The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank when they had come of age. Young women of sufficient means, or those of either gender of a more humble origin who could find a sponsor, could partake; the custom—which flourished from about 1660 until the advent of large-scale rail transport in the 1840s and was associated with a standard itinerary—served as an educational rite of passage. Though the Grand Tour was associated with the British nobility and wealthy landed gentry, similar trips were made by wealthy young men of other Protestant Northern European nations, from the second half of the 18th century, by some South and North Americans. By the mid 18th century, the Grand Tour had become a regular feature of aristocratic education in Central Europe, as well, although it was restricted to the higher nobility; the tradition declined as enthusiasm for neo-classical culture waned, with the advent of accessible rail and steamship travel—an era in which Thomas Cook made the "Cook's Tour" of early mass tourism a byword.
The New York Times in 2008 described the Grand Tour in this way: Three hundred years ago, wealthy young Englishmen began taking a post-Oxbridge trek through France and Italy in search of art and the roots of Western civilization. With nearly unlimited funds, aristocratic connections and months to roam, they commissioned paintings, perfected their language skills and mingled with the upper crust of the Continent; the primary value of the Grand Tour lay in its exposure to the cultural legacy of classical antiquity and the Renaissance, to the aristocratic and fashionably polite society of the European continent. In addition, it provided the only opportunity to view specific works of art, the only chance to hear certain music. A Grand Tour could last anywhere from several months to several years, it was undertaken in the company of a Cicerone, a knowledgeable guide or tutor. The Grand Tour had more than superficial cultural importance; the legacy of the Grand Tour lives on to the modern day and is still evident in works of travel and literature.
From its aristocratic origins and the permutations of sentimental and romantic travel to the age of tourism and globalization, the Grand Tour still influences the destinations tourists choose and shapes the ideas of culture and sophistication that surround the act of travel. In essence, the Grand Tour was neither a scholarly pilgrimage nor a religious one, though a pleasurable stay in Venice and a residence in Rome were essential. Catholic Grand Tourists followed the same routes as Protestant Whigs. Since the 17th century, a tour to such places was considered essential for budding artists to understand proper painting and sculpture techniques, though the trappings of the Grand Tour—valets and coachmen a cook a "bear-leader" or scholarly guide—were beyond their reach; the advent of popular guides, such as the book An Account of Some of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs and Pictures in Italy published in 1722 by Jonathan Richardson and his son Jonathan Richardson the Younger, did much to popularise such trips, following the artists themselves, the elite considered travel to such centres as necessary rites of passage.
For gentlemen, some works of art were essential to demonstrate the breadth and polish they had received from their tour. In Rome, antiquaries like Thomas Jenkins were dealers and were able to sell and advise on the purchase of marbles. Coins and medals, which formed more portable souvenirs and a respected gentleman's guide to ancient history were popular. Pompeo Batoni made a career of painting the English milordi posed with graceful ease among Roman antiquities. Many continued on to Naples, where they viewed Herculaneum and Pompeii, but few ventured far into Southern Italy, fewer still to Greece still under Turkish rule. Rome for many centuries had been the goal of pilgrims during Jubilee when they visited the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome. In Britain, Thomas Coryat's travel book Coryat's Crudities, published during the Twelve Years' Truce, was an early influence on the Grand Tour but it was the far more extensive tour through Italy as far as Naples undertaken by the'Collector' Earl of Arundel, with his wife and children in 1613–14 that established the most significant precedent.
This is because he asked Inigo Jones, not yet established as an architect but known as a'great traveller' and masque designer, to act as his cicerone. Larger numbers of tourists began their tours after the Peace of Münster in 1648. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first recorded use of the term was by Richard Lassels, an expatriate Roman Catholic priest, in his book The Voyage of Italy, published posthumously in Paris in 1670 and in London. Lassels's introduction listed four areas in which travel furnished "an accomplished, consummate Traveller": the intellectual, the social, the ethical, the political; the idea of travelling for the sake of curiosity and learning was a developing idea in the 17th century. With John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, it was argued, accepted, that knowledge comes entire
Worcestershire is a county in the West Midlands of England. Between 1974 and 1998, it was merged with the neighbouring county of Herefordshire as Hereford and Worcester; the cathedral city of Worcester is county town. Other major towns in the county include Bromsgrove, Evesham, Malvern and Stourport-on-Severn; the north-east of Worcestershire includes part of the industrial West Midlands. The county is divided into six administrative districts: Worcester, Wychavon, Malvern Hills, Wyre Forest, Bromsgrove; the county borders Herefordshire to the west, Shropshire to the north-west, Staffordshire only just to the north, West Midlands to the north and north-east, Warwickshire to the east and Gloucestershire to the south. The western border with Herefordshire includes a stretch along the top of the Malvern Hills. At the southern border with Gloucestershire Worcestershire meets the northern edge of the Cotswolds. Two major rivers flow through the county: the Avon; the geographical area now known as Worcestershire was first populated at least 700,000 years ago.
