Vestervig is a village in Vestervig Parish in Denmark, located in Thisted municipality in North Denmark Region. Vestervig has a population of 644, it has a disproportionately large church, Vestervig Abbey, which served as a cathedral until 1130 when the see was transferred to Børglum. This article is based on material from the Danish Wikipedia. Peter von Scholten, Governor-General of the Danish West Indies
Governor-general or governor general, in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm. Governors-general have previously been appointed in respect of major colonial states or other territories held by either a monarchy or republic, such as French Indochina. In modern usage, the term governor-general originated in those British colonies which became self-governing within the British Empire. Before World War I, the title was used only in federated colonies in which each of the constituent colonies of these federated colonies had a governor, namely Canada and the Union of South Africa. In these cases, the Crown's representative in the federated Dominion was given the superior title of governor-general; the first exception to this rule was New Zealand, granted Dominion status in 1907, but it was not until 28 June 1917 that Arthur Foljambe, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, was appointed the first Governor-General of New Zealand.
Another non-federal state, was a Dominion for 16 years with the King's representative retaining the title of governor throughout this time. Since 2016, the title governor-general has been given to all representatives of the sovereign in independent Commonwealth realms. In these cases, the former office of colonial governor was altered to become governor-general upon independence, as the nature of the office became an independent constitutional representative of the monarch rather than a symbol of previous colonial rule. In these countries the governor-general acts as the monarch's representative, performing the ceremonial and constitutional functions of a head of state; the only other nation which uses the governor-general designation is Iran, which has no connection with any monarchy or the Commonwealth. In Iran, the provincial authority is headed by a governor general, appointed by the Minister of the Interior; until the 1920s, governors-general were British subjects, appointed on the advice of the British government, who acted as agents of the British government in each Dominion, as well as being representatives of the monarch.
As such they notionally held the prerogative powers of the monarch, held the executive power of the country to which they were assigned. The governor-general could be instructed by the colonial secretary on the exercise of some of his functions and duties, such as the use or withholding of the Royal Assent from legislation; the monarch or imperial government could overrule any governor-general, though this could be cumbersome, due to remoteness of the territories from London. The governor-general was usually the commander-in-chief of the armed forces in his or her territory and, because of the governor-general's control of the military, the post was as much a military appointment as a civil one; the governors-general are entitled to wear a unique uniform, not worn today. If of the rank of major general, equivalent or above, they were entitled to wear that military uniform. Following the Imperial Conference, subsequent issuing of the Balfour Declaration in 1926, the role and responsibilities of the governor-general began to shift, reflecting the increased independence of the Dominions.
As the sovereign came to be regarded as monarch of each territory independently, and, as such, advised only by the ministers of each country in regard to that country's national affairs, so too did the governor-general become a direct representative of the national monarch only, who no longer answered to the British government. The report resulting from the 1926 Imperial Conference stated: "...it is an essential consequence of the equality of status existing among the members of the British Commonwealth of Nations that the Governor General of a Dominion is the representative of the Crown, holding in all essential respects the same position in relation to the administration of public affairs in the Dominion as is held by His Majesty the King in Great Britain, that he is not the representative or agent of His Majesty's Government in Great Britain or of any Department of that Government." These concepts were entrenched in legislation with the enactment of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, governmental relations with the United Kingdom were placed in the hands of a British High Commissioner in each country.
