Keith Christmas is an English singer and songwriter. In 1969 his first album Stimulus was released. Christmas played acoustic guitar on David Bowie's Space Oddity album, appeared at the first Glastonbury Festival in 1970. Through the 1970s he released four more albums, Fable Of The Wings, Brighter Day and Stories From The Human Zoo, while touring with and supporting bands like The Who, King Crimson, Ten Years After, Frank Zappa, Roxy Music, Captain Beefheart and The Kinks. Among the musicians who contributed to his recordings were Mighty Baby, Pat Donaldson, Keith Tippett, Gerry Conway, Shelagh McDonald, Rod Argent, Peter Sinfield, Greg Lake, Mel Collins, Cat Stevens and Michael Boshears. In 1972 he was voted one of six favourite international artists by writers of Sounds magazine. In 1976 he came back after a few years stopped playing, he formed the blues band'Weatherman' in 1991 with some friends and an album of the same name was released in 1992. In 1996 he started to write a different kind of acoustic material which immediately led to the release of a new album'Love Beyond Deals' on HTD Records.
In January 2003 Christmas released an instrumental CD, ‘Acoustica’. It got excellent worldwide reviews - ‘absolutely brilliant’, ‘this is a quite exceptional piece of work’, ‘lavish and overwhelming’, ‘a beautiful album’, the opening track was used on the BBC documentary'Hidden Gardens'. In 2006 he recorded and produced his first solo CD called'Light of the Dawn'; the magazine fRoots reviewed it “…the sound is fantastic and grabs the attention: the confident, gutsy guitar, picked or slide, has immediacy and intimacy in equal measure. In 2011 Christmas released a 5-track solo acoustic EP called'Fat Cat Big Fish' and in 2012 released his first live CD'Live at the Pump'. In December 2016 Christmas released a new CD, ‘Crazy Dancing Days’. From summer 2015, when he started writing the album, to just before its release, early versions of 8 songs that were posted on YouTube, SoundCloud and Fandalism have been played over 47,000 times, 14,000 of them the track ‘Cross the Water’ - an appeal for tolerance to refugees, Stimulus 1969 Fable of the Wings 1970 Pigmy 1971 Brighter Day 1974 Stories from the Human Zoo 1976 Weatherman 1992 Love Beyond Deals 1996 Acoustica 2003 Timeless & Strange 2004 Light of the Dawn 2006 Fat Cat Big Fish 2011 Live at the Pump 2012 Crazy Dancing Days 2016 Official website
Gregory Stuart Lake was an English bassist, singer and producer. He gained prominence as a founding member of the progressive rock bands King Crimson and Emerson, Lake & Palmer. Born and raised in Dorset, Lake began to play the guitar at the age of 12 and wrote his first song, "Lucky Man", at the same age, he became a full-time musician at 17, playing in several rock bands until fellow Dorset guitarist Robert Fripp invited him to join King Crimson as their singer and bassist. They found commercial success In the Court of the Crimson King. Lake left the band in 1970 and achieved significant success in the 1970s and beyond as the singer, guitarist and producer of ELP; as a member of ELP, Lake wrote and recorded several popular songs including "Lucky Man" and "From the Beginning". Both songs entered the US singles charts. Lake launched a solo career, beginning with his 1975 single "I Believe in Father Christmas" which reached number two in the UK, he went on to release solo albums and singles thereafter, collaborating with several artists in the process.
Lake performed with various groups in the 1980s, occasional ELP reunions in the 1990s, toured as a solo artist into the 21st century. He died on 7 December 2016 in London, after suffering from cancer, at the age of 69. Greg Lake was born on 10 November 1947 in the Parkstone area of Poole in Dorset, to Harry, an engineer, Pearl, a housewife, he grew up in the residential suburb of Oakdale. Speaking about his childhood, Lake said he was "born in an asbestos prefab housing unit" into a "very poor" family, remembered several cold winters at home, but credits his parents for sending him money and food during his time as a struggling musician, he described his upbringing as a happy one. Lake discovered rock and roll in 1957 when he bought Little Richard's "Lucille". At the age of 12, he first learned to play the guitar and wrote his first song, "Lucky Man", which he did not write down and committed it to memory, he named his mother, a pianist, as his initial musical influence and she bought Lake a second hand guitar to learn on.
