International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
A hierarchy is an arrangement of items in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarchy is an important concept in a wide variety of fields, such as philosophy, computer science, organizational theory, systems theory, the social sciences. A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, either vertically or diagonally; the only direct links in a hierarchy, insofar as they are hierarchical, are to one's immediate superior or to one of one's subordinates, although a system, hierarchical can incorporate alternative hierarchies. Hierarchical links can extend "vertically" upwards or downwards via multiple links in the same direction, following a path. All parts of the hierarchy which are not linked vertically to one another can be "horizontally" linked through a path by traveling up the hierarchy to find a common direct or indirect superior, down again; this is akin to colleagues. Organizational forms exist that are both complementary to hierarchy.
Heterarchy is one such form. Hierarchies have their own special vocabulary; these terms are easiest to understand. In an organizational context, the following terms are used related to hierarchies: Object: one entity System: the entire set of objects that are being arranged hierarchically Dimension: another word for "system" from on-line analytical processing Member: an at any in a Terms about Positioning Rank: the relative value, complexity, importance, level etc. of an object Level or Tier: a set of objects with the same rank OR importance Ordering: the arrangement of the Hierarchy: the arrangement of a particular set of members into. Multiple hierarchies are possible per, in which selected levels of the dimension are omitted to flatten the structure Terms about Placement Hierarch, the apex of the hierarchy, consisting of one single orphan in the top level of a dimension; the root of an inverted-tree structure Member, a in any level of a hierarchy in a dimension to which members are attached Orphan, a member in any level of a dimension without a parent member.
The apex of a disconnected branch. Orphans can be grafted back into the hierarchy by creating a relationship with a parent in the superior level Leaf, a member in any level of a dimension without subordinates in the hierarchy Neighbour: a member adjacent to another member in the same. Always a peer. Superior: a higher level or an object ranked at a higher level Subordinate: a lower level or an object ranked at a lower level Collection: all of the objects at one level Peer: an object with the same rank Interaction: the relationship between an object and its direct superior or subordinate a direct interaction occurs when one object is on a level one higher or one lower than the other Distance: the minimum number of connections between two objects, i.e. one less than the number of objects that need to be "crossed" to trace a path from one object to another Span: a qualitative description of the width of a level when diagrammed, i.e. the number of subordinates an object has Terms about Nature Attribute: a heritable characteristic of in a level Attribute-value: the specific value of a heritable characteristic In a mathematical context, the general terminology used is different.
Most hierarchies use a more specific vocabulary pertaining to their subject, but the idea behind them is the same. For example, with data structures, objects are known as nodes, superiors are called parents and subordinates are called children. In a business setting, a superior is a supervisor/boss and a peer is a colleague. Degree of branching refers to the number of direct subordinates or children an object has a node has. Hierarchies can be categorized based on the "maximum degree", the highest degree present in the system as a whole. Categorization in this way yields two broad classes: branching. In a linear hierarchy, the maximum degree is 1. In other words, all of the objects can be visualized in a line-up, each object has one direct subordinate and one direct superior. Note that this is referring to the objects and not the levels. An example of a linear hierarchy is the hierarchy of life. In a branching hierarchy, one or more objects has a degree of 2 or more. For many people, the word "hierarchy" automatically evokes an image of a branching hierarchy.
Branching hierarchies are present within numerous systems, including organizations and classification schemes. The broad category of branching hierarchies can be furt
ArXiv is a repository of electronic preprints approved for posting after moderation, but not full peer review. It consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, electrical engineering, computer science, quantitative biology, mathematical finance and economics, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million-article milestone on October 3, 2008, had hit a million by the end of 2014. By October 2016 the submission rate had grown to more than 10,000 per month. ArXiv was made possible by the compact TeX file format, which allowed scientific papers to be transmitted over the Internet and rendered client-side. Around 1990, Joanne Cohn began emailing physics preprints to colleagues as TeX files, but the number of papers being sent soon filled mailboxes to capacity. Paul Ginsparg recognized the need for central storage, in August 1991 he created a central repository mailbox stored at the Los Alamos National Laboratory which could be accessed from any computer.
