Edward III of England
Edward III was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe, his long reign of 50 years was the second longest in medieval England and saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, as well as the ravages of the Black Death. Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, her lover Roger Mortimer. At age seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1337; this started. Following some initial setbacks, this first phase of the war went exceptionally well for England; this phase would become known as the Edwardian War. Edward's years were marked by international failure and domestic strife as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Edward III was a temperamental man but capable of unusual clemency. He was in many ways a conventional king. Admired in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by Whig historians such as William Stubbs; this view has been challenged and modern historians credit him with some significant achievements. Edward was born at Windsor Castle on 13 November 1312, was referred to as Edward of Windsor in his early years; the reign of his father, Edward II, was a problematic period of English history. One source of contention was the king's inactivity, repeated failure, in the ongoing war with Scotland. Another controversial issue was the king's exclusive patronage of a small group of royal favourites; the birth of a male heir in 1312 temporarily improved Edward II's position in relation to the baronial opposition. To bolster further the independent prestige of the young prince, the king had him created Earl of Chester at only twelve days of age. In 1325, Edward II was faced with a demand from his brother-in-law, Charles IV of France, to perform homage for the English Duchy of Aquitaine.
Edward was reluctant to leave the country, as discontent was once again brewing domestically over his relationship with the favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger. Instead, he had his son Edward created Duke of Aquitaine in his place and sent him to France to perform the homage; the young Edward was accompanied by his mother Isabella, the sister of King Charles, was meant to negotiate a peace treaty with the French. While in France, Isabella conspired with the exiled Roger Mortimer to have Edward deposed. To build up diplomatic and military support for the venture, Isabella had her son engaged to the twelve-year-old Philippa of Hainault. An invasion of England was launched and Edward II's forces deserted him completely. Isabella and Mortimer summoned a parliament, the king was forced to relinquish the throne to his son, proclaimed king in London on 25 January 1327; the new king was crowned as Edward III at Westminster Abbey on 1 February at the age of 14. It was not long before the new reign met with other problems caused by the central position at court of Roger Mortimer, now the de facto ruler of England.
Mortimer used his power to acquire noble estates and titles, his unpopularity grew with the humiliating defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Stanhope Park and the ensuing Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, signed with the Scots in 1328. The young king came into conflict with his guardian. Mortimer knew his position in relation to the king was precarious and subjected Edward to disrespect; the tension increased after Edward and Philippa, who had married at York Minster on 24 January 1328, had a son on 15 June 1330. Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III's personal reign began. Edward III was not content with the peace agreement made in his name, but the renewal of the war with Scotland originated in private, rather than royal initiative. A group of English magnates known as The Disinherited, who had lost land in Scotland by the peace accord, staged an invasion of Scotland and won a great victory at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332.
They attempted to install Edward Balliol as king of Scotland in David II's place, but Balliol was soon expelled and was forced to seek the help of Edward III. The English king responded by laying siege to the important border town of Berwick and defeated a large relieving army at the Battle of Halidon Hill. Edward reinstated Balliol on the throne and received a substantial amount of land in southern Scotland; these victories proved hard to sustain, as forces loyal to David II regained control of the country. In 1338, Edward was forced to agree to a truce with the Scots. One reason for the change of strategy towards Scotland was a growing concern for the relationship between England and France; as long as Scotland and France were in an alliance, the English were faced with the prospect of fighting a war on two fronts. The French carried out raids on English coastal towns, leading to rumour
Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York
Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York was the daughter of King Peter and his mistress María de Padilla. She accompanied her elder sister, Constance, to England after Constance's marriage to John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, married Gaunt's younger brother, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York. Isabella was the youngest of the three daughters of King Peter of Castile by his favourite mistress, María de Padilla. On 21 September 1371 Edward III's fourth son, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, married Isabella's elder sister, who after the death of their father in 1369 claimed the throne of Castile. Isabella accompanied her sister to England, on 11 July 1372, at about the age of 17, married John of Gaunt's younger brother, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, fifth son of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, at Wallingford, Oxfordshire, as part of a dynastic alliance in furtherance of the Plantagenet claim to the crown of Castile. According to Pugh and Edmund of Langley were'an ill-matched pair'.