Lake took guitar lessons from Don Strike, who had a shop in Westbourne. Strike taught him "these awful Bert Weedon things", reading musical notation exercises with violin pieces by Niccolò Paganini, playing 1930s pop tunes, the latter of which became an influence on Lake at the time. After one year with Strike, Lake ended his tuition as he wished to learn songs by the Shadows, a favourite band of his, but Strike "wouldn't have any of it". Lake's second guitar was a pink Fender Stratocaster. Lake attended Oakdale Junior School followed by Henry Harbin Secondary Modern School, left the latter in 1963 or 1964, he took up work loading and unloading cargo at the Poole docks, as a draughtsman for a short period. Lake decided to become a full-time musician at the age of 17. Lake joined Unit Four, playing cover songs as their singer and guitarist. Following their split in 1965, Lake and Unit Four bassist Dave Genes formed another covers group, the Time Checks, until 1966, he became a member of The Shame, where he is featured on their single, "Don't Go Away Little Girl", written by Janis Ian.
During his stay in Carlisle for a gig, Lake continued to perform on stage. His bandmates refused to drive back home that night, leaving Lake to sleep in the van where he "woke up blue... When we got home I was nearly dead... That was the worst I went through". Following a brief stint in the Shy Limbs, by 1968 Lake was involved with The Gods, based in Hatfield, which he described as "a poor training college", but the group secured a residency at the Marquee Club in London. Lake left the group in 1968 over creative differences as the band were to enter the recording studio, their keyboardist Ken Hensley said that Lake "was far too talented to be kept in the background". In the 1960s, Lake formed a friendship with future King Crimson co-founder and guitarist Robert Fripp, from Dorset and had received lessons from Don Strike, saw Lake perform in Unit Four in Poole. Fripp was asked to be a roadie for a gig at Ventnor, Isle of Wight. Lake and Fripp decided to just play tunes from their guitar lessons that Strike had taught them.
Fripp formed King Crimson since his previous group, Giles and Fripp was not commercially successful, their record company suggested getting a proper lead singer. He chose Lake for this role, but asked him to play bass instead of guitar to avoid having to get a bass player in the group; this marked Lake's first time playing the instrument as he had been a guitarist for the previous eleven years. Though Peter Sinfield was the band's lyricist, Lake had some involvement in the lyrics for their debut album In the Court of the Crimson King. After their contracted producer Tony Clarke walked away from the project, Lake produced the album. Released in October 1969, the album was an immediate commercial and critical success, as Lake recalled: "There was this huge wave of response; the audiences were into us because we were an underground thing – the critics loved us because we offered something fresh". King Crimson supported In the Court of the Crimson King with a tour of the UK and the US, with some of the shows featuring rock band The Nice as the opening act.
During the US leg, Lake struck up a friendship with Nice keyboardist Keith Emerson. When King Crimson returned to the UK in early 1970, Lake agreed to sing on the band's second album, In the Wake of Poseidon, appear on the music televis
Morocco the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country located in the Maghreb region of North West Africa with an area of 710,850 km2. Its capital is the largest city Casablanca, it overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa; the Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, it regained its independence in 1956, has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards.
Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco occupies two thirds of the territory, peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock; the unitary sovereign state of Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors; the king can issue decrees called dahirs. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court.
Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and Berber. E; the Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, French are widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Sephardi Jews, West African and European influences. Morocco is a member of the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union, it has the fifth largest economy of Africa. The full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to "Kingdom of the West". For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers sometimes referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá to distinguish it from neighbouring historical regions called al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ and al-Maghrib al-Adná; the basis of Morocco's English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad Caliphate. The origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most from the Berber words amur akush or "Land of God"; the modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc. In Turkish, Morocco is known as a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes.
However, this was not the case in other parts of the Islamic world: until the middle of the 20th century, the common name of Morocco in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Arabic literature was Marrakesh. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish "Marruecos", from which derives the Tuscan "Morrocco", the origin of the Italian "Marocco"; the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. A recent publication may demonstrate an earlier habitation period, as Homo sapiens fossils discovered in the late 2000s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were dated to 315,000 years before present. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling a savanna more than today's arid landscape. Twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains.
