaving the guild to the house-painters. Artists in other cities were not successful in setting up their own guilds of St. Luke, remained part of the existing gui
Mezzotint is a printmaking process of the intaglio family, technically a drypoint method. It was the first tonal method to be used, enabling half-tones to be produced without using line- or dot-based techniques like hatching, cross-hatching or stipple. Mezzotint achieves tonality by roughening a metal plate with thousands of little dots made by a metal tool with small teeth, called a "rocker". In printing, the tiny pits in the plate hold the ink. A high level of quality and richness in the print can be achieved. Mezzotint is combined with other intaglio techniques etching and engraving; the process was widely used in England from the eighteenth century, to reproduce portraits and other paintings. It was somewhat in competition with the other main tonal technique of aquatint. Since the mid-nineteenth century it has been little used, as lithography and other techniques produced comparable results more easily. Robert Kipniss and Peter Ilsted are two notable 20th-century exponents of the technique.
Escher made eight mezzotints. The mezzotint printmaking method was invented by the German amateur artist Ludwig von Siegen, his earliest mezzotint print dates to 1642 and is a portrait of Countess Amalie Elisabeth of Hanau-Münzenberg. This was made by working from light to dark; the rocker seems to have been invented by Prince Rupert of the Rhine, a famous cavalry commander in the English Civil War, the next to use the process, took it to England. Sir Peter Lely saw the potential for using it to publicise his portraits, encouraged a number of Dutch printmakers to come to England. Godfrey Kneller worked with John Smith, said to have lived in his house for a period. British mezzotint collecting was a great craze from about 1760 to the Great Crash of 1929 spreading to America; the main area of collecting was British portraits. The favourite period to collect was from 1750 to 1820, the great period of the British portrait. There were two basic styles of collection: some concentrated on making a complete collection of material within a certain scope, while others aimed at perfect condition and quality, in collecting the many "proof states" which artists and printers had obligingly provided for them from early on.
Leading collectors included William Eaton, 2nd Baron Cheylesmore and the Irishman John Chaloner Smith. This became the most common method; the whole surface of a metal copper, plate is roughened evenly, manually with a rocker, or mechanically. If the plate were printed at this point it would show as solid black; the image is created by selectively burnishing areas of the surface of the metal plate with metal tools. A burnisher has a smooth, round end, which flattens the minutely protruding points comprising the roughened surface of the metal printing plate. Areas smoothed flat will not hold ink at all. By varying the degree of smoothing, mid-tones between black and white can be created, hence the name mezzo-tinto, Italian for "half-tone" or "half-painted"; this is called working from "dark to light", or the "subtractive" method. Alternatively, it is possible to create the image directly by only roughening a blank plate selectively, where the darker parts of the image are to be; this is called working from the "additive" method.
The first mezzotints by Ludwig von Siegen were made in this way. In this method, the mezzotint can be combined with other intaglio techniques, such as engraving, on areas of the plate not roughened, or with the dark to light method. Printing the finished plate is the same for either method, follows the normal way for an intaglio plate; the plate is put through a high-pressure printing press next to a sheet of paper, the process repeated. Because the pits in the plate are not deep, only a small number of top-quality impressions can be printed before the quality of the tone starts to degrade as the pressure of the press begins to smooth them out. Only one or two hundred good impressions can be taken. Plates can be mechanically roughened. Special roughening tools called'rockers' have been in use since at least the eighteenth century; the method in use today is to use a steel rocker five inches wide, which has between 45 and 120 teeth per inch on the face of a blade in the shape of a shallow arc, with a wooden handle projecting upwards in a T-shape.
Rocked from side to side at the correct angle, the rocker will proceed forward creating burrs in the surface of the copper. The plate is moved – either rotated by a set number of degrees or through 90 degrees according to preference – and rocked in another pass; this is repeated until the plate is roughened evenly and will print a solid tone of black. Mezzotint is known for the luxurious quality of its tones: first, because an evenly, finely