In other words, the political reality of a self-governing Dominion within the British Empire with a governor-general answerable to the sovereign became clear. British interference in the Dominion was not acceptable and independent country status was displayed. Canada and New Zealand were not controlled by the United Kingdom; the monarch of these countries is in law Queen of Canada, Queen of Australia, Queen of New Zealand and only acts on the advice of the ministers in each country and is in no way influenced by the British government. Today, therefore, in former British colonies which are now independent Commonwealth realms, the governor-general is constitutionally the representative of the monarch in his or her state and may exercise the reserve powers of the monarch according to their own constitutional authority; the governor-general, however, is still appointed by the monarch and takes an oath of allegiance to the monarch of their own country. Executive authority is vested in the monarc
Adjutant is a military appointment given to an officer who assists the commanding officer with unit administration the management of human resources in army unit. The term adjudant is used in French-speaking armed forces as a non-commissioned officer rank similar to a staff sergeant or warrant officer but is not equivalent to the role or appointment of an adjutant. An adjutant general is commander of an army's administrative services. Adjutant comes from the Latin adiutāns, present participle of the verb adiūtāre, frequentative form of adiuvāre'to help'. In various uniformed hierarchies, the term is used for number of functions, but as a principal aide to a commanding officer. A regimental adjutant, garrison adjutant etc. is a staff officer who assists the commanding officer of a regiment, battalion or garrison in the details of regimental, garrison or similar duty. In United States Army squadrons, the adjutant is the officer-in-charge of the administrative platoon. In the British Army, an adjutant is a senior captain, sometimes a major.
As the colonel's personal staff officer, he was once in charge of all the organisation and discipline for a battalion or regiment, although now the bulk of administrative work is carried out by the regimental administrative officer. Until the 1970s the adjutant was the regimental operations officer, although this job is now filled by a separate officer. In the British Army, adjutants are given field rank and as such are senior by appointment to all other captains, ranking just behind the majors. Unlike the RAO, the adjutant is a member of the regiment of which their unit is a part; the adjutant's job is not a'backroom' one, since he accompanies the colonel — Captain David Wood, the adjutant of 2 Para, was killed in action at the Battle of Goose Green, for example. In a British Infantry battalion, the adjutant controls the battle whilst the CO commands it; as such, the adjutant is a man of significant influence within his battalion. In the Foot Guards, the adjutant of the unit in charge of Trooping the Colour is one of three officers on horseback.
In many Commonwealth armies, the adjutant performs much the same role as in the British Army. There is no RAO position within the Australian or Canadian armies, where an adjutant performs the administrative role with the assistance of a Chief Clerk, who has a rank of Warrant Officer Class Two. In the Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force, the term adjutant is used in common with other English-speaking armies, the corresponding French term is Capitaine-adjudant; the Bangladesh Army has the appointment of Adjutant, similar to that in old British system. Adjutants are captains and sometimes lieutenants though the authorization is of Captain rank. Resaldar Adjutant or Naek Subedar Adjutant is a position unique to the Bangladesh Army, he is a Warrant Officer. On all formal parades, the standard procedure is for the Squadron/Company Sergeant Major to first report to the Resaldar Adjutant/ Naek Subedar Adjutant, the Resaldar Adjutant/ Naek Subedar Adjutant in turn to report to the Adjutant; the Indian Army has the position of Adjutant, based on the old British system.
The Adjutants in some cases hold the rank of Major. Subedar Adjutant is a position unique to the Indian Army, he is a Subedar. On all formal parades, the standard procedure is for the Company Havildar Major to first report to the Subedar Adjutant, the Subedar Adjutant in turn to report to the Adjutant. In the British Indian Army, the equivalent position was the Jemadar Adjutant, who held the lower rank of Jemadar; the Pak Army has the appointment of Adjutant, similar to that in old British system. Adjutants in Pak Army are Captains and sometimes Lieutenants. Pak Army holds the rank of Junior Adjutant who works as an aide to Adjutant and is of the Rank of Subedar equivalent rank to Warrant Officer or Sergeant in Western Armies; the Regimental Adjutant is Commander of Regimental Provost and Assist Commanding Officer in all matters pertaining to Discipline and Operational planning. In the US Army the adjutant was a member of the branch or regiment of the parent unit. In 2008, as a result of the Army's transformation, the Human Resources community implemented the Personnel Services Delivery Redesign, which recoded the adjutant position in battalions to an officer from the Adjutant General branch.