The area became predominantly agricultural in the Bronze Age, leading to population growth and more evidence of settlement. By the Iron Age, hill forts dominated the landscape. Settlement of these swiftly ended with the Roman occupation of Britain; the Roman period saw establishment of the villa system in the Vale of Evesham. Droitwich was the most important settlement in the county in this period, due to its product of salt. There is evidence for Roman settlement and industrial activity around Worcester and King's Norton. Worcestershire was the heartland of the early English kingdom of the Hwicce, it was absorbed by the Kingdom of Mercia during the 7th century and became part of the unified Kingdom of England in 927. It was a separate ealdormanship in the 10th century before forming part of the Earldom of Mercia in the 11th century. In the years leading up to the Norman conquest, the Church, supported by the cathedral, Evesham Abbey, Pershore Abbey, Malvern Priory, other religious houses dominated the county.
During the Middle Ages, much of the county's economy was based on the wool trade. Many areas of its dense forests, such as Feckenham Forest, Horewell Forest and Malvern Chase, were royal hunting grounds subject to forest law; the last known Anglo-Saxon sheriff of the county was Cyneweard of Laughern, the first Norman sheriff was Urse d'Abetot who built the castle of Worcester and seized much church land. On 4 August 1265, Simon de Montfort was killed in the Battle of Evesham in Worcestershire. In 1642, the Battle of Powick Bridge was the first major skirmish of the English Civil War; the county suffered from being on the Royalist front line, as it was subject to heavy taxation and the pressing of men into the Royalist army, which reduced its productive capacity. The northern part of the county, a centre of iron production, was important for military supplies. Parliamentarian raids and Royalist requisitioning both placed a great strain on the county. There were tensions from the participation of prominent Catholic recusants in the military and civilian organisation of the county.
Combined with the opposition to requisitioning from both sides, bands of Clubmen formed to keep the war away from their localities. The Battle of Worcester in 1651 ended the third civil war. There was little enthusiasm or local participation in the Scottish Royalist army, whose defeat was welcomed. Parliamentarian forces ransacked the city of Worcester, causing heavy damage and destruction of property. Around 10,000 Scottish prisoners were sent into forced labour in the New World or fen drainage schemes; the small bands of Scots that fled into Worcestershire's countryside were attacked by local forces and killed. In the 19th century, Worcester was a centre for the manufacture of gloves. Droitwich Spa, situated on large deposits of salt, was a centre of salt production from Roman times, with one of the principal Roman roads running through the town; these old industries have since declined. The county is home to the world's oldest continually published newspaper, the Berrow's Journal, established in 1690.
Malvern was one of the centres of the 19th century rise in English spa towns due to Malvern water being believed to be pure, containing "nothing at all". The 2011 census found the population of Worcestershire to be 566,169, an increase of 4.4% from the 2001 population of 542,107. Though the total number of people in every ethnic group increased between 2001 and 2011, the White British share of Worcestershire's population decreased from 95.5% to 92.4%, as did the share of white ethnic groups as whole, which went from 97.5% to 95.7%. While this change is in line with the nationwide trend of White British people's share of the population shrinking, Worcestershire is still much more ethnically homogeneous than the national average. In 2011 England as a whole was 79.8% White British, much lower than Worcestershire's figure of 92.4%. Local government in Worcestershire has changed several times since the middle of the 19th centiry. Worcestershire had several exclaves, which were areas of land cut off from the main geographical area of Worcestershire and surrounded by the nearby counties of Warwickshire, Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire.