The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco. Mitochondrial DNA studies have discovered the Saami of Scandinavia; this supports theories that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers who repopulated northern Europe after the last ice age. Northwest Africa and Morocco were drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians, who established trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Substantial Phoenician settlements were at Chellah and Mogador. Mogador was a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC. Morocco became a realm of the Northwest African civilisation of ancie
EMI Group Limited was a British Transnational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London. At the time of its break-up in 2012, it was the fourth largest business group and record label conglomerate in the music industry, was one of the big four record companies; the company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, but faced financial troubles and US$4 billion in debt, leading to its acquisition by Citigroup in February 2011. Citigroup's ownership was temporary, as EMI announced in November 2011 that it would sell its music arm to Vivendi's Universal Music Group for $1.9 billion and its publishing business to a Sony/ATV consortium for around $2.2 billion. Other members of the Sony consortium include the Estate of Michael Jackson, The Blackstone Group, the Abu Dhabi–owned Mubadala Development Company. EMI's locations in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada were all disassembled to repay debt, but the primary head office located outside those countries is still functional, it is owned by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, the music publishing division of Sony Music which bought another 70% stake in EMI Music Publishing.
Electric and Musical Industries Ltd was formed in March 1931 by the merger of the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company, with its "His Master's Voice" record label, firms that have a history extending back to the origins of recorded sound. The new vertically integrated company produced sound recordings as well as recording and playback equipment; the company's gramophone manufacturing led to forty years of success with larger-scale electronics and electrical engineering. In 1934, the company developed the electronic Marconi-EMI system for television broadcasting, which replaced Baird's electro-mechanical system following its introduction in 1936. After the war, the company resumed its involvement in making broadcasting equipment, notably providing the BBC's second television transmitter at Sutton Coldfield, it manufactured broadcast television cameras for British television production companies as well as for the BBC. The commercial television ITV companies used them alongside cameras made by Pye and Marconi.
Their best-remembered piece of broadcast television equipment was the EMI 2001 colour television camera, which became the mainstay of much of the British television industry from the end of the 1960s until the early 1990s. Exports of this piece of equipment were low, EMI left this area of product manufacture. Alan Blumlein, an engineer employed by EMI, conducted a great deal of pioneering research into stereo sound recording many years prior to the practical implementation of the technique in the early 1950s, he was killed in 1942 whilst conducting flight trials on an experimental H2S radar set. During and after World War II, the EMI Laboratories in Hayes, Hillingdon developed radar equipment, microwave devices such as the reflex klystron oscillator, electro-optic devices such as infra-red image converters, guided missiles employing analogue computers; the company was for many years an internationally respected manufacturer of photomultipliers. This part of the business was transferred to Thorn as part of Thorn-EMI later became the independent concern Electron Tubes Ltd.
The EMI Electronic Business Machine, a valve and magnetic drum memory computer, was built in the 1950s to process the British Motor Corporation payroll. In 1958 the EMIDEC 1100, the UK's first commercially available all-transistor computer, was developed at Hayes under the leadership of Godfrey Hounsfield, an electrical engineer at EMI. In the early 1970s, with financial support by the UK Department of Health and Social Security as well as EMI research investment, Hounsfield developed the first CT scanner, a device which revolutionised medical imaging. In 1973 EMI was awarded a prestigious Queen's Award for Technological Innovation for what was called the EMI scanner, in 1979 Hounsfield won the Nobel Prize for his accomplishment. After brief, but brilliant, success in the medical imaging field, EMI's manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies, notably Thorn. Subsequently and manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies and work moved to other towns such as Crawley and Wells.