The adjutant general at the battalion-level is a junior captain or senior first lieutenant and, in conjunction with the S-1 section, manages the administrative functions of the unit. The adjutant works with the unit's command sergeant major for awards ceremonies, traditional ceremonial functions, casual events, evaluation reports, management of correspondence and other secretarial functions. Based upon the needs of the commander, an adjutant from the combat arms branches may still be specially appointed in modern-day to assist a brigade commander to ease his/her burden of command. There is a bugle call announcing the adjutant, still used in military ceremonies today. In the USMC, the adjutant serves as the senior administrator for their unit, is the OIC of the S-1 or admin shop. Per the USMC MOS handbook: "Adjutants coordinate administrative matters for Marine Co
Thy is a traditional district in northwestern Jutland, Denmark. It is situated north of the Limfjord, facing the North Sea and Skagerrak, has a population of around 44,000; the capital is Thisted population of 14.000. Snedsted and Hurup are minor towns in the area. Since the Danish municipal reform of 1 January 2007, Thy is identical with Thisted Municipality which belongs to the North Denmark Region; the southernmost part of Thy, the Thyholm Peninsula, belongs to Struer Municipality in the Central Denmark Region. Before the merger, Thy consisted of four municipalities: Hanstholm, Thisted and Thyholm. Thy forms the western part of the North Jutlandic Island and borders Hanherred to the northeast with Vendsyssel further northeast. In the Limfjord is the island of Mors, considered a twin district of Thy, south of the fjord is Hardsyssel in western mainland Jutland. Thy is traditionally regarded part of western Jutland alike; the dialect belongs to the West Jutlandic group. Thy has a varied landscape.
In the north it is marked by flat coastal plains which were covered by sea in neolithic times, but fell dry because of the post-glacial rebound. These are interrupted with higher-lying plains. In the slopes that formed the coast in these times, high-lying limestone is visible - hence the name of the Limfjord; the eastern stretch, facing the Limfjord, has quite fertile soil, is hilly and dotted with small villages and farms like the landscape in most of rural Denmark. The landscape is marked by most trees bending eastwards; the west coast has high dunes with Leymus grass and sea-buckthorn. Behind the dunes, there is heath with stretches of Calluna heather, Iceland moss, crowberry, blueberry and orchids including the unique Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. Calcifugiens; this is the result of huge sand drifts in the 15th to 19th centuries which covered much fertile land. The sand drifting affected the whole west coast of Jutland, various other parts of Denmark as well like Tisvilde on Zealand for example.
Since Thy is exposed to winds from both the north and the west from the North Atlantic, the sand drift went the furthest inland in this area, as far as 18 km. Parts of the sandy stretches have been turned into conifer woods. A line of lakes, believed to have been caused by the sand drifts blocking the outflow to the sea, mark the border between the western, sparsely populated sandy area and the eastern, fertile farmland; the wetlands Vejlerne in the northeast are the largest bird sanctuary in Northern Europe. Nearby is the bird cliff Bulbjerg. On 22 August 2008, Thy National Park opened, as the first of three realized national parks out of seven planned. On 10 July 2007, a police officer from Hanstholm found a hermit in the state forest of Hjardemål Klit, one of the more deserted areas in the north of Thy. For three years, the middle-aged man from Zealand had been living in the primitive forest shelters of the district and made a living from collecting empty bottles. For the same period he had been missed by his parents, who thought he was dead, but he was now re-united with them on the initiative of the police officer.
Forest workers told they were aware of the man's existence that he had left behind many eggshells at the shelters and was nourished on eggs, but since he didn't do any harm they had left him alone. On 19 November 2012, a dead wolf was found in the national park area. After thorough DNA-tests it was confirmed that there was a 100% match with a wolfpack in the Lausitz-region in Sachsen, Germany; the wolf was four years old and it is believed that it traversed the 850 km to Thy National Park. Wolves have been exterminated in Denmark for 200 years. In the beginning of 2013 a wolf-like creature was observed in Thy and a carcass bearing marks associated with a wolf-kill was found on 18 February. On 1 March 2013, the Minister of the Environment Ida Auken, initiated on this background the formulation of a Danish action plan concerning wolves. Thy is the same word as Old Norse þjóð, meaning people; the Danish Census Book of King Valdemar II of 1231 mentions Thiuthæsysæl. Thy is by some scholars thought to be the origin of the Teutons.