Additional modes of access were soon added: FTP in 1991, Gopher in 1992, the World Wide Web in 1993. The term e-print was adopted to describe the articles, it began as a physics archive, called the LANL preprint archive, but soon expanded to include astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology and, most statistics. Its original domain name was xxx.lanl.gov. Due to LANL's lack of interest in the expanding technology, in 2001 Ginsparg changed institutions to Cornell University and changed the name of the repository to arXiv.org. It is now hosted principally with eight mirrors around the world, its existence was one of the precipitating factors that led to the current movement in scientific publishing known as open access. Mathematicians and scientists upload their papers to arXiv.org for worldwide access and sometimes for reviews before they are published in peer-reviewed journals. Ginsparg was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 2002 for his establishment of arXiv; the annual budget for arXiv is $826,000 for 2013 to 2017, funded jointly by Cornell University Library, the Simons Foundation and annual fee income from member institutions.
This model arose in 2010, when Cornell sought to broaden the financial funding of the project by asking institutions to make annual voluntary contributions based on the amount of download usage by each institution. Each member institution pledges a five-year funding commitment to support arXiv. Based on institutional usage ranking, the annual fees are set in four tiers from $1,000 to $4,400. Cornell's goal is to raise at least $504,000 per year through membership fees generated by 220 institutions. In September 2011, Cornell University Library took overall administrative and financial responsibility for arXiv's operation and development. Ginsparg was quoted in the Chronicle of Higher Education as saying it "was supposed to be a three-hour tour, not a life sentence". However, Ginsparg remains on the arXiv Scientific Advisory Board and on the arXiv Physics Advisory Committee. Although arXiv is not peer reviewed, a collection of moderators for each area review the submissions; the lists of moderators for many sections of arXiv are publicly available, but moderators for most of the physics sections remain unlisted.
Additionally, an "endorsement" system was introduced in 2004 as part of an effort to ensure content is relevant and of interest to current research in the specified disciplines. Under the system, for categories that use it, an author must be endorsed by an established arXiv author before being allowed to submit papers to those categories. Endorsers are not asked to review the paper for errors, but to check whether the paper is appropriate for the intended subject area. New authors from recognized academic institutions receive automatic endorsement, which in practice means that they do not need to deal with the endorsement system at all. However, the endorsement system has attracted criticism for restricting scientific inquiry. A majority of the e-prints are submitted to journals for publication, but some work, including some influential papers, remain purely as e-prints and are never published in a peer-reviewed journal. A well-known example of the latter is an outline of a proof of Thurston's geometrization conjecture, including the Poincaré conjecture as a particular case, uploaded by Grigori Perelman in November 2002.
Perelman appears content to forgo the traditional peer-reviewed journal process, stating: "If anybody is interested in my way of solving the problem, it's all there – let them go and read about it". Despite this non-traditional method of publication, other mathematicians recognized this work by offering the Fields Medal and Clay Mathematics Millennium Prizes to Perelman, both of which he refused. Papers can be submitted in any of several formats, including LaTeX, PDF printed from a word processor other than TeX or LaTeX; the submission is rejected by the arXiv software if generating the final PDF file fails, if any image file is too large, or if the total size of the submission is too large. ArXiv now allows one to store and modify an incomplete submission, only finalize the submission when ready; the time stamp on the article is set. The standard access route is through one of several mirrors. Sev
Stanford Graduate School of Business
The Stanford Graduate School of Business is the graduate business school of Stanford University in Stanford, California. Stanford GSB offers a general management Master of Business Administration degree, the MSx Program and a Ph. D. program, along with joint degrees with other schools at Stanford including Earth Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. The school was founded in 1925 when trustee Herbert Hoover formed a committee of Wallace Alexander, George Rolph, Paul Shoup, Thomas Gregory, Milton Esberg to secure the needed funds for the school's founding. Willard Hotchkiss became first dean of Stanford GSB; the library was formally inaugurated on April 3, 1933. The collection was established with assorted reports; the school moved from Jordan Hall to new quarters in the History Corner of the Main Quad in 1937. Jonathan Levin was appointed as the 10th dean of the school in September 2016; the Knight Management Center is situated within the greater Stanford campus. There are ten buildings at the Knight Management Center: the Gunn Building, Zambrano Hall, North Building, Arbuckle Dining Pavilion, Bass Center, the Faculty Buildings, the Patterson Building, the MBA Class of 1968 Building, the McClelland Building.
