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Peter Sellers

Peter Sellers, CBE was an English film actor and singer. He performed in the BBC Radio comedy series The Goon Show, featured on a number of hit comic songs, became known to a worldwide audience through his many film roles, among them Chief Inspector Clouseau in The Pink Panther series of films. Born in Portsmouth to a theatrical family, Sellers made his stage debut at the Kings Theatre, when he was two weeks old, he began accompanying his parents in a variety act. He first worked as a drummer and toured around England as a member of the Entertainments National Service Association, he developed his mimicry and improvisational skills during a spell in Ralph Reader's wartime Gang Show entertainment troupe, which toured Britain and the Far East. After the war, Sellers made his radio debut in ShowTime, became a regular performer on various BBC radio shows. During the early 1950s, along with Spike Milligan, Harry Secombe, Michael Bentine, took part in the successful radio series The Goon Show, which ended in 1960.

Sellers began his film career during the 1950s. Although the bulk of his work was comedic parodying characters of authority such as military officers or policemen, he performed in other film genres and roles. Films demonstrating his artistic range include I'm All Right Jack, Stanley Kubrick's Lolita and Dr. Strangelove, What's New, Pussycat?, Casino Royale, The Party, Being There, five films of the Pink Panther series. Sellers' versatility enabled him to portray a wide range of comic characters using different accents and guises, he assumed multiple roles within the same film with contrasting temperaments and styles. Satire and black humour were major features of many of his films, his performances had a strong influence on a number of comedians. Sellers was nominated three times for an Academy Award, twice for the Academy Award for Best Actor, for his performances in Dr. Strangelove and Being There, once for the Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film for The Running Jumping & Standing Still Film.

He won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role twice, for I'm All Right Jack and for the original Pink Panther film, The Pink Panther and was nominated as Best Actor three times. In 1980 he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy for his role in Being There, was nominated three times in the same category. Turner Classic Movies calls Sellers "one of the most accomplished comic actors of the late 20th century". In his personal life, Sellers struggled with depression and insecurities. An enigmatic figure, he claimed to have no identity outside the roles that he played, his behaviour was erratic and compulsive, he clashed with his directors and co-stars in the mid-1970s when his physical and mental health, together with his alcohol and drug problems, were at their worst. Sellers was married four times, had three children from his first two marriages, he died from a heart attack aged 54, in 1980. English filmmakers the Boulting brothers described Sellers as "the greatest comic genius this country has produced since Charles Chaplin".

Sellers was born on 8 September 1925, in a suburb of Portsmouth. His parents were Yorkshire-born William "Bill" Sellers and Agnes Doreen "Peg". Both were variety entertainers. Although christened Richard Henry, his parents called him Peter, after his elder brother, stillborn, his parents had no other children. Peg Sellers was related to the pugilist Daniel Mendoza, whom Sellers revered, whose engraving hung in his office. At one time Sellers planned to use Mendoza's image for his production company's logo. Sellers was two weeks old when he was carried on stage by Dick Henderson, the headline act at the Kings Theatre in Southsea: the crowd sang "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow", which caused the infant to cry; the family toured, causing much upheaval and unhappiness in the young Sellers' life. Sellers maintained a close relationship with his mother, his friend Spike Milligan considered it unhealthy for a grown man. Sellers' agent, Dennis Selinger, recalled his first meeting with Peg and Peter Sellers, noting that "Sellers was an immensely shy young man, inclined to be dominated by his mother, but without resentment or objection".

As an only child, though, he spent much time alone. In 1935 the Sellers family settled in Muswell Hill. Although Bill Sellers was Protestant and Peg was Jewish, Sellers attended the North London Roman Catholic school St. Aloysius College, run by the Brothers of Our Lady of Mercy; the family was not rich. According to biographer Peter Evans, Sellers was fascinated and worried by religion from a young age Catholicism. In his life, Sellers observed that while his father's faith was according to the Church of England, his mother was Jewish, "and Jews take the faith of their mother." According to Milligan, Sellers held a guilt complex about being Jewish and recalls that Sellers was once reduced to tears when he presented him with a candlestick from a synagogue for Christmas, believing the gesture to be an anti-Jewish slur. Sellers became a top student at the school, he was prone to laziness, but his natural talents shielded

Intramolecular Heck reaction

The intramolecular Heck reaction is the coupling of an aryl or alkenyl halide with an alkene in the same molecule. The reaction may be used to produce carbocyclic or heterocyclic organic compounds with a variety of ring sizes. Chiral palladium complexes can be used to synthesize chiral intramolecular Heck reaction products in non-racemic form; the Heck reaction is the palladium-catalyzed coupling of an aryl or alkenyl halide with an alkene to form a substituted alkene. Intramolecular variants of the reaction may be used to generate cyclic products containing endo or exo double bonds. Ring sizes produced by the intramolecular Heck reaction range from four to twenty-seven atoms. Additionally, in the presence of a chiral palladium catalyst, the intramolecular Heck reaction may be used to establish tertiary or quaternary stereocenters with high enantioselectivity. A number of tandem reactions, in which the intermediate alkylpalladium complex is intercepted either intra- or intermolecularly before β-hydride elimination, have been developed.

