A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century. The term Mother Goose rhymes is interchangeable with nursery rhymes. From the mid-16th century nursery rhymes begin to be recorded in English plays, most popular rhymes date from the 17th and 18th centuries; the first English collections, Tommy Thumb's Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book, were published before 1744. Publisher John Newbery's stepson, Thomas Carnan, was the first to use the term Mother Goose for nursery rhymes when he published a compilation of English rhymes, Mother Goose's Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle; the oldest children's songs of which we have records are lullabies, intended to help a child fall asleep. Lullabies can be found in every human culture; the English term lullaby is thought to come from "lu, lu" or "la la" sounds made by mothers or nurses to calm children, "by by" or "bye bye", either another lulling sound or a term for good night.
Until the modern era lullabies were only recorded incidentally in written sources. The Roman nurses' lullaby, "Lalla, Lalla, aut dormi, aut lacta", is recorded in a scholium on Persius and may be the oldest to survive. Many medieval English verses associated with the birth of Jesus take the form of a lullaby, including "Lullay, my liking, my dere son, my sweting" and may be versions of contemporary lullabies. However, most of those used today date from the 17th century. For example, a well known lullaby such as "Rock-a-bye, baby on a tree top", cannot be found in records until the late-18th century when it was printed by John Newbery. A French poem, similar to "Thirty days hath September", numbering the days of the month, was recorded in the 13th century. From the Middle Ages there are records of short children's rhyming songs as marginalia. From the mid-16th century they begin to be recorded in English plays. "Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, baker's man" is one of the oldest surviving English nursery rhymes.
The earliest recorded version of the rhyme appears in Thomas d'Urfey's play The Campaigners from 1698. Most nursery rhymes were not written down until the 18th century, when the publishing of children's books began to move from polemic and education towards entertainment, but there is evidence for many rhymes existing before this, including "To market, to market" and "Cock a doodle doo", which date from at least the late 16th century; the first English collections, Tommy Thumb's Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book, are both thought to have been published by Mary Cooper in London before 1744, with such songs becoming known as'Tommy Thumb's songs'. John Newbery's stepson, Thomas Carnan, was the first to use the term Mother Goose for nursery rhymes when he published a compilation of English rhymes, Mother Goose's Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle; these rhymes seem to have come from a variety of sources, including traditional riddles, ballads, lines of Mummers' plays, drinking songs, historical events, and, it has been suggested, ancient pagan rituals.
About half of the recognised "traditional" English rhymes were known by the mid-18th century. In the early 19th century printed collections of rhymes began to spread to other countries, including Robert Chambers's Popular Rhymes of Scotland and in the United States, Mother Goose's Melodies. From this period we sometimes know the origins and authors of rhymes—for instance, in "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star" which combines the melody of an 18th-century French tune "Ah vous dirai-je, Maman" with a 19th-century English poem by Jane Taylor entitled "The Star" used as lyrics. Early folk song collectors often collected nursery rhymes, including in Scotland Sir Walter Scott and in Germany Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim in Des Knaben Wunderhorn; the first, the most important academic collection to focus in this area was James Orchard Halliwell's The Nursery Rhymes of England and Popular Rhymes and Tales in 1849, in which he divided rhymes into antiquities, fireside stories, game-rhymes, alphabet-rhymes, nature-rhymes and families, superstitions and nursery songs.
By the time of Sabine Baring-Gould's A Book of Nursery Songs, folklore was an academic study, full of comments and footnotes. A professional anthropologist, Andrew Lang produced The Nursery Rhyme Book in 1897; the early years of the 20th century are notable for the illustrations to children's books including Caldecott's Hey Diddle Diddle Picture Book and Arthur Rackham's Mother Goose. The definitive study of English rhymes remains the work of Peter Opie. Many nursery rhymes have been argued to have hidden origins. John Bellenden Ker, for example, wrote four volumes arguing that English nursery rhymes were written in'Low Saxon', a hypothetical early form of Dutch, he then'translated' them back into English, revealing in particular a strong tendency to anti-clericalism. Many of the ideas about the links between rhymes and historical persons, or events, can be traced back to Katherine Elwes's book The Real Personages of Mother Goose, in which she linked famous nursery-rhyme characters with real people, on little or no evidence.