The Schwab Residential Center was designed by Mexican architect Ricardo Legorreta. The 158,000 square-foot facility consists of 280 guest rooms. There are three main art installations on campus, including Monument to Change as it Changes, Monument to the Unknown Variables, Ways to Change; the GSB maintains close links with the venture capital and technology firms of nearby Silicon Valley. Stanford GSB has the traditional MBA program and the MSx program: The school has 400 students per year in its full-time two-year MBA program, considered the best in the world. In June 2006, the School announced a dramatic change to its curriculum model, it aims to offer each student a customized experience by offering broader menus of course topics. The graduating class of 2009 was the first class having gone through the new curriculum. Current and past students include Fulbright Scholars, Marshall Scholars, Gardner, Rhodes and Truman fellows. 15% of the class entered the MBA program with other graduate or professional degrees.
Ds. Stanford GSB offers a PhD in Management degree for those looking to pursue a career in academia; the students at the school have traditionally maintained a policy of grade non-disclosure whereby they do not release grades. Some annual academic distinctions do exist. Students graduating in the top ten percent of the class are designated "Arjay Miller Scholars", named after the former dean, Arjay Miller; the top student receives the Henry Ford II award at graduation. At the end of the first year five students are designated Siebel Scholars based on a combination of academics and extracurriculars; the Stanford MSx Program is a full-time, one-year master's degree program for managers in mid-career. Fellows who complete the academic program are awarded the degree of Master of Science in Management; the program's principal objective is to help participants strengthen their capacity for organizational leadership. The ideal MSx candidate is a senior manager who has had or will soon be appointed to his or her first general management position.
The Stanford MSx was called the Stanford Sloan Master's Program, because students in the program are known as Stanford Sloan Fellows. The Stanford MSx is one of the three Sloan Fellows programs, sharing a similar format with the others at the MIT Sloan School of Management and the London Business School; these programs were supported by Alfred P. Sloan, Chairman of General Motors from 1937 to 1956, who envisioned the Sloan Fellowship in his alma mater of MIT in 1931; the degree distinguishes itself from the MBA by acknowledging the life experiences of fellows. Like the MBA program, the MSx program requires a set of core courses along with electives, the MSx program has separate core courses, more tailored for the experience level of fellows. Stanford GSB has a number of relationships with other leading business schools, it offers a number of Executive Education programs jointly with Harvard Business School. It offers one of the three Sloan Fellows programs, coordinating with the others at the MIT Sloan School of Management and the London Business School.
The school works at the forefront of global business teaching. There are three winners of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences on the faculty, five recipients of the John Bates Clark Award, 19 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, four members of the National Academy of Sciences. William F. Sharpe's research interests focus on macro-investment analysis, equilibrium in capital markets and the provision of income in retirement. Myron Scholes’ research has focused on understanding uncertainty and its effect on asset prices and the value of options, including flexibility options. Michael Spence's research interests focus on the study of economic growth and development, dynamic competition and the economics of information. In 2017, GSB was tied for 4th by U. S. News & World Report No. 1 by Forbes, 1st by the Financial Times, 5th by The Economist, 2nd by Bloomberg Businessweek. In the ranking aggregator Poets & Quants Stanford's MBA Program was ranked 2nd in the US; the Stanford Graduate School of Business is the most selective business school in the United States.
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José Ortega y Gasset
José Ortega y Gasset was a Spanish philosopher and essayist. He worked during the first half of the 20th century, while Spain oscillated between monarchy and dictatorship, his philosophy has been characterized as a "philosophy of life" that "comprised a long-hidden beginning in a pragmatist metaphysics inspired by William James, with a general method from a realist phenomenology imitating Edmund Husserl, which served both his proto-existentialism and his realist historicism, compared to both Wilhelm Dilthey and Benedetto Croce." José Ortega y Gasset was born 9 May 1883 in Madrid. His father was director of the newspaper El Imparcial, which belonged to the family of his mother, Dolores Gasset; the family was definitively of Spain's end-of-the-century educated bourgeoisie. The liberal tradition and journalistic engagement of his family had a profound influence in Ortega y Gasset's activism in politics. Ortega was first schooled by the Jesuit priests of San Estanislao in Miraflores del Málaga, he attended the University of Deusto and the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters at the Central University of Madrid, receiving a doctorate in Philosophy.