Emihus Electronics, based in Glenrothes, was owned 51% by Hughes Aircraft, of California, US, 49% by EMI. It manufactured integrated circuits electrolytic capacitors and, for a short period in the mid-1970s, hand-held calculators under the Gemini name. Early in its life, the Gramophone Company established subsidiary operations in a number of other countries in the British Commonwealth, including India and New Zealand. Gramophone's Australian and New Zealand subsidiaries dominated the popular music industries in those countries from the 1920s until the 1960s, when other locally owned labels began to challenge the near monopoly of EMI. Over 150,000 78-rpm recordings from around the world are held in EMI's temperature-controlled archive in Hayes, some of which have been released on CD since 2008 by Honest Jon's Records. In 1931, the year the company was formed, it opened the legendary recording studios at Abbey Road, London. During the 1930s and 1940s, its roster of artists included Arturo
Tightrope walking called funambulism, is the skill of walking along a thin wire or rope. It has a long tradition in various countries and is associated with the circus. Other skills similar to tightrope walking include slack rope slacklining. Tightwire is the skill of maintaining balance while walking along a tensioned wire between two points, it can be done either using a balancing tool or "freehand", using only one's body to maintain balance. Tightwire performances either include dance or object manipulation. Object manipulation acts include a variety of props in their acts, such as clubs or rings, hats or canes. Tightwire performers have used wheelbarrows with passengers and animals in their act; the technique to maintain balance is to keep the performer's centre of mass above their support point—usually their feet. Highwire performed at much greater height. Although there is no official height when tight wire becomes high wire a wire over 20 feet high will be regarded as a high wire act. Skywalk is a form of highwire, performed at great heights and length.
A skywalk is performed outdoors between tall building, across waterfalls or other natural and man-made structures. Acrobats maintain their balance by positioning their centre of mass directly over their base of support, i.e. shifting most of their weight over their legs, arms or whatever part of their body they are using to hold them up. When they are on the ground with their feet side by side, the base of support is wide in the lateral direction but narrow in the sagittal direction. In the case of highwire-walkers, their feet are parallel with each other, one foot positioned in front of the other while on the wire. Therefore, a tightwire walker's sway is side to side, their lateral support having been drastically reduced. In both cases, whether side by side or parallel, the ankle is the pivot point. A wire-walker may use a pole for balance or may stretch out his arms perpendicular to his trunk in the manner of a pole; this technique provides several advantages. It distributes mass away from the pivot point.
This reduces angular acceleration, so a greater torque is required to rotate the performer over the wire. The result is less tipping. In addition the performer can correct sway by rotating the pole; this will create an opposite torque on the body. Tightwire-walkers perform in thin and flexible, leather-soled slippers with a full length suede or leather sole to protect the feet from abrasions and bruises while still allowing the foot to curve around the wire. Though infrequent in performance, hobbyist, or inexperienced funambulists will walk barefoot so that the wire can be grasped between the big and second toe; this is more done when using a rope, as the softer and silkier fibres are less taxing on the bare foot than the harder and more abrasive braided wire. Charles Blondin, a.k.a. Jean-François Gravelet, crossed the Niagara Falls many times Robert Cadman, early 18th-century British highwire walker and ropeslider Con Colleano, Australian, "the Wizard of the Wire" David Dimitri, Swiss highwire walker Pablo Fanque, 19th-century British tightrope walker and "rope dancer", among other talents, although best known as the first black circus owner in Britain, for his mention in the Beatles song, Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!
The Great Farini, a.k.a. Willie Hunt, crossed the Niagara Falls many times Farrell Hettig, American highwire walker, started as a Wallenda team member, once held record for steepest incline for a wire walk he completed in 1981 Denis Josselin, a French tightrope walker, completed on 6 April 2014 a walk over the river Seine in Paris, it took him 30 minutes to walk over 150 m of 25 m meters above the river. He covered his eyes halfway through without harness or safety net but police boats were on hand in case he fell. Jade Kindar-Martin and Didier Pasquette, an American-French highwire duo, most notable for their world-record setting skywalk over the River Thames in London Henri L'Estrange, 19th-century Australian. Was known to perform numerous tricks such as rope walking while shooting, carrying another person, wearing stilts and being unbalanced by pyrotechnical explosions. Known to have defeated Blondin during a tightrope crossing of the Neva river, by braving it at a wider place. Jorge Ojeda-Guzman, Ecuadorian highwire walker, set The Guinness Book of World Records, Tightrope Endurance Record, for living 205 days on the wire, from January 1 to July 25, 1993 in Orlando, Florida.