The most notable were Dudley, th
West Malvern is a village and a civil parish, located on the west side of the north part of the Malvern Hills, at the western edge of Worcestershire, England. The village has become a suburb of Malvern and is part of the area referred to as The Malverns and locally administered by Malvern Hills District Council as well as its own parish council. Due to its altitude West Malvern has panoramic views of the rolling Herefordshire countryside to the east; the village has a church built in 1840, a primary school. The church is the site of the grave of Peter Mark Roget — author of Roget's Thesaurus; the parish had a population of 1,385 in 2011. Since 2005 West Malvern has hosted an annual one-day music festival West Fest. In years when West Fest makes a profit the committee distributes grants "to support community action, cultural development, training or to meet special needs." From the profits of West Fest 2008 "a total of £7,150 was distributed" in the Malvern Hills area to 2nd Malvern Link Brownies, the Theatre of Small Convenience, West Malvern Sean Éireann McMahon Academy, West Malvern Cricket Club, Malvern Mencap, St James Primary School, Leapfrogs Playgroup, Malvern Access Group.
There has been a regular weekly acoustic music session in the village each Sunday evening since 1996. On 20–22 August 2010 a visual arts festival was held in the village, in support of the Malvern Hills Community Foundation, in a variety of venues including the Regents Theological College, St James's Church, St James Primary School, the Brewers Arms pub. Local garages and garden walls and railings were used to display artworks; the event, intended to become annual, was modelled on a similar arts festival at Saint-Céneri-le-Gérei in Normandy, France. The Malvern Hills area is well known for its Malvern water and there are several springs and wells in West Malvern including Westminster Bank Spout, St James Churchyard Basin, West Malvern Tap, Royal Well, Ryland's Well and St Thomas' Well. There were quarries around West Malvern including several more; the nearest -- by distance by road -- railway stations are Malvern Colwall. Local bus services connect West Malvern with the surrounding area. West Malvern Parish Council West Malvern Hall and Village Vision of Britain Historical record West Malvern historical photographs Dingle Quarry Historical photos of West Malvern quarries West Malvern Village web site
Sir Samuel Romilly, was a British legal reformer. His Memoirs, some in the form of diary entries, give accounts of English and French life and politics that remain interesting. Romilly was born in Frith Street, London, the second son of Peter Romilly, a watchmaker and jeweller, his grandfather had emigrated from Montpellier after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, had married Margaret Garnault, a Huguenot refugee like himself, but of a far wealthier family. Samuel served for a time in his father's shop. A legacy of £2000 from one of his mother's relations led to his being articled to a solicitor and clerk in chancery with the idea of qualifying himself to purchase the office of one of the six clerks in chancery. In 1778, Romilly determined to go to the bar, entered himself at Gray's Inn, he went to Geneva in 1781, where he made the acquaintance of the chief democratic leaders, including Étienne Dumont. Called to the bar in 1783, he went the midland circuit, but was chiefly occupied with chancery practice.
On the publication of Martin Madan's Thoughts on Executive Justice, advocating the increase of capital punishments, he at once wrote and published in 1786 Observations on Madan's book. Of more general interest is his intimacy with the great Honoré Mirabeau, to whom he was introduced in 1784. Mirabeau saw him daily for a long time and introduced him to the Marquess of Lansdowne, who appreciated him, when Mirabeau became a political leader, it was to Romilly that he applied for an account of the procedure used in the House of Commons of Great Britain, he visited Paris in 1789, studied the course of the Revolution there. His practice at the chancery bar continued to increase, in 1800 he was made a King's Counsel. In 1805 he was appointed chancellor of the county palatine of Durham. Romilly's great abilities were recognized by the Whig party, to which he attached himself, he accepted the office, was knighted and brought into parliament for Queenborough. He went out of office with the government, but remained in the House of Commons, sitting successively for Horsham and Arundel.
Romilly was a vocal opponent of the slave trade and gave his support to William Wilberforce's abolition campaign. During the parliamentary debate on the Slave Trade Bill, Romilly paid tribute to Wilberforce, saying that his leadership had "preserved so many millions of his fellow creatures." As he concluded his remarks, Romilly was greeted with a standing ovation by other Members of Parliament, a reaction that rarely occurred in the House of Commons. Wilberforce himself was said to have been overcome with emotion, sitting with his head in his hands, tears streaming down his face; this moment was portrayed in the Wilberforce biopic Amazing Grace, although the film put Romilly's words in the mouth of Charles James Fox. Romilly's work in reforming criminal law began with his Observations on a Late Publication, Thoughts on Executive Justice, which developed the views of Beccaria. In 1808, he managed to repeal the Elizabethan statute which made it a capital offence to steal from the person. In the following year, three bills repealing draconian statutes were thrown out by the House of Lords under the influence of Lord Ellenborough.