As a result of her indiscretions, including an affair with King Richard II's half-brother, John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter, whom Pugh terms'violent and lawless', Isabella left behind a tarnished reputation, her loose morals being noted by the chronicler Thomas Walsingham. According to Pugh, the possibility that Holland was the father of Isabella's favourite son, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge,'cannot be ignored'. In her will Isabel named King Richard as her heir, requesting him to grant her younger son, Richard, an annuity of 500 marks; the King complied. However, further largesse which might have been expected when Richard came of age was not to be, as King Richard II was deposed in 1399, according to Harriss, Isabella's younger son, Richard,'received no favours from the new King, Henry IV'. Isabella died 23 December 1392, aged about 37, was buried 14 January 1393 at the church of the Dominicans at Kings Langley. After Isabella's death, Edmund of Langley married Joan Holland, sister and co-heir of Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent, with whom his daughter, had lived as his mistress.
Isabella was appointed a Lady of the Garter in 1379. Isabella and Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, had three children: Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York, who married firstly, Beatrice of Portugal, which marriage was annulled, secondly, Philippa Mohun, third daughter of John Mohun, 2nd Lord Mohun, Joan Burghersh, daughter of Bartholomew de Burghersh, 3rd Baron Burghersh. Edward served in numerous administrative offices and military campaigns during the reigns of Richard II, Henry IV and Henry V, was slain at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415. Constance of York, who married Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester, third but first surviving son of Edward le Despenser and Elizabeth Burghersh, by whom she had a son and two daughters and Isabel. Constance was involved in a plot to abduct the young Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, in February 1405, in turn implicated her elder brother, Edward. After the death of her husband she was either betrothed to or lived as the mistress of Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent, had a daughter by him, Eleanor Holland, who married James Tuchet, 5th Baron Audley.
Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, who married Anne Mortimer, was beheaded on 5 August 1415 for his role in the Southampton Plot. Isabella is depicted, ahistorically, as living in late December 1399 at the time of the Epiphany Rising in Act V of Shakespeare's Richard II. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII. London: St. Catherine Press. Harriss, G. L.. Richard, earl of Cambridge. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 4 October 2012. Horrox, Rosemary. Edward, second duke of York. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 18 October 2012. Pugh, T. B.. Henry V and the Southampton Plot of 1415. Alan Sutton. ISBN 0-86299-541-8 Richardson, Douglas. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. II. Salt Lake City. ISBN 1-4499-6638-1 Tait, James.'Plantagenet', Edward. 45. Dictionary of National Biography, 1885–1890. Pp. 401–4. Retrieved 20 October 2012. Tuck, Anthony. Edmund, first duke of York. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
Retrieved 18 October 2012. Weir, Alison. Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. London. ISBN 1446449114, 9781446449110. Works related to Edward of Langley, 2nd Duke of York at Wikisource: Dictionary of National Biography, 1885–1900, Volume 45 For the tombs of Edmund of Langley and Isabella of Castile, see'Friaries: King's Langley priory', A History of the County of Hertford: Volume 4, pp. 446–451. Date accessed: 21 October 2012 Reston, Dogs of God, New York: Doubleday, 2005
Henry II of Castile
Henry II, called Henry of Trastámara or the Fratricide, was the first King of Castile and León from the House of Trastámara. He became king in 1369 by defeating his half-brother, Peter the Cruel, after numerous rebellions and battles; as king he was involved in the Hundred Years' War. Henry was the fourth of ten illegitimate children of King Alfonso XI of Castile and Eleanor de Guzmán, a great-granddaughter of Alfonso IX of León, he was born a twin to Fadrique Alfonso, Lord of Haro, was the first boy born to the couple that survived to adulthood. At birth, he was adopted by Rodrigo Álvarez de las Asturias. Rodrigo died Henry inherited his lordship of Noreña, his father made him Count of Trastámara and lord over Lemos and Sarria in Galicia, the towns of Cabrera and Ribera, which constituted a large and important heritage in the northeast of the peninsula. It made him the head of the new Trastámara dynasty. While Alfonso XI lived, his lover Eleanor gave a great many privileges to their sons; this caused discontent among many of the noblemen and in particular the queen, Maria of Portugal, her son, known as Pedro the Cruel and the Just.