Rudy Omankowski, Jr. French-Czech highwire walker, holds record for skywalk distance Stephen Peer, after several previous successful crossings, fell to his death at the Niagara Falls in 1887 Philippe Petit, French highwire-walker, famous for his walk between the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City in 1974 Eskil Rønningsbakken, Norwegian balancing artist whose feats include tightrope walking between hot air balloons in flight Maria Spelterini, Italian highwire walker, first woman to cross the Niagara Falls Falko Traber, German tightwire walker, walked to the Sugarloaf Mountain in Rio de Janeiro The Flying Wallendas, famous for their seven- and eight-person pyramid wire-walks Karl Wallenda, founder of the Flying Wallendas, died after falling from a wire on March 22, 1978, at age 73, while attempting to cross between the two towers of the Condado Plaza Hote
A travel agency is a private retailer or public service that provides travel and tourism related services to the public on behalf of suppliers such as activities, car rentals, cruise lines, railways, travel insurance, package tours. In addition to dealing with ordinary tourists, most travel agencies have a separate department devoted to making travel arrangements for business travelers. There are travel agencies that serve as general sales agents for foreign travel companies, allowing them to have offices in countries other than where their headquarters are located; the modern travel agency first appeared in the second half of the 19th century with its root in 1758 as establishment of Cox & Kings Ltd. In the year 1970, Cox & Kings the longest established travel company centered its focus on its business of travel and tourism. Thomas Cook established a chain of agencies in the last quarter of the 19th century, in association with the Midland Railway, they not only in addition, represented other tour companies.
Other British pioneer travel agencies were Dean & Dawson, the Polytechnic Touring Association, the Co-operative Wholesale Society. The oldest travel agency in the United States is Brownell Travel. Travel agencies became more commonplace with the development of commercial aviation, starting in the 1920s. Travel agencies catered to middle and upper class customers, but the post-war boom in mass-market package holidays resulted in the proliferation of travel agencies on the main streets of most British towns, catering to a working class clientele looking for a convenient way to book overseas beach holidays. A travel agency's main function is to act as an agent, selling travel products and services on behalf of a supplier. Unlike other retail businesses, they do not keep a stock in hand, unless they have pre-booked hotel rooms and/or cabins on a cruise ship for a group travel event such as a wedding, honeymoon, or a group event. A package holiday or a ticket is not purchased from a supplier unless a customer requests that purchase.
The holiday or ticket is supplied to the agency at a discount. The profit is therefore the difference between the advertised price which the customer pays and the discounted price at which it is supplied to the agent; this is known as the commission. In many countries, all individuals or companies that sell tickets are required to be licensed as a travel agent. In some countries, airlines have stopped giving commissions to travel agencies. Therefore, travel agencies are now forced to charge a percentage premium or a standard flat fee, per sale. However, some companies pay travel agencies a set percentage for selling their product. Major tour companies can afford to do this, because if they were to sell a thousand trips at a cheaper rate, they would still come out better than if they sold a hundred trips at a higher rate; this process benefits both parties. It is cheaper to offer commissions to travel agents rather than engage in advertising and distribution campaigns without using agents. Other commercial operations are undertaken by the larger chains.
These can include the sale of in-house insurance, travel guide books, public transport timetables, car rentals, the services of an on-site bureau de change, dealing in the most popular holiday currencies. A travel agent is supposed to offer impartial travel advice to the customer, as well as coordinating travel details and assisting the customer in booking travel. However, this function disappeared with the mass market package holiday, some agency chains seemed to develop a "holiday supermarket" concept, in which customers choose their holiday from brochures on racks and book it from a counter. Again, a variety of social and economic changes have now contrived to bring this aspect to the fore once more with the advent of multiple, no-frills, low-cost airlines. Traditionally, travel agencies' principal source of income was, continues to be, commissions paid for bookings of car rentals, cruise lines, railways, sightseeing tours, tour operators, etc. A fixed percentage of the main element of the price is paid to the agent as a commission.