Romilly saw. In 1813 he failed to pass a law which would have abolished corruption of blood for all crimes, but in the following year he tried again and succeeded. In 1814 he succeeded in abolishing hanging and quartering. Romilly's efforts made his reputation. In 1818, he was returned at the head of the poll for the city of Westminster, he died shortly afterwards. Romilly married Anne Garbett, daughter of Francis Garbett, of Knill Court, Herefordshire, in 1798, they had two sons, Sir John Romilly, a distinguished lawyer and politician, ennobled as Baron Romilly in 1866, Frederick Romilly, a politician. On 29 October 1818 Lady Romilly died in the Isle of Wight; the shock was dreadful to Romilly. In his agony he fell into a delirium, in a moment, when unwatched, he sprang from his bed, cut his throat, expired in a few minutes; the event took place at his house in Russell Square, London, on 2 November 1818. His nephew Peter Mark Roget attended to Romilly in his final moments, his last words were written: My dear, I wish... regarding his late wife.
He is buried near Presteigne, in Radnorshire, Wales, in the family vault of his relative, Colonel Foley. Capital punishment Memoirs of the Life of Sir Samuel Romilly written by himself, with a selection from his Correspondence, edited by his sons The Speeches of Sir Samuel Romilly in the House of Commons Life and Work of Sir Samuel Romilly, by William Job Collins, in Transactions of the Huguenot Society Romilly: A Life of Sir Samuel Romilly and Reformer, Patrick Medd, Collins, 1968). Chambers' Book of Days Memoirs of the Life Sir Samuel Romilly Door Sir Samuel Romilly, 1840 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Samuel Romilly Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Samuel Romilly
Geological Society of London
The Geological Society of London, known as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom. It is the oldest national geological society in the world and the largest in Europe with more than 12,000 Fellows. Fellows are entitled to the postnominal FGS; the Society is a Registered Charity, No. 210161. It is a member of the Science Council, is licensed to award Chartered Scientist to qualifying members; the mission of the society: "Making geologists acquainted with each other, stimulating their zeal, inducing them to adopt one nomenclature, facilitating the communication of new facts and ascertaining what is known in their science and what remains to be discovered". The Society was founded on 13 October 1807 at the Freemasons' Tavern, Great Queen Street, in the Covent Garden district of London, it was the outcome of a previous club known as the Askesian Society. There were 13 founder members: William Babington, James Parkinson, Humphry Davy, George Bellas Greenough, Arthur Aikin, William Allen, Jacques Louis, Comte de Bournon, Richard Knight, James Laird, James Franck, William Haseldine Pepys, Richard Phillips, William Phillips.
It received its Royal Charter on 23 April 1825 from George IV. Since 1874, the Society has been based at Burlington House, London; this building houses the Society's library, which contains more than 300,000 volumes of books and journals. It is a member of the UK Science Council. Women were first allowed to become Fellows of the Society in 1919. In 1991, it merged with the Institution of Geologists, formed in 1977 to represent the geological profession; the Society celebrated its bicentenary in 2007. It ran programmes in the geosciences in Britain and abroad, under the auspices of the science writer and palaeontologist Professor Richard Fortey, the president that year; the Society has 24 specialist groups and 15 regional groups which serve as an opportunity for those with specific interests to meet and discuss their subject or region. They are all free for members to join and some are open to non-members; the Regional Groups are: Central Scotland East Anglian East Midlands Home Counties North Hong Kong North West Northern Solent South East South West Southern Wales Thames Valley West Midlands Western YorkshireThe Specialist Groups are: Borehole Research Group British Geophysical Association British Sedimentological Research Group British Society for Geomorphology Coal Geology Group Engineering Group Environment Group Environmental and Industrial Geophysics Group Forensic Geoscience Group Gaia: Earth Systems Science Group Geochemistry Group Geological Curators Group Geological Remote Sensing Group Geoscience Information Group History of Geology Group Hydrogeological Group Joint Association for Quaternary Research Joint Association of Geoscientists for International Development Marine Studies Group Metamorphic Studies Group Mineral Deposits Studies Group Petroleum Group Tectonic Studies Group Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group The society publishes two of its own journals, the Journal of the Geological Society and the Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology.
It publishes the magazine Geoscientist for Fellows, has a share in Geology Today, published by Blackwell Science. It co-publishes journals and publishes on behalf of other organisations; these include Petroleum Geoscience with the European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers, Geochemistry: Exploration, Analysis with the Association of Applied Geochemists, Journal of Micropalaeontology for the Micropalaeontological Society, Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society for the Yorkshire Geological Society, Scottish Journal of Geology for the Geological Societies of Edinburgh and Glasgow. The society counts many famous geologists amongst its past presidents; these include pioneers of geology William Buckland, Adam Sedgwick, Roderick Impey Murchison, Charles Lyell, Henry Thomas De la Beche, T. H. Huxley, Joseph Prestwich, Archibald Geikie, Jethro Teall, Charles Lapworth. Well-known names include Alfred Harker, Arthur Trueman, H. H. Read, Frederick Shotton, Janet Watson. In 1831 it began issuing an annual scientific award for geology, known as the Wollaston Medal.