They had a chance for revenge when Alfonso XI died unexpectedly from a fever in the siege of Gibraltar in March, 1350. They pushed Eleanor, her sons and their supporters aside, Henry and his brothers fled and scattered, they were fearful of what the new king Pedro I of Castile, could do to them. The late king had not been buried. Although Eleanor and her sons reached an agreement with Pedro to live peacefully in his court, the situation remained unstable. Henry and his brothers Fadrique and Sancho staged numerous rebellions against the new king. To strengthen his position and gain allies, Henry married Juana Manuel, the daughter of Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena, adelantado mayor of Murcia and Lord of Villena, the most prosperous nobleman of the realm. In 1351, the King took counsel from Juan Alfonso de Alburquerque, María of Portugal's right-hand man, he became convinced that his father's lover was the instigator of the uprisings, so he ordered Eleanor to be incarcerated and executed in Talavera de la Reina.
After that, Henry fled to Portugal. He was pardoned by Pedro and returned to Castile revolted in Asturias in 1352, he reconciled with his brother, only to rebel against him again in a long, intermittent war, which ended with Henry's flight to France, where he entered the service of John II of France. Shortly after and his men spent time in Peter IV of Aragon's army in their war against Castile. During that conflict, he was held prisoner in Nájera, he was exiled himself to France once more. Peter IV of Aragon attacked Castile again. Henry agreed to help him on condition that he would lend his support to destroying his brother, Pedro of Castile; this became the Castilian Civil War. The attack combined the Aragonese and the French. Henry was proclaimed king in Calahorra. In return, he had to reward his allies with riches for the help they had provided; this earned him the nickname el de las mercedes. Pedro of Castile fled north to Bordeaux, the capital of the English dominions in France, where Edward, the Black Prince held court.
Edward agreed to help Pedro recover his throne. Despite the fact that the army suffered so badly from dysentery that it is said that one out of every five Englishmen would not return home, on 3 April 1367 an Anglo-Gascon army, led by Edward and his younger brother, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, met the Castilian forces. Pedro defeated Henry in the Battle of Nájera, but Henry escaped and returned to France under the protection of Charles V of France. King Pedro and Prince Edward parted ways over the funding of the expedition, the Black Prince returned to Bordeaux, having contracted an illness on this expedition that would ail him until his death in 1376, they reorganised their army at Peyrepertuse Castle. With the help of many Castilian rebels and Bertrand du Guesclin's Frenchmen, they defeated Pedro at the Battle of Montiel on 14 March 1369. Henry killed "the Cruel King," now a prisoner, with his own hand; this definitively won him the Castilian throne and the name of Henry II. Before being consolidated in his throne and being able to hand on power to his son John, Henry had to defeat Ferdinand I of Portugal.
He embarked on the three Ferdinand Wars. Ferdinand's main ally in these wars was John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, the husband of Constance of Castile, Duchess of Lancaster, Pedro I's daughter. Henry was allied with Charles V of France, he put the Castilian navy at Charles' disposal and they played a key part in the siege of La Rochelle, the Battle of La Rochelle where the admiral Ambrosio Boccanegra defeated the English side. Henry recompensed his allies, but he still had to defend his interests in the kingdom of Castile and León, he denied the King of Aragon the territories that he had promised him in the difficult times. Henry went to war against Portugal and England in the Hundred Years' War. For most of his reign he had to fight off the attempts of John of Gaunt, a son of Edward III of England, to claim the Castilian throne in right of his second wife, Pedro's daughter, Infanta Constance of Castile. In his domestic policy he started to rebuild the
Burgos is a city in northern Spain and the historic capital of Castile. It is situated on the confluence of the Arlanzón river tributaries, at the edge of the Iberian central plateau, it has another 20,000 in the metropolitan area. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of León. Burgos was once the capital of the Crown of Castile, the Burgos Laws or Leyes de Burgos which first governed the behaviour of Spaniards towards the natives of the Americas were promulgated here in 1512, it has many historic landmarks, of particular importance. A large number of churches and other buildings from the medieval age remain; the city is surrounded by the Fuentes Blancas and the Paseo de la Isla parks. Castilian nobleman, military leader and diplomat El Cid Campeador is a significant historical figure in the city, as he was born a couple of kilometres north of Burgos and was raised and educated here; the city forms the principal crossroad of northern Spain along the Camino de Santiago, which runs parallel to the River Arlanzón.
It has a well-developed transportation system, forming the main communication node in northern Spain. In 2008, the international Burgos Airport started to offer commercial flights. Furthermore, AVE high speed trains are planned to start service in the near future, stopping at the newly-built Rosa de Lima train station; the Museum of Human Evolution was opened in 2010, unique in its kind across the world and projected to become one of the top 10 most-visited museums in Spain. The museum features the first Europeans. Burgos was selected as the "Spanish Gastronomy Capital" of 2013. In 2015 it was named "City of Gastronomy" by UNESCO and has been part of the Creative Cities Network since then. There are several possible origins for the toponymy; when the city was founded, the inhabitants of the surrounding country moved into the fortified village, whose Visigothic name of Burgos signified consolidated walled villages. The city began to be called Caput Castellae. Early humans occupied sites around Burgos as early as 800,000 years ago.
When the Romans took possession of what is now the province of Burgos, the site had been a Celtic city. In Roman times, it belonged to Hispania Citerior and to Hispania Tarraconensis. In the 5th century, the Visigoths drove back the Suebi the Berbers occupied all of Castile in the 8th century, though only for a brief period, left little if any trace of their occupation. King Alfonso III the Great of León reconquered it about the middle of the 9th century, built several castles for the defence of Christendom, extended through the reconquest of lost territory; the region came to be known as Castile, i.e. "land of castles". Burgos was founded in 884 as an outpost of this expanding Christian frontier, when Diego Rodríguez "Porcelos", count of Castile, governed this territory with orders to promote the increase of the Christian population; the city began to be called Caput Castellae. The county of Castile, subject to the Kings of León, continued to be governed by counts and was extended. In the 11th century, the city became the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Burgos and the capital of the Kingdom of Castile.
Burgos was a major stop for pilgrims on the French Way the most popular path to Santiago de Compostela and a centre of trade between the Bay of Biscay and the south, which attracted an unusually large foreign merchant population, who became part of the city oligarchy and excluded other foreigners. Throughout the 13th and 14th centuries, Burgos was a favourite seat of the kings of León and Castile and a favoured burial site; the consejo or urban commune of Burgos was in the hands of an oligarchic class of caballeros villanos, the "peasant knights" of Burgos, who provided the monarchs with a mounted contingent: in 1255 and 1266 royal charters granted relief from taxes to those citizens of Burgos who owned horses and could arm themselves, provided that they continue to live within the city walls. The merchant oligarchy succeeded the cathedral chapter as the major purchasers of land after 1250. A few families within the hermandades or confraternities like the Sarracín and Bonifaz succeeded in monopolising the post of alcalde, or mayor.
By the reign of Alfonso X, the exemption of the non-noble knights and religious corporations, combined with exorbitant gifts and grants to monasteries and private individuals, placed great stress on the economic well-being of the realm. In the century following the conquest of Seville on the Moors, Burgos became a testing ground for royal policies of increasing power against the consejo, in part by encouraging the right to appeal from the consejo to the king. In 1285, Sancho IV added a new body to the consejo which came to dominate it: the jurado in charge of collecting taxes and overseeing public works; the city perceived that danger to its autonomy came rath
Crown of Castile
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715; the Indies and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca and Sicily, Count of Barcelona and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies.
This unified the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states. The Kingdom of León arose out of the Kingdom of Asturias; the Kingdom of Castile appeared as a county of the Kingdom of León. From the second half of the 10th century to the first half of the 11th century it changed hands between León and the Kingdom of Navarre. In the 11th century it became a kingdom in its own right; the two kingdoms had been united twice previously: From 1037 until 1065 under Ferdinand I of León. Upon his death his kingdoms passed to his sons, León to Alfonso VI, Castile to Sancho II, Galicia to García. From 1072 until 1157 under Alfonso VI, Alfonso VII. From 1111 until 1126 Galicia was separate from the union under Alfonso VII.
In 1157 the kingdoms were divided between Alfonso's sons, with Ferdinand II receiving León and Sancho III Castile. Ferdinand III received the Kingdom of Castile from his mother, Queen Berengaria of Castile granddaughter of Sancho III in 1217, the Kingdom of León from his father Alfonso IX of León son of Ferdinand II in 1230. From on the two kingdoms were united under the name of the Kingdom of León and Castile, or as the Crown of Castile. Ferdinand III conquered the Guadalquivir Valley, while his son Alfonso X conquered the Kingdom of Murcia from Al-Andalus, further extending the area of the Crown of Castile. Given this, the kings of the Crown of Castile traditionally styled themselves "King of Castile, León, Galicia, Murcia, Jaén, Córdoba and Lord of Biscay and Molina", among other possessions they gained; the heir to the throne has been titled Prince of Asturias since the 14th century. After the union of the two kingdoms under Ferdinand III, the parliaments of Castile and León were united.
It was divided into three estates, which corresponded with the nobility, the church and the cities, included representation from Castile, León, Toledo and the Basque provinces. The number of cities represented in the Cortes varied over the next century, until John I permanently set those that would be allowed to send representatives: Burgos, Toledo, León, Sevilla, Córdoba, Murcia, Jaén, Segovia, Ávila, Cuenca, Valladolid, Soria and Guadalajara. Under Alfonso X, most sessions of the Cortes of both kingdoms were held jointly; the Cortes of 1258 in Valladolid comprised representatives of Castile, Extremadura and León and those of Seville in 1261 of Castile, León and all other kingdoms. Subsequent Cortes were celebrated separately, for example in 1301 that of Castile in Burgos and that of León in Zamora, but the representatives demanded that the parliaments be reunited from on. Although the individual kingdoms and cities retained their individual historical rights-including the Old Fuero of Castile and the different fueros of the municipal councils of Castile, León, Extremadura and Andalucía-a unified legal code for the entire new kingdom was created in the Siete Partidas, the Ordenamiento de Alcalá and the Leyes de Toro.
These laws continued to be in force until 1889, when a new Spanish civil code, the Código Civil Español, was enacted. In the 13th century there were many languages spoken in the Kingdoms of León and Castile among them Castilian, Leonese and Galician-Portuguese. But, as the century progressed, Castilian gained increasing prominence as the language of culture and communication- one example of this is the Cantar de Mio Cid. In the last years of the reign of Ferdinand III, Castilian began to be used for some important documents, such as the Visigothic Code, the basis of the legal code for Christians living in Muslim Cordova, but it was during the reign of Alfonso X that it became the official language. Henceforth all public documents were written in Castilian all translations of Arabic legal and government documents were made into Castilian instead of Latin; some scholars think that the substitution of Castilian for Latin was due to the strength of the new language
War of the Two Peters
The War of the Two Peters was fought from 1356 to 1375 between the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon. Its name refers to Peter of Castile and Peter IV of Aragon. One historian has written that "all of the centuries-old lessons of border fighting were used as two evenly matched opponents dueled across frontiers that could change hands with lightning speed." At the beginning of the fourteenth century, Castile was suffering from unrest caused by its civil war, fought between the local and allied forces of the reigning king, Peter of Castile, his half-brother Henry of Trastámara over the right to the crown. Peter IV of Aragon supported Henry of Trastámara. Henry was, in turn, supported by the French commander Bertrand du Guesclin and his "free companies" of troops. Peter of Castile was supported by the English; the War of the Two Peters can thus be considered an extension of the wider Hundred Years' War as well as the Castilian Civil War. Peter of Castile sought to claim the Kingdom of Valencia, which included parts of Murcia, Elche and Orihuela.