In the stone age before it got its name, Thy exported fine flint present in the limestone. A Neolithic flint quarry has been restored at Hov east of Thisted. Thy has a great number of burial mounds. In the viking age the area had vital trade links across the North Sea, being Christianised from England by Saint Theodgarus, a missionary from Thuringia and trained in England, unlike other parts of Denmark that were Christianised from the south; the former cathedral and monastery of Theodgarus in Vestervig is today the largest village church of Scandinavia. In 1085 Thy was the gatehead for King Canute the Holy's plans to retake England from William the Conqueror, with 1,000 ships gathered in the Limfjord until the expedition was cancelled and a peasant uprising broke out. In the Second World War Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany; the German Wehrmacht built huge fortifications along the west coast of Jutland for fear that the allied invasion would take place here. The vast bunker complexes in Hanstholm are open to the public.
Thy is still a rural area, the traditional businesses of agriculture and fishery being more prevalent than in many other areas of Denmark. Tourism is a major business in summer, the coastal villages
Christian VIII of Denmark
Christian VIII was the King of Denmark from 1839 to 1848 and, as Christian Frederick, King of Norway in 1814. Christian was born at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen, he was the eldest son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and Duchess Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. His paternal grandparents were King Frederick V of Denmark-Norway and his second wife, Duchess Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Christian's mother died in 1794 when he was eight years old, his father died in 1805 when Christian was nineteen, his upbringing was marked by a thorough and broad-spectrum education with exposure to artists and scientists who were linked to his father's court. Christian inherited the talents of his gifted mother, his amiability and handsome features are said to have made him popular in Copenhagen. Christian first married his cousin Duchess Charlotte Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin at Ludwigslust on 21 June 1806. Charlotte Frederica was a daughter of Friedrich Franz I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
His first-born son was Christian Frederik, born and died at Schloss Plön on 8 April 1807. His second son became Frederick VII of Denmark; the marriage was dissolved by divorce in 1810. Christian married his second wife, Princess Caroline Amalie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg at Augustenborg Palace on 22 May 1815; the couple was childless and lived in comparative retirement as leaders of the literary and scientific society of Copenhagen until Christian ascended the throne of Denmark. Christian had ten extramarital children, for whom he provided, it is rumored that these extramarital children included the fairy tale author Hans Christian Andersen, though there is little evidence to support this. In May 1813, as the heir presumptive of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, Christian was sent as stattholder to Norway to promote the loyalty of the Norwegians to the House of Oldenburg, badly shaken by the disastrous results of Frederick VI's adhesion to the falling fortunes of Napoleon I of France.
Christian did all he could to strengthen the bonds between the Norwegians and the royal house of Denmark. Though his endeavours were opposed by the so-called Swedish party, which desired a dynastic union with Sweden, he placed himself at the head of the Norwegian party of independence after the Treaty of Kiel had forced the king to cede Norway to the king of Sweden, he was elected Regent of Norway by an assembly of notables on 16 February 1814. This election was confirmed by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly convoked at Eidsvoll on 10 April, on 17 May the constitution was signed and Christian was unanimously elected king of Norway under the name Christian Frederick. Christian next without success. On being pressed by the commissioners of the allied powers to bring about a union between Norway and Sweden in accordance with the terms of the treaty of Kiel, return to Denmark, he replied that, as a constitutional king, he could do nothing without the consent of the parliament, which would not be convoked until there was a suspension of hostilities on the part of Sweden.