She assumed that children's songs were a peculiar form of coded historical narrative, propaganda or covert protest, considered that they could have been written for entertainment. There have been several attempts, across the world. In the late 18th century we can sometimes see how rhymes like "Little Rob
System of a Down
System of a Down is an Armenian-American heavy metal band from Glendale, formed in 1994. The band consists of Serj Tankian, Daron Malakian, Shavo Odadjian, John Dolmayan; the band achieved commercial success with the release of five studio albums, three of which debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200. System of a Down has been nominated for four Grammy Awards, their song "B. Y. O. B." won a Grammy Award for Best Hard Rock Performance in 2006. The band went on hiatus in 2006 and reunited in 2010. System of a Down sold over 40 million records worldwide, their singles "Aerials" and "Hypnotize" have both reached number one on Billboard's Alternative Songs chart. Serj Tankian and Daron Malakian attended Rose and Alex Pilibos Armenian School as children, although due to their eight-year age difference they did not meet until 1992 while working on separate projects at the same recording studio, they formed a band named Soil with Tankian on vocals and keyboards, Malakian on vocals and guitar, Dave Hakopyan on bass and Domingo "Dingo" Laranio on drums.
The band hired Shavo Odadjian as manager, although he joined Soil as rhythm guitarist. In 1994, after only one live show at the Roxy and one jam session recording and Laranio left the band. After Soil split up, Tankian and Malakian formed a new band, System of a Down; the group took its name from a poem that Malakian had written titled "Victims of a Down". The word "victims" was changed to "system" because Odadjian believed that it would appeal to a much wider audience and because the group wanted their records to be alphabetically shelved closer to their musical heroes, Slayer. Odadjian switched from guitar to bass and passed on his managerial duties to Velvet Hammer Music and Management Group and its founder David "Beno" Benveniste; the band recruited drummer Ontronik "Andy" Khachaturian, an old school friend of Malakian's and Odadjian's who had played with Malakian in a band called Snowblind during their teens. In early 1995, System played as "Soil" at a nightclub in Los Angeles. Shortly after the event, System of a Down made what is known as Untitled 1995 Demo Tape, not commercially released but appeared on file sharing networks around the time of the band's success with Toxicity about six years later.
Demo Tape 2 was released in 1996. At the beginning of 1997, System of a Down recorded their final publicly released demo tape, Demo Tape 3. In mid-1997, drummer Khachaturian left the band because of a hand injury. Khachaturian was replaced by John Dolmayan; the band's first official release of a professionally recorded song was on a collection called Hye Enk, an Armenian Genocide recognition compilation, in 1997. Soon after playing at notable Hollywood clubs such as the Whisky-A-Go-Go and Viper Room the band caught famed producer Rick Rubin's attention who asked them to keep in touch with him. Showing great interest, the group recorded Demo Tape 4 near the end of 1997. Unlike the previous demo tapes, Demo Tape 4 was made only to be sent to record companies. Rubin signed the group onto his American/Columbia Records, System of a Down began to record in Rubin's studio with engineer Sylvia Massy, laying down tracks that would be released on their debut album. In 1997, the group won the Best Signed Band Award from the Rock City Awards.
In June 1998, System of a Down released System of a Down. They enjoyed moderate success as their first singles "Sugar" and "Spiders" became radio favorites and the music videos for both songs were aired on MTV. After the release of the album, the band toured extensively, opening for Slayer and Metallica before making their way to the second stage of Ozzfest. Following Ozzfest, they toured with Fear Factory and Incubus before headlining the Sno-Core Tour with Puya, Mr. Bungle, The Cat and Incubus providing support. In November 1998, System of a Down appeared on South Park's Chef Aid album, providing the music for the song "Will They Die 4 You?" Near the end of the song Tankian can be heard saying, "Why must we kill our own kind?" A line that would be used in the song "Boom!" Although System of a Down is credited on the album, South Park character Chef does not introduce them as he does every other artist featured on the record. System of a Down's former drummer, Ontronik Khachaturian reunited with the band at a show at The Troubadour in 1999, filling in on vocals for an ill Tankian.
In 2000, the band contributed their cover of the Black Sabbath song "Snowblind" to the Black Sabbath tribute album Nativity in Black 2. On September 3, 2001, System of a Down had planned on launching their second album at a free concert in Hollywood as a "thank you" to fans; the concert, to be held in a parking lot, was set up to accommodate 3,500 people. Because of the large excess number of fans, the performance was cancelled by police officers just before the group took the stage. No announcement was made. Fans waited for more than an hour for the group to appear, but when a banner hanging at the back of the stage that read "System of a Down" was removed by security, the audience rushed the stage, destroying all the band's touring gear and beg
Kimberly Denise Jones, known professionally by her stage name Lil' Kim, is an American rapper, songwriter and actress. She was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, living much of her adolescent life on the streets after being expelled from home. In her teens, Jones would freestyle rap influenced by fellow female hip-hop artists like MC Lyte and The Lady of Rage. In 1994, she was discovered by fellow rapper The Notorious B. I. G. who invited her to join his rap group Junior M. A. F. I. A.. Lil' Kim's debut studio album, Hard Core, was certified double platinum by the RIAA, has since sold more than 6 million copies worldwide, spawned three successful singles: "No Time", "Not Tonight", "Crush on You", her following albums, The Notorious K. I. M. and La Bella Mafia, were certified platinum, making her the only female rapper besides Missy Elliott and Nicki Minaj to have at least three platinum-certified studio albums. In 2001, she was featured on the single "Lady Marmalade", alongside Mýa, Pink and Christina Aguilera, which went to number one on the U.
S. Billboard Hot 100. In addition, the remake won two MTV Video Music Awards including Video of the Year, a Grammy Award for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals at the 44th Grammy Awards in 2002. In 2005, she served a yearlong prison sentence for lying to a jury about her friends' involvement in a shooting four years earlier. During her incarceration, her fourth album, The Naked Truth, was released to positive reviews from critics, she returned to the public eye in 2009 with an appearance on Dancing with the Stars. Throughout her career, Lil' Kim has sold more than 15 million albums and 30 million singles worldwide, her songs "No Time", "Big Momma Thang", "Ladies Night" were each listed on Complex Magazine's list of the 50 Best Rap Songs By Women. In 2012, Lil' Kim was listed on VH1's 100 Greatest Women In Music list at number 45, the second highest position for a solo female hip-hop artist. Lil' Kim has been called "the fiercest, most provocative, most infamous female rapper" by AllMusic, she has been noted as one of the top 50 greatest MCs of all time in the book There's a God on the Mic.
Aside from music, Lil' Kim is known for her risk-taking and luxurious approach to fashion that inspired many artists. She has been called one of the most influential rappers of all time referred to as the "Queen of Rap" and "Hip-Hop Goddess". Jones was born in the Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the second child of Linwood Jones, a former U. S. Marine, Ruby Jones, she has one older brother named Christopher. As a child, Jones attended Queen of All Saints Elementary School in Brooklyn. At the age of 9, her parents separated, Jones was raised by her father, with whom she had a tumultuous relationship. After being kicked out of her house by her father, Jones dropped out of high school and began living out on the streets. While still a teen, Jones met The Notorious B. I. G. A.k.a. Biggie Smalls, a key figure in both her personal and artistic life after Wallace gained popularity and influence through his relationship with Bad Boy Records, founded by Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs.
Jones attended Sarah J. Hale Vocational High School for two and a half years. Many of her friends went there and she would skip school to hang out with them. Since her school work wasn't being completed, the decision was made for her to transfer to Brooklyn College Academy to finish her remaining year and half of school, it was the same school that fellow rappers Foxy Brown attended. In 1994, B. I. G. was instrumental in introducing and promoting the Brooklyn-based group, Junior M. A. F. I. A. Which included Jones, only 19 at the time; the group's first and only album, was released to mediocre reviews and moderate sales on August 29, 1995 and debuted at number eight on the U. S. Billboard 200 chart, selling 69,000 copies in its first week of release. Wallace wrote most of the album's material. Three hit singles came from Conspiracy: "Player's Anthem", "I Need You Tonight", "Get Money"; the RIAA certified Conspiracy gold on December 6, 1995. "Player's Anthem" and "Get Money" were certified platinum respectively.
Lil' Kim's increasing popularity as a member of Junior M. A. F. I. A. Allowed her to start a solo career shortly after the Conspiracy album was released, she began working on what would become her debut album Hard Core by late 1995. After a year with Junior M. A. F. I. A. Lil' Kim began a solo career by making guest performances on R&B albums and recording her debut album, Hard Core, released in November 1996; the album debuted at number 11 on the Billboard 200, the highest debut for a female rap album at that time, number 3 on Billboard's Top R&B Albums, selling 78,000 copies in its first week of release and has sold over 5 million copies worldwide. Hard Core was certified double platinum by the RIAA on March 14, 2001 after having been certified gold on January 6, 1997 and platinum on June 3, 1997; the album's lead single "No Time", a duet with Combs, reached the top spot of the Billboard Hot Rap Tracks chart and was certified gold by the RIAA. The following single, "Crush on You", reached number 2 on the rap chart.
A remix of the album's track "Not Ton
Seychelles the Republic of Seychelles, is an archipelago country in the Indian Ocean. The capital of the 115-island country, lies 1,500 kilometres east of mainland East Africa. Other nearby island countries and territories include Comoros, Madagascar, Réunion and Mauritius to the south. With a population of 94,228, it has the smallest population of any sovereign African country. Seychelles is a member of the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations. After proclamation of independence from the United Kingdom in 1976, Seychelles has developed from a agricultural society to a market-based diversified economy, with agriculture being supplanted by rising service and public sectors as well as tourism. From 1976 until 2015, nominal GDP output has increased nearly sevenfold and the purchasing power parity nearly sixteenfold. In late 2010s, the President Danny Faure and the National Assembly presented plans to encourage foreign investment in order to further upgrade these sectors.
Today, Seychelles boasts the highest nominal excluding the French regions. It is one of only a handful of countries in Africa with a high Human Development Index. Despite the country's newfound economic prosperity, poverty remains widespread due to a high level of economic inequality, one of the highest in the world, unequal wealth distribution among the populace which vastly favors the upper and ruling class; the Seychelles were uninhabited throughout most of recorded history. Some scholars assume that Austronesian seafarers and Maldivian and Arab traders were the first to visit the uninhabited Seychelles; this assumption is based on the discovery of tombs, visible until 1910. The earliest recorded sighting by Europeans took place on 15 March 1503, recorded by Thomé Lopes aboard "Rui Mendes de Brito" part of the fleet of the Portuguese Admiral Vasco da Gama. Da Gama's ships passed close to an elevated island Silhouette Island and the following day Desroches Island; the earliest recorded landing was in January 1609, by the crew of the "Ascension" under Captain Alexander Sharpeigh during the fourth voyage of the British East India Company.
A transit point for trade between Africa and Asia, the islands were said to be used by pirates until the French began to take control starting in 1756 when a Stone of Possession was laid on Mahé by Captain Nicholas Morphey. The islands were named after Louis XV's Minister of Finance; the British frigate "Orpheus" commanded by Captain Henry Newcome arrived at Mahé on 16 May 1794. Terms of capitulation were drawn up and the next day Seychelles was surrendered to Britain. Jean Baptiste Quéau de Quincy, the French administrator of Seychelles during the years of war with the United Kingdom, declined to resist when armed enemy warships arrived. Instead, he negotiated the status of capitulation to Britain which gave the settlers a privileged position of neutrality. Britain assumed full control upon the surrender of Mauritius in 1810, formalised in 1814 at the Treaty of Paris. Seychelles became a crown colony separate from Mauritius in 1903. Elections were held in 1966 and 1970. Independence was granted in 1976 as a republic within the Commonwealth.
In the 1970s Seychelles was "the place to be seen, a playground for film stars and the international jet set". In 1977, a coup d'état by France Albert René ousted the first president of the republic, James Mancham. René discouraged over-dependence on tourism and declared that he wanted "to keep the Seychelles for the Seychellois"; the 1979 constitution declared a socialist one-party state, which lasted until 1991. In the 1980s there were a series of coup attempts against President René, some of which were supported by South Africa. In 1981, Mike Hoare led a team of 43 South African mercenaries masquerading as holidaying rugby players in the 1981 Seychelles coup d'état attempt. There was a gun battle at the airport, most of the mercenaries escaped in a hijacked Air India plane; the leader of this hijacking was German mercenary D. Clodo, a former member of the Rhodesian SAS. Clodo stood trial in South Africa as well as in his home country Germany for air-piracy. In 1986, an attempted coup led by the Seychelles Minister of Defence, Ogilvy Berlouis, caused President René to request assistance from India.
In Operation Flowers are Blooming, the Indian naval vessel INS Vindhyagiri arrived in Port Victoria to help avert the coup. The first draft of a new constitution failed to receive the requisite 60% of voters in 1992, but an amended version was approved in 1993. In January 2013, Seychelles declared a state of emergency; the Seychelles president, head of state and head of government, is elected by popular vote for a five-year term of office. The cabinet is presided over and appointed by the president, subject to the approval of a majority of the legislature; the unicameral Seychellois parliament, the National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale, consists of 34 members, 25 of whom are elected directly by popular vote, while the remaining nine seats are appointed proportionally according to the percentage of votes received by each party. All members serve five-year terms; the Supreme Court of Seychelles, created in 1903, is the highest trial court in Seychelles and the first court of appeal from all the lower courts and tribunals.
The highest court of law
Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books; the project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on any computer. As of 23 June 2018, Project Gutenberg reached 57,000 items in its collection of free eBooks; the releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, Plucker. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional and language-specific works. Project Gutenberg is closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts. Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence.
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Roud Folk Song Index
The Roud Folk Song Index is a database of around 250,000 references to nearly 25,000 songs collected from oral tradition in the English language from all over the world. It is compiled by a former librarian in the London Borough of Croydon. Roud's Index is a "field-recording index" compiled by Roud, it subsumes all the previous printed sources known to Francis James Child and includes recordings from 1900 to 1975. Until early 2006 the index was available by a CD subscription. A partial list is available at List of folk songs by Roud number; the primary function of the Roud Folk Song Index is as a research aid correlating versions of traditional English-language folk song lyrics independently documented over past centuries by many different collectors across the UK and North America. It is possible by searching the database, for example by title, by first line, or subject matter to locate each of the numerous variants of a particular song. Comprehensive details of those songs are available, including details of the original collected source, a reference to where to find the text of the song within a published volume in the EFDSS archive.
A related index, the Roud Broadside Index, includes references to songs which appeared on broadsides and other cheap print publications, up to about 1920. In addition, there are many entries for music hall songs, pre-World War II radio performers' song folios, sheet music, etc; the index may be searched by title, first line etc. and the result includes details of the original imprint and where a copy may be located. The Roud number – "Roud num" – field may be used as a cross-reference to the Roud Folk Song Index itself in order to establish the traditional origin of the work; the database is recognised as a "significant index" by the EFDSS and was one of the first items to be published on its web site after the launch of the online version of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library in 2006. The purpose of the index is to give each song a unique identifier; the numbers were assigned on a more or less arbitrary basis, are not intended to carry any significance in themselves. However, because of the practicalities of compiling the index it is true as a general rule that older and better-known songs tend to occupy low numbers, while songs which are obscure have higher numbers.
Related songs are grouped under the same Roud number. If a trusted authority gives the name of a song but not the words it is assigned Roud number 000; the Index cross references to the Child Ballad number, if one is available for the particular song in question. It includes, where appropriate, the Laws number, a reference to a system of classification of folk songs, using one letter of the alphabet and up to two numeric digits, developed by George Malcolm Laws in the 1950s; the Index was compiled and is maintained by Steve Roud the Local Studies Librarian in the London Borough of Croydon. He was Honorary Librarian of the Folklore Society, he began it in around 1970 as a personal project, listing the source singer, their locality, the date of noting the song, the publisher, plus other fields, crucially assigning a number to each song, including all variants to overcome the problem of songs in which the titles were not consistent across versions. The system used 3x5-inch filing cards in shoeboxes.
In 1993, Roud implemented his record system on a computer database, which he continues to expand and maintain and, now hosted on the website of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. In the past few years the numbers have been accepted in academic circles; the Traditional Ballad Index at the California State University at Fresno includes Roud numbers up to number 5000 with comments on the songs, but draws on fewer sources. The Folk Song Index is a collaborative project between the Oberlin College Library and the folk music journal Sing Out!. It is an index to traditional folk songs of the world, with an emphasis on English-language songs, containing over 62,000 entries and including over 2,400 anthologies. Max Hunter's collection lists 1,600 songs. James Madison Carpenter's collection has 6,200 transcriptions and 1000 recorded cylinders made between 1927 and 1955; the index gives first line and the name of the source singer. When appropriate, the Child number is given, it is still a unexploited resource, with none of the recordings available.
The Essen folk song database is another collection that includes songs from non English-speaking countries Germany and China. A similar index of Latvian folk songs and chants, the "Dainu skapis", was created by Latvian scholar Krišjānis Barons at the beginning of the 20th century. List of folk songs by Roud number Iona and Peter Opie Official website
After Tomorrow is a 1932 American pre-Code drama film directed by Frank Borzage and starring Charles Farrell, Marian Nixon, Minna Gombell, Josephine Hull and William Collier, Sr. Peter Piper and his girlfriend Sidney Taylor have been engaged for a long time, but the economic situation of the Great Depression and the selfish demands of their respective mothers have delayed their marriage, they imagine their future together "after tomorrow" in the lyrics of their favorite song. While clinging Mrs. Piper, a widow fixated on her boy, cannot bear the thought that her son will one day leave her, does her best to break up Sidney and Peter's relationship. Sidney's mother, Else Taylor thinks only of her own needs, her lover, Malcolm Jarvis, a lodger in their house, with whom she leaves for good the day before Pete and Sidney's wedding, causing a second heart attack to Willie, Sidney's father; the wedding has to be postponed for another half of a year. When Else comes back to help her daughter and Pete financially, but Willie does not allow it.
Pete finds the courage to face his mother's boyfriend, Mr. Beardsley, owner of a chewing gum factory, giving him the same as his mother gives to Sidney, while arguing if he has serious intentions with his mother, Mr. Beardsley tells him that the hundred dollars he invested in his factory had a revenue of $740 at that point. So they can marry and go to Niagara Falls. Charles Farrell as Peter Piper Marian Nixon as Sidney Taylor Minna Gombell as Else Taylor William Collier, Sr. as Willie Taylor Josephine Hull as Mrs. Piper William Pawley as Malcolm Jarvis Greta Granstedt as Betty Ferdinand Munier as Mr. Beardsley Nora Lane as Florence Blandy After Tomorrow on IMDb synopsis at AllMovie