Commissions may vary depending on the type of the supplier. Commissions are not paid on the tax component of the price. Travel agencies receive a large variety of bonuses and other incentives from travel and tourism related companies as inducements for travel agents to promote their products; the customer is not made aware of how much the travel agent is earning in commissions and other benefits. Other sources of income may include the sale of insurance, travel guide books, public transport timetables and money exchange. Since 1995, many airlines around the world and most airlines in the United States now do not pay any commission to travel agencies. In this case, an agency adds a service fee to the net price. Reduced commissions started in 1995 in the United States, with the introduction of a cap of $50 on return trips and $25 on one way. In 1999, European airlines began eliminating or reducing commissions, while Singapore Airlines did so in parts of Asia. In 2002, Delta Air Lines announced a zero-commission base for the U.
S. and Canada. The majority of travel agents have felt the need to protect themselves and their clients against the possibilities of commercial failure, either their own or a supplier's, they will
Progressive rock is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s. Termed "progressive pop", the style was an outgrowth of psychedelic bands who abandoned standard pop traditions in favour of instrumentation and compositional techniques more associated with jazz, folk, or classical music. Additional elements contributed to its "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic, technology was harnessed for new sounds, music approached the condition of "art", the studio, rather than the stage, became the focus of musical activity, which involved creating music for listening, not dancing. Prog is based on fusions of styles and genres, involving a continuous move between formalism and eclecticism. Due to its historical reception, prog's scope is sometimes limited to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, an obsessive dedication to technical skill. While the genre is cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music.
The genre coincided with the mid 1960s economic boom that allowed record labels to allocate more creative control to their artists, as well as the new journalistic division between "pop" and "rock" that lent generic significance to both terms. Prog faded soon after. Conventional wisdom holds that the rise of punk rock caused this, but several more factors contributed to the decline. Music critics, who labelled the concepts as "pretentious" and the sounds as "pompous" and "overblown", tended to be hostile towards the genre or to ignore it. After the late 1970s, progressive rock fragmented in numerous forms; some bands achieved commercial success well into the 1980s or crossed into symphonic pop, arena rock, or new wave. Early groups who exhibited progressive features are retroactively described as "proto-prog"; the Canterbury scene, originating in the late 1960s, denoted a subset of prog bands who emphasised the use of wind instruments, complex chord changes and long improvisations. Rock in Opposition, from the late 1970s, was more avant-garde, when combined with the Canterbury style, created avant-prog.
In the 1980s, a new subgenre, neo-progressive rock, enjoyed some commercial success, although it was accused of being derivative and lacking in innovation. Post-progressive draws upon newer developments in popular music and the avant-garde since the mid 1970s; the term "progressive rock" is synonymous with "art rock", "classical rock" and "symphonic rock". "art rock" has been used to describe at least two related, but distinct, types of rock music. The first is progressive rock as it is understood, while the second usage refers to groups who rejected psychedelia and the hippie counterculture in favour of a modernist, avant-garde approach. Similarities between the two terms are that they both describe a British attempt to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic credibility. However, art rock is more to have experimental or avant-garde influences. "Prog" was devised in the 1990s as a shorthand term, but became a transferable adjective suggesting a wider palette than that drawn on by the most popular 1970s bands.
Progressive rock is varied and is based on fusions of styles and genres, tapping into broader cultural resonances that connect to avant-garde art, classical music and folk music and the moving image. Although a unidirectional English "progressive" style emerged in the late 1960s, by 1967, progressive rock had come to constitute a diversity of loosely associated style codes; when the "progressive" label arrived, the music was dubbed "progressive pop" before it was called "progressive rock", with the term "progressive" referring to the wide range of attempts to break with standard pop music formula. A number of additional factors contributed to the acquired "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic. Critics of the genre limit its scope to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, an obsessive dedication to technical skill. While progressive rock is cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music.
Writer Emily Robinson says that the narrowed definition of "progressive rock" was a measure against the term's loose application in the late 1960s, when it was "applied to everyone from Bob Dylan to the Rolling Stones". Debate over the genre's criterion continued to the 2010s on Internet forums dedicated to prog. According to musicologists Paul Hegarty and Martin Halliwell, Bill Martin and Edward Macan authored major books about prog rock while "effectively accept the characterization of progressive rock offered by its critics.... They each do so unconsciously." Academic John S. Cotner contests Macan's view that progressive rock cannot exist without the continuous and overt assimilation of classical music into rock. Author Kevin Holm-Hudson ag