As shown in Eq. 2, the neutral pathway of the Heck reaction begins with the oxidative addition of the aryl or alkenyl halide into a coordinatively unsaturated palladium complex to give complex I. Dissociation of a phosphine ligand followed by association of the alkene yields complex II, migratory insertion of the alkene into the carbon-palladium bond establishes the key carbon-carbon bond. Insertion takes place in a suprafacial fashion, but the dihedral angle between the alkene and palladium-carbon bond during insertion can vary from 0° to ~90°. After insertion, β-hydride elimination affords the product and a palladium-hydrido complex IV, reduced by base back to palladium. Most asymmetric Heck reactions employing chiral phosphines proceed by the cationic pathway, which does not require the dissociation of a phosphine ligand. Oxidative addition of an aryl perfluorosulfonate generates a cationic palladium aryl complex V; the mechanism proceeds as in the neutral case, with the difference that an extra site of coordinative unsaturation exists on palladium throughout the process.

Thus, coordination of the alkene does not require ligand dissociation. Stoichiometric amounts of base are still required to reduce the palladium-hydrido complex VIII back to palladium. Silver salts may be used to initiate the cationic pathway in reactions of aryl halides. Reactions involving palladium acetate and phosphine ligands proceed by a third mechanism, the anionic pathway. Base mediates the oxidation of a phosphine ligand by palladium to a phosphine oxide. Oxidative addition generates the anionic palladium complex IX. Loss of halide leads to neutral complex X, which undergoes steps analogous to the neutral pathway to regenerate anionic complex IX. A similar anionic pathway is likely operative in reactions of bulky palladium triphosphine complexes. Asymmetric Heck reactions establish tertiary stereocenters. If migratory insertion generates a quaternary center adjacent to the palladium-carbon bond, β-hydride elimination toward that center is not possible and it is retained in the product.

Β-hydride elimination is not possible if a hydrogen syn to the palladium-carbon bond is not available. Thus, tertiary stereocenters can be established in conformationally restricted systems; the intramolecular Heck reaction may be used to form rings of a variety of topologies. Β-Hydride elimination need not be the final step of the reaction, tandem methods have been developed that involve the interception of palladium alkyl intermediates formed after migratory insertion by an additional reactant. This section discusses the most common ring sizes formed by the intramolecular Heck reaction and some of its tandem and asymmetric variants. 5-Exo cyclization, which establishes a five-membered ring with an exocyclic alkene, is the most facile cyclization mode in intramolecular Heck reactions. In this and many other modes of intramolecular Heck cyclization, annulations produce a cis ring juncture. 6-Exo cyclization is common. The high stability of Heck reaction catalysts permits the synthesis of strained compounds at elevated temperatures.

In the example below, the arene and alkene must both be in energetically unfavorable axial positions in order to react. Endo cyclization is observed most when small or large rings are involved. For instance, 5-endo cyclization is preferred over 4-exo cyclization; the yield of endo product increases with increasing ring size in the synthesis of cycloheptenes, -octenes, -nonenes. Tandem reactions initiated by IMHR have been extensively explored. Palladium alkyl intermediates generated after migratory insertion may undergo a second round of insertion in the presence of a second alkene; when dienes are involved in the intramolecular Heck reaction, insertion affords π-allylpalldium intermediates, which may be intercepted by nucleophiles. This idea was applied to a synthesis of -morphine. Asymmetric IMHR may establish quaternary stereocenters. BINAP is the most chiral ligand used in this context. An interesting application of IMHR is group-selective desymmetrization, in which the chiral palladium aryl intermediate undergoes insertion predominantly with one of the enantiotopic double bonds.

The high functional group tolerance of the intramolecular Heck reaction allows it to be used at a late stage in synthetic routes. In a synthesis of -FR900482, IMHR establishes a tricyclic ring system in high yield without disturbing any of the sensitive functionality nearby. Intramolecul

OV language

In linguistics, an OV language is a language in which the object comes before the verb. OV languages compose forty-seven percent of documented languages, they are left-branching, or head-final, with heads found at the end of their phrases, with a resulting tendency to have the adjectives before nouns, to place adpositions after the noun phrases they govern, to put relative clauses before their referents, to place auxiliary verbs after the action verb. Of the OV languages that make use of affixes, many predominantly, or exclusively, as in the case of Turkish, prefer suffixation to prefixation. For example, English would be considered a VO language, Japanese and Korean would be considered to be OV. Japanese: 犬が猫を追いかけた. Inu ga neko o oikaketa English: The dog chased the cat Korean: 개는 고양이를 쫓았다. Gae-neun Go-yang-i-reul jjo-chatt-da English: The dog chased the cat Some languages, such as Finnish, Hungarian and Yiddish, use both OV and VO constructions, but in other instances, such as Early Middle English, some dialects may use VO and others OV.

Languages that contain both OV and VO construction may solidify into the other construction. A language that moves the verb or verb phrase more than the object will have surface VO word order, a language which moves the object more than the verb or verb phrase will have surface OV word order. Subject–object–verb Object–subject–verb Object–verb–subject