List of British innovations and discoveries

The following is a list and timeline of innovations as well as inventions and discoveries that involved British people or the United Kingdom including predecessor states in the history of the formation of the United Kingdom. This list covers innovation and invention in the mechanical and industrial fields, as well as medicine, military devices and theory and scientific discovery and innovation, ideas in religion and ethics; the scientific revolution in 17th century Europe stimulated discovery in Britain. Experimentation was considered central to innovation by groups such as the Royal Society, founded in 1660; the English patent system evolved from its medieval origins into a system that recognised intellectual property. During the 19th century, innovation in Britain led to revolutionary changes in manufacturing, the development of factory systems, growth of transportation by railway and steam ship that spread around the world. In the 20th century, Britain's rate of innovation, measured by patents registered, slowed in comparison to other leading economies.

Nonetheless and technology in Britain continued to develop in absolute terms. 1605Bacon’s cipher, a method of steganography, is devised by Sir Francis Bacon.1614John Napier publishes his work Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio introducing the concept of logarithms which simplifies mathematical calculations.1620The first navigable submarine is designed by William Bourne and built by Dutchman Cornelius Drebbel.1625Early experiments in water desalination are conducted by Sir Francis Bacon.1657Anchor escapement for clock making is invented by Robert Hooke.1667A tin can telephone is devised by Robert Hooke.1668Sir Isaac Newton invents the first working reflecting telescope.1698The first commercial steam-powered device, a water pump, is developed by Thomas Savery. 1701An improved seed drill is designed by Jethro Tull. It is used to spread seeds around a field with a rotating handle which makes seed planting a lot easier.1705Edmond Halley makes the first prediction of a comet's return.1712The first practical steam engine is designed by Thomas Newcomen.1718Edmond Halley discovers stellar motion.1730The Rotherham plough, the first plough to be built in factories and commercially successful, is patented by Joseph Foljambe.1737Andrew Rodger invents the winnowing machine.1740The first electrostatic motors are developed by Andrew Gordon in the 1740s.1744The earliest known reference to baseball is made in a publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, by John Newbery.

It contains a rhymed description of "base-ball" and a woodcut that shows a field set-up somewhat similar to the modern game—though in a triangular rather than diamond configuration, with posts instead of ground-level bases.1753Invention of hollow-pipe drainage is credited to Sir Hugh Dalrymple who died in 1753.1765James Small advances the design of the plough using mathematical methods to improve on the Scotch plough of James Anderson of Hermiston.1767Adam Ferguson known as ‘The Father of Modern Sociology’, publishes his work An Essay on the History of Civil Society.1776Scottish economist Adam Smith known as'The father of modern economics', publishes his seminal text The Wealth of Nations. The Watt steam engine, conceived in 1765, goes into production, it is the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric.1781The Iron Bridge, the first arch bridge made of cast iron, is built by Abraham Darby III.1783A pioneer of selective breeding and artificial selection, Robert Bakewell, forms the Dishley Society to promote and advance the interests of livestock breeders.1786The threshing machine is invented by Andrew Meikle.1798Edward Jenner invents the first vaccine.

1802Sir Humphry Davy creates the first incandescent light by passing a current from a battery, at the time the world's most powerful, through a thin strip of platinum.1804The world's first locomotive-hauled railway journey is made by Richard Trevithick's steam locomotive.1807Alexander John Forsyth invents percussion ignition, the foundation of modern firearms.1814Robert Salmon patents the first haymaking machine.c1820John Loudon McAdam develops the Macadam road construction technique.1822Charles Babbage proposes the idea for a Difference engine, an automatic mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions, in a paper to the Royal Astronomical Society entitled "Note on the application of machinery to the computation of astronomical and mathematical tables".1823An improved system of soil drainage is developed by James Smith.1824William Aspdin obtains a patent for Portland cement.1825William Sturgeon invents the electromagnet.1828A mechanical reaping machine is invented by Patrick Bell.1831Electromagnetic induction, the operating principle of transformers and nearly all modern electric generators, is discovered by Michael Faraday.1835Scotsman James Bowman Lindsay invents the incandescent light bulb.1836The Marsh test for detecting arsenic poisoning is developed by James Marsh.1837Charles Babbage describes an Analytical Engine, the first mechanical, general-purpose programmable computer.

The Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph, first commercially successful electric telegraph, is designed by Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke.1839A pedal bicycle is invented by Kirkpatrick Macmillan.1840Sir Rowland Hill reforms the postal system with Uniform Penny Post and introduces the first postage stamp, the Penny Black, on 1 May.1841Alexander Bain patents his design produced the prior year for an electric clock.1842Superphosphate, the first chemical fertiliser, is patented by John Bennet Lawes.1843SS Great Britain, the world's first steam-powe

Losang Thonden

Losang Thonden was a Tibetan Government Official, Tibetan Language Scholar, Calligrapher and Hollywood Actor. Losang Thonden was born on May 1942, in Lhasa, Tibet, to a Wangdue Khangsar family, his father Pasang Tsering Khangsar and mother Kungchok Dolma. Mrs. Dolma was the daughter of Sherpa Gyalpo, a prominent businessman and one of the richest Tibetans in Lhasa in the early 1910s. During that period Lungsharwa Dorje Tsegyel one of the government official requested help from Mr. Gyalpo since he had close business ties and relationships with British India and China. Mr. Gyalpo was an instrumental person in introducing "Short Magazine Lee–Enfield Mk-I" rifle guns to the Tibetan Army. "Engi Kardom" as it was introduced in Tibetan. This was a revolutionary since it loaded 10 rounds of a magazine, much more efficient than Tibetan muskets, for the newly formed modern Tibetan Army by the 13th Dalai Lama. From 1946 to 1957, Thonden attended Jarpakhang High School in Lhasa, his family hired an officer named Darma Bhabu from the Nepalese Embassy in Lhasa to teach young Thonden English and Nepali.

He graduated high school at the age of 15 with top rank in overall Lhasa schools prefecture. He was selected among few other students in all of Lhasa by the Tibetan Central Government in conjunction with Beijing government as an elite student ambassador to study at the Beijing University to promote bilateral cultural brotherhood, but his family his mother, a strong Tibetan nationalist, refused that her son to be sent to Communist China. Thonden decided that he would go on his own. Soon his uncle Lobsang Tenzin, the executor of the Ladang Estate, requested that his sister send Thonden to Dakyap JangshupLing Ladang, part of Sera Mey Monastery. Wangdue Khangsar family had been the patron of Sera Mey Monastery for many generations, so Thonden was accepted right away. Dakyap Ladang was north of Lhasa in Penpo region of Tibet. There he studied under the tutelage of his uncle Dakyap Nawang Losang Yeshi Rinpoche, the direct lineage of Ka-dam Geshe Putowa Rinchen Sél. Thonden attended non-monastic Sera University to study Tibetan Buddhism and calligraphy under Geshe Lama Tenzin Gyaltsen.

In 1959, he escaped after the invasion along with the 14th Dalai Lama. He was separated from his parents and other siblings until they reunited back in India in 1962; when he arrived in India, he was keen on improving his English language skills, so with the help of his sister Kesang Yangki Talka he began learning English and he studied English under a retired British officer, Major Ken in Kalimgpong India. From 1960 to 1963, Thonden served the Council for Tibetan Education and became a prominent member scholar in the Tibetan Literary Committee, he was selected for the Central Tibetan Administrative for Higher Studies, a joint collaboration with Delhi University. A jumpstart bachelor's degree certification program, for the advancement and education of the upcoming new Tibetan government officials. In 1963, he was appointed as the Education Officer for the Tibetan Bureau in India. In 1966, The Council for Tibetan Education asked Thonden to move to Kalakshetra Institute in South India to help with the Tibetan education and planning of curriculum for Tibetan children who were sponsored by the Indian Government and hosted by the Kalakshetra Institute with the blessing of Rukmini Devi.

In 1968, at the age of 27, Mr. Thonden became one of the youngest Tibetan government officials to be appointed as the Deputy Secretary of Department of Education. In 1970 he became the Interim Secretary of Department of Education; when his predecessor Mr. Barshi Tsedrung Ngawang Tenkyong, who took ill explained newly appointed Secretary Mr. Thonden regarding the challenges faced by the Tibetan schools. Mr. Thonden overhauled and laid the new groundworks for the administrative system of managing a total of 60 Tibetan schools in India, Nepal and Bhutan that were poorly underrepresented for getting financial grants from the government of India and international sources. Mr. Thonden on many occasions met with Mr. PT. Shyam Narayan, the first Secretary of CTSA under the Ministry of Human Resources & Development, Government of India, regarding adequate funding and appointments of qualified teachers in all Tibetan schools, he worked tirelessly to secure funding and educational scholarship for Tibetan schools so the children attending them would be able to attend major colleges and universities in India and abroad.

He managed to secure many international scholarship programs for the Tibetan refugee students and thus many Tibetan students were sent to technical schools and universities in England, Denmark and Norway. In 1971, he succeeded in securing full sponsorship and scholarship at the Kimmins High School in Panchgani in the state of Maharashtra, India; this school became one of the major sponsors for all young Tibetan refugee girls. Till today his initial groundwork has laid the foundation for the younger Tibetan refugee students to get higher education and become model citizens of our society. In 1973 he was one of the key figures in organizing first Tibetan Education Conference in Dharamsala, HP India; when newly established Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamshala was formed they had a dire need of Tibetan language scholar and in 1974 Mr. Thonden was requested to join as the resident Tibetan Language an