From 1905 to 1907, he continued his studies in Germany at Leipzig, Cologne, Berlin and, above all Marburg. At Marburg, he was influenced among others. On his return to Spain in 1908, he was appointed professor of Psychology and Ethics at the Escuela Superior del Magisterio de Madrid and in October 1910 he was named full professor of Metaphysics at Complutense University of Madrid, a vacant seat held by Nicolás Salmerón. In 1917 he became a contributor to the newspaper El Sol, where he published, as a series of essays, his two principal works: España invertebrada and La rebelión de las masas; the latter made him internationally famous. He founded the Revista de Occidente in 1923, remaining its director until 1936; this publication promoted translation of the most important figures and tendencies in philosophy, including Oswald Spengler, Johan Huizinga, Edmund Husserl, Georg Simmel, Jakob von Uexküll, Heinz Heimsoeth, Franz Brentano, Hans Driesch, Ernst Müller, Alexander Pfänder, Bertrand Russell.
Elected deputy for the Province of León in the constituent assembly of the Second Spanish Republic, he was the leader of a parliamentary group of intellectuals known as Agrupación al Servicio de la República, which supported the platform of Socialist Republican candidates, but he soon abandoned politics, disappointed. Leaving Spain at the outbreak of the Civil War, he spent years of exile in Buenos Aires, Argentina until moving back to Europe in 1942, he settled in Portugal by mid-1945 and began to make short visits to Spain. In 1948 he returned to Madrid. Upon his return to Spain, he privately expressed his hostility to the Franco regime, stating that the government did not deserve anyone's confidence and that his beliefs were "incompatible with Franco." The Revolt of the Masses is Ortega's best known work. In this book he defends the values of meritocratic liberalism reminiscent of John Stuart Mill against attacks from both communists and right-wing populists. Ortega shares Mill's fears of the "tyranny of the majority" and the "collective mediocrity" of the masses, which threaten individuality, free thought, protections for minorities.
Ortega characterized liberalism as a politics of "magnanimity."Ortega's rejection of the Spanish Conservative Party under Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and his successors was unequivocal, as was his distrust of the Spanish monarchy and Catholic Church. However, again in a manner similar to Mill, Ortega was open-minded toward certain socialists and non-Marxist forms of socialism, complimented Pablo Iglesias Posse as a "lay saint." Under the influence of German social democrats such as Paul Natorp and Hermann Cohen, he adopted a communitarian ontology and could be critical of capitalism the laissez-faire variant, declaring that "nineteenth-century capitalism has demoralized humanity" and that it had "impoverished the ethical consciousness of man." For Ortega y Gasset, philosophy has a critical duty to lay siege to beliefs in order to promote new ideas and to explain reality. To accomplish such tasks, the philosopher must—as Husserl proposed—leave behind prejudices and existing beliefs, investigate the essential reality of the universe.
Ortega y Gasset proposes that philosophy must overcome the limitations of both idealism and ancient-medieval realism to focus on the only truthful reality: "my life"—the life of each individual. He suggests that there is no "me" without things, things are nothing without me: "I" cannot be detached from "my circumstance"; this led Ortega y Gasset to pronounce his famous maxim "Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia" which he always put at the core of his philosophy. For Ortega y Gasset, as for Husserl, the Cartesian'cogito ergo sum' is insufficient to explain reality. Therefore, the Spanish philosopher proposes a system wherein the basic or "radical" reality is "my life", which consists of "I" and "my circumstance"; this circunstancia is oppressive.
Scott Raymond Adams is the creator of the Dilbert comic strip, the author of several nonfiction works of satire and business. His Dilbert series came to national prominence through the downsizing period in 1990s America and was distributed worldwide, as Adams went door to door to promote the idea. Adams worked in various roles at big businesses before he became a full-time cartoonist in 1995, he writes in a satirical sarcastic, way about the social and psychological landscape of white-collar workers in modern business corporations. Adams was born in 1957 in the son of Paul and Virginia Adams, he is of half-German descent and has English, Welsh, Dutch, "a small amount" of American Indian ancestry. He was a fan of the Peanuts comics while growing up, started drawing his own comics at age 6, he won a drawing competition at age 11. Adams graduated valedictorian from Windham-Ashland-Jewett Central School in 1975 in a class of 39, he remained in the area and received a BA in economics from Hartwick College in 1979.