Peter of Aragon wished to dominate the Mediterranean in opposition to Castile and Castile's ally Genoa. A naval incident between the two powers had caused tension: Catalan galleys, armed by Mossèn Francesc de Perellós, who had letters of marque from the Aragonese king, aided France against England, managed to capture two Genoese ships at Sanlúcar de Barrameda. Genoa was an ally of Castile. Peter of Castile, leading the Castilian fleet, caught up to Perellós at Tavira but was unable to capture him; the war lasted from 1356 to 1375, prolonged because Peter of Castile lost his throne to Henry of Trastámara. The war took place on the border between Castile and Aragon, namely Aragonese border towns such as Teruel, which fell to the Castilians. In 1357, Castile penetrated Aragon and conquered Tarazona on March 9. At the beginning of 1361, the Castilians conquered the fortresses of Verdejo, Torrijos and other places. However, the peace of Terrer was negotiated on May 18, 1361, in which all conquered places and castles were returned to their original lords.
Bernardo de Cabrera, ambassador of the Aragonese king, negotiated the peace. Peter IV married his daughter Constance to Frederick III the Simple. In June 1362, Peter of Castile met with Charles II of Navarre at Soria, mutual aid was promised. Peter contracted an alliance with Edward III of England and Edward's son The Black Prince. With these negotiations complete, the Castilian king invaded Aragonese territory without declaring war, the conflict commenced again; the Aragonese king was at Perpignan without troops, thus caught off guard. The Castilians took the castles of Arize, Terrer, Moros and Alhama. Peter of Castile was unable to take Calatayud though he attacked it with all types of siege machines. Without taking his conquests any further, he returned to Seville. In 1363 Castile continued the war against Aragon, again occupied Tarazona. Peter of Castile received reinforcements from Navarre. Meanwhile, the Aragonese king negotiated a treaty with France and a secret treaty with Henry II of Castile.
Pedro of Castile conquered Cariñena, Segorbe, Almenara and Bunyol. The papal nuncio Jean de la Grange arranged the peace of Morvedre between the two kings; the peace was not ratified and hostilities continued. The Castilians penetrated the Kingdom of Valencia in 1363, conquered Alicante, Elda and other places. From 1365 to 1369 Peter of Castile was preoccupied with maintaining his position on the Castilian throne against Henry of Trastámara; the Castilian Civil War began in 1366 and Peter of Castile was dethroned. He was assailed by his illegitimate brother Henry of Trastámara at the head of a host of soldiers of fortune, including Bertrand du Guesclin and Hugh Calveley. Peter abandoned the kingdom without daring to give battle, after retreating several times in the face of the oncoming armies. Peter fled with his treasury to Portugal, where he was coldly received by his uncle, King Peter I of Portugal, thence to Galicia, in northern Spain, where he ordered the murder of Suero, the archbishop of Santiago, the dean, Perálvarez.
Peter of Castile was overthrown in 1369. The Kingdom of Granada supported Peter of Castile in the War of the Two Peters. Castilian troops and their Moorish allies invaded southern Valencia, which suffered low-level ravaging and political instability; the Castilians unsuccessfully laid siege to Orihuela in 1364. The war ended with the Peace of Almazán, in 1375, leaving no clear victor. Castile recovered comarcas, such as the lordship of Molina. A marriage was contracted between Eleanor of Aragon, daughter of Peter IV of Aragon, John I of Castile, the successor of Henry II of Castile; the misery of the war was compounded by the Black Death and other natural disasters, such as drought and a plague of locusts. These events ruined the Aragonese economy; the cathedral of Tarazona was destroyed during the war and not rebuilt until much later. However, the war is believed to have led to the establishment of administrative and military forces that would result in a unified Castile and Aragon in the next century