This is still the Society's premier medal, which in 2006 was awarded to James Lovelock, the originator of the Gaia Hypothesis. Wollaston Medal Lyell Medal Murchison Medal Prestwich Medal William Smith Medal Aberconway Medal Major John Sacheverell A'Deane Coke Medal Major Edward D'Ewes Fitzgerald Coke Medal Sue Tyler Friedman Medal Bigsby Medal The Wollaston Fund The Murchison Fund The Lyell Fund The R. H. Worth Prize The William Smith Fund The Distinguished Service Award Herries Davies, G. L. Whatever is Under the Earth: The Geological Society of London 1807 to 2007, London: Geological Society, ISBN 1-86239-214-5 Geology of the United Kingdom William Smith The Geological Society The Lyell Collection
Michael Faraday FRS was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction and electrolysis. Although Faraday received little formal education, he was one of the most influential scientists in history, it was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena, he discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction and diamagnetism, the laws of electrolysis. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, it was due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology; as a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, popularised terminology such as "anode", "cathode", "electrode" and "ion".
Faraday became the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution, a lifetime position. Faraday was an excellent experimentalist who conveyed his ideas in simple language. James Clerk Maxwell took the work of Faraday and others and summarized it in a set of equations, accepted as the basis of all modern theories of electromagnetic phenomena. On Faraday's uses of lines of force, Maxwell wrote that they show Faraday "to have been in reality a mathematician of a high order – one from whom the mathematicians of the future may derive valuable and fertile methods." The SI unit of capacitance is named in his honour: the farad. Albert Einstein kept a picture of Faraday on his study wall, alongside pictures of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell. Physicist Ernest Rutherford stated, "When we consider the magnitude and extent of his discoveries and their influence on the progress of science and of industry, there is no honour too great to pay to the memory of Faraday, one of the greatest scientific discoverers of all time."
Michael Faraday was born on 22 September 1791 in Newington Butts, now part of the London Borough of Southwark but was a suburban part of Surrey. His family was not well off, his father, was a member of the Glassite sect of Christianity. James Faraday moved his wife and two children to London during the winter of 1790 from Outhgill in Westmorland, where he had been an apprentice to the village blacksmith. Michael was born in the autumn of that year; the young Michael Faraday, the third of four children, having only the most basic school education, had to educate himself. At the age of 14 he became an apprentice to George Riebau, a local bookbinder and bookseller in Blandford Street. During his seven-year apprenticeship Faraday read many books, including Isaac Watts's The Improvement of the Mind, he enthusiastically implemented the principles and suggestions contained therein, he developed an interest in science in electricity. Faraday was inspired by the book Conversations on Chemistry by Jane Marcet.
In 1812, at the age of 20 and at the end of his apprenticeship, Faraday attended lectures by the eminent English chemist Humphry Davy of the Royal Institution and the Royal Society, John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Many of the tickets for these lectures were given to Faraday by William Dance, one of the founders of the Royal Philharmonic Society. Faraday subsequently sent Davy a 300-page book based on notes that he had taken during these lectures. Davy's reply was immediate and favourable. In 1813, when Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, he decided to employ Faraday as an assistant. Coincidentally one of the Royal Institution's assistants, John Payne, was sacked and Sir Humphry Davy had been asked to find a replacement. Soon Davy entrusted Faraday with the preparation of nitrogen trichloride samples, they both were injured in an explosion of this sensitive substance. In the class-based English society of the time, Faraday was not considered a gentleman.
When Davy set out on a long tour of the continent in 1813–15, his valet did not wish to go, so instead, Faraday went as Davy's scientific assistant and was asked to act as Davy's valet until a replacement could be found in Paris. Faraday was forced to fill the role of valet as well as assistant throughout the trip. Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat Faraday as an equal, made Faraday so miserable that he contemplated returning to England alone and giving up science altogether; the trip did, give him access to the scientific elite of Europe and exposed him to a host of stimulating ideas. Faraday married Sarah Barnard on 12 June 1821, they met through their families at the Sandemanian church, he confessed his faith to the Sandemanian congregation the month after they were married. They had no children. Faraday was a devout Christian. Well after his marriage, he served as deacon and for two terms as an elder in the meeting house of his youth, his church was located at Paul's Alley in the Barbican.
This meeting house relocated in 1862 to Islington.
Richard Lovell Edgeworth
Richard Lovell Edgeworth was an Anglo-Irish politician and inventor. Edgeworth was born in Pierrepont Street, England, great-grandson of Sir Salathiel Lovell through his granddaughter, Jane Lovell. A Trinity College and Corpus Christi, Oxford alumnus, he is credited for creating, among other inventions, a machine to measure the size of a plot of land, he made strides in the developing educational methods. He anticipated the caterpillar track with an invention that he played around with for forty years but that he never developed, he described it as a "cart that carries its own road". He was married four times, including both Honora Sneyd and Frances Beaufort, older sister of Francis Beaufort of the Royal Navy; the two men installed a semaphore line for Ireland. Richard Lovell Edgeworth was a member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham; the Lunar Society evolved through various degrees of organization over a period of years, but was only an informal group. No constitution, publications or membership lists survive from any period, evidence of its existence and activities is found only in the correspondence and notes of those associated with it.
Dates given for the society range from sometime before 1760 to it still operating as late as 1813. Fourteen individuals have been identified as having verifiably attended Lunar Society meetings over a long period during its most productive time: these are Matthew Boulton, Erasmus Darwin, Thomas Day, Richard Lovell Edgeworth, Samuel Galton, Jr. James Keir, Joseph Priestley, William Small, Jonathan Stokes, James Watt, Josiah Wedgwood, John Whitehurst and William Withering. Richard Edgeworth and his family lived in Ireland at his estate at Edgeworthstown, County Longford, where he reclaimed bogs and improved roads, he sat in Grattan's Parliament for St Johnstown from 1798 until the Act of Union in 1801, advocated Catholic Emancipation and parliamentary reform. He was a founder-member of the Royal Irish Academy, he died in Edgworthstown on 13 June 1817. He was the father of 22 children by his four wives Anna Maria Elers, of whom four childrenRichard Edgeworth, m. Elizabeth Knight 1788. Died in America Lovell Edgeworth Maria Edgeworth the novelist Emmeline Edgeworth, married Dr. John King of Bristol, October 1802 Anna Maria Edgeworth, married Dr. Thomas Beddoes 1794.
Honora Sneyd, of whom two childrenHonora Edgeworth Lovell Edgeworth, who inherited the property Elizabeth Sneyd, sister of Honora Sneyd, of whom five sons and four daughters Elizabeth Edgeworth Henry Edgeworth Charlotte Edgeworth Sophia Edgeworth Charles Sneyd Edgeworth m. Henrica Broadhurst 1813, succeeded his brother Lovell Edgeworth William Edgeworth Thomas Day Edgeworth Honora Edgeworth, married Francis Beaufort 1838 William Edgeworth, engineer. Frances Ann Beaufort, botanical artist, daughter of Daniel Augustus Beaufort and Mary Waller, of whom six children,Frances Maria Edgeworth m. Lestock Wilson 1829 Harriet Edgeworth m. Richard Butler 1826 Sophia Edgeworth m. Barry Fox 1824 Lucy Jane, married the Irish astronomer Thomas Romney Robinson 1843. Francis Beaufort Edgeworth, Mentioned in Thomas Carlyle's Life of Sterling. Married Rosa Florentina Eroles of Spain, 1831, of whom six sons and one daughterWilliam Edgeworth William Edgeworth, entered the army in 1853 and served in India Antonio Eroles Edgeworth, succeeded his uncle Charles Sneyd Edgeworth David Reid Edgeworth Mary Edgeworth Richard Lestock Edgeworth Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, became an influential economist.
Michael Pakenham Edgeworth, m. Christina Macpherson 1846, botanist. Works by Richard Lovell Edgeworth at Project Gutenberg Works by Richard Lovell Edgeworth at Faded Page Works by or about Richard Lovell Edgeworth at Internet Archive Edgeworth, Richard Lovell; the Memoirs of Richard Lovell Edgeworth. 1. London: Hunter, Cradock & Joy. Edgeworth, Richard Lovell; the Memoirs of Richard Lovell Edgeworth. 2. London: Hunter, Cradock & Joy; the four wives of Richard Edgeworth Portraits The Edgeworth Family, National Portrait Gallery