He moved to California a few months after his graduation. Adams earned an MBA in economics and management from the University of California, Berkeley in 1986. Adams worked with telecommunications engineers at Crocker National Bank in San Francisco between 1979 and 1986. Upon joining the organization, he entered a management training program after being held at gunpoint twice in four months as a teller. Over the years, his positions included management trainee, computer programmer, budget analyst, commercial lender, product manager, supervisor. Adams created Dilbert during this period. Dogbert named Dildog, was loosely based on his family's deceased pet beagle Lucy. Submissions to various publications of both Dilbert and non-Dilbert comic panels failed to win publication; these included Playboy. An inspirational letter from a fan, persuaded Adams to keep trying, he worked at Pacific Bell between 1986 and June 1995. Adams first published Dilbert with United Media in 1989, he had to draw his cartoons at 4 a.m..
His first paycheck for Dilbert was a monthly royalty check of $368.62. Dilbert became more popular and was published by 100 newspapers in 1991, 400 by 1994. Adams attributes his success to his idea of including his e-mail address in the panels, thus facilitating feedback from readers. Adams's success grew, he became a full-time cartoonist with Dilbert in 800 newspapers. In 1996, The Dilbert Principle was released, his first business book. Logitech CEO Pierluigi Zappacosta invited Adams to impersonate a management consultant, which he did wearing a wig and false mustache, he tricked Logitech managers into adopting a mission statement that Adams described as "so impossibly complicated that it has no real content whatsoever". That year, he won the National Cartoonists Society's Reuben Award for Outstanding Cartoonist of the Year, Best Newspaper Comic Strip of 1997, the most prestigious awards in the field. In 1998, Dilbert began as a TV series, but was canceled in 2000. By 2000, the comic was in 2,000 newspapers in 19 languages.
I got the call. "You're number one." I still haven't popped the champagne. I just raise the bar for what would be the right moment, tell myself how tasty it will be if I accomplish something special in my work; the thing inside me that makes me work so hard is the same thing that keeps me unsatisfied. Adams was a fan of the science fiction TV series Babylon 5, he appeared in the season 4 episode "Moments of Transition" as a character named "Mr. Adams" who hires former head of security Michael Garibaldi to locate his megalomaniacal dog and cat, he had a cameo in "Review", a third-season episode of the TV series NewsRadio, in which Matthew Brock becomes an obsessed Dilbert fan. Adams is credited as "Guy in line behind Dave and Joe in first scene". Adams is the CEO of Scott Adams Foods, Inc. makers of the Dilberito and Protein Chef, a co-owner of Stacey's Café in Pleasanton, California. Adams is a member of the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences and a former member of Mensa. In recent years, Adams has had two notable health problems.
Since late 2004, he has suffered from a reemergence of focal dystonia, which has affected for lengthy periods his ability to draw on paper, though it causes no real problem now that he draws the comic on a graphics tablet. He suffered from spasmodic dysphonia, a condition that causes the vocal cords to behave in an abnormal manner, he recovered from this condition temporarily, but in July 2008 underwent surgery to reroute the nerve connections to his vocal cords. The operation was successful, Adams' voice is now functional. Adams trained as a hypnotist, he credits affirmations for many of his achievements, including Dilbert's success and achieving a ninety-fourth percentile on a difficult qualification exam for business school, among other unlikely events. He states, he has described a method. He pictured in his mind what he wanted, wrote it down 15 times a day on a piece of paper. In addition to his cartoon work, he has written two books on religion, God's Debris, The Religion War. God's Debris lays out a theory of Pandeism, in which God blows itself up to see what will happen, which becomes the cause of our universe.
In God's Debris, Adams suggests that followers of theistic religions such as Christi
Putt's Law and the Successful Technocrat
Putt's Law and the Successful Technocrat is a book, credited to the pseudonym Archibald Putt, published in 1981. An updated edition, subtitled How to Win in the Information Age, was published by Wiley-IEEE Press in 2006; the book is based upon a series of articles published in Research/Development Magazine in 1976 and 1977. It proposes Putt's Law and Putt's Corollary which are principles of negative selection similar to The Dilbert principle by Scott Adams proposed in the 1990s. Putt's law is sometimes grouped together with the Peter principle, Parkinson's Law and Stephen Potter's Gamesmanship series as "P-literature"; the book proposes Putt's Law and Putt's Corollary Putt's Law: "Technology is dominated by two types of people, those who understand what they do not manage and those who manage what they do not understand." Putt's Corollary: "Every technical hierarchy, in time, develops a competence inversion." With incompetence being "flushed out of the lower levels" of a technocratic hierarchy, ensuring that technically competent people remain directly in charge of the actual technology while those without technical competence move into management.
Dilbert principle Archibald Putt: The Unknown Technocrat Returns