Sweden refused Christian's conditions and a short military campaign ensued in which the Norwegian army was defeated by the forces of the Swedish crown prince Charles John. The brief war concluded with the Convention of Moss on 14 August 1814. By the terms of this treaty, King Christian Frederick transferred executive power to the Storting abdicated and returned to Denmark; the Storting in its turn adopted the constitutional amendments necessary to allow for a personal union with Sweden and on 4 November elected Charles XIII of Sweden as the new king of Norway. On 3 December 1839 he ascended the Danish throne as Christian VIII; the Liberal party had high hopes of “the giver of constitutions,” but he disappointed his admirers by rejecting every Liberal project. Administrative reform was the only reform. In his attitude to the growing national unrest in the twin duchies of Schleswig and Holstein he seemed hesitant and half-hearted, which damaged his position there, it was not until 1846 that he supported the idea of Schleswig being a Danish area.
King Christian VIII continued his predecessor's patronage of astronomy, awarding gold medals for the discovery of comets by telescope and financially supporting Heinrich Christian Schumacher with his publication of the scientific journal Astronomische Nachrichten. It was during his reign that the last remnants of Danish India, namely Tranquebar in the south and Serampore in Bengal, were sold to the British in 1845, his only legitimate son, the future Frederick VII was married three times, but produced no legitimate issue. Since he was unlikely to beget heirs, Christian wished to avert a succession crisis. Christian commenced arrangements to secure the succession in Denmark; the result was the selection of the future Christian IX as hereditary prince, the choice made official by a new law enacted on 31 July 1853 after an international treaty made in London. King Christian died of blood poisoning in Amalienborg Palace in 1848 and was interred in Roskilde Cathedral; some historians and biographers believe that King Christian would have given Denmark a free constitution had he lived long enough.
Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold in 1845. Sp
Order of the Dannebrog
The Order of the Dannebrog is a Danish order of chivalry instituted in 1671 by Christian V. Until 1808, membership in the order was limited to fifty members of noble or royal rank who formed a single class known as White Knights to distinguish them from the Blue Knights who were members of the Order of the Elephant. In 1808, the Order was divided into four classes; the Grand Commander class is reserved to persons of princely origin. It is only awarded to royalty with close family ties with the Danish Royal House; the statute of the Order was amended in 1951 by a Royal Ordinance so that both men and women could be members of the Order. Today, the Order of the Dannebrog is a means of honouring and rewarding the faithful servants of the modern Danish state for meritorious civil or military service, for a particular contribution to the arts, sciences or business life or for those working for Danish interests; the badge of the Order is a white enamelled Dannebrog cross with a red enamelled border, for the Knights in silver and for everyone else in gold or silver gilt.
At the top of this cross is the royal cypher of the bestowing monarch crowned with the distinctive Danish royal crown On its front, the cross bears the royal cyphers of Christian V at its centre, as well as the motto of the Order: Gud og Kongen on its arms. On its reverse are found the crowned royal cyphers of Valdemar II Sejr, Christian V and Frederik VI, as well as the years 1219, 1671 and 1808, the years that each of them ascended the Danish throne. In each of the four angles of the cross is found a small Danish royal crown; the classes are: Special class Grand Commander — wears the badge with diamonds on a necklet or on a bow, plus the star on the left chest. The Grand Cross can, as a special honor, be awarded "with diamonds". There is a Cross of Honour; the collar of the Order is made of gold, with small enamelled Dannebrog crosses alternating with alternating crowned royal cyphers representing Kings Valdemar II Sejr and Christian V, the reputed and actual founders of the Order. When the collar is worn the sash is not worn.
The star of the Order is an eight-pointed silver star with straight rays with an enamelled Dannebrog cross at the centre. The breast cross of the Order is similar to the cross on the star but larger and with faceted silver instead of white enamel and without the silver rays of the star; the ribbon of the Order is white silk moiré with the national colours of Denmark. The Order had a distinctive habit worn by the knights on solemn occasions; the habit consisted of a white doublet, white breeches, white stockings and white shoes, over, worn a red mantle with a white lining and with the star of the order embroidered in silver on its left side. Over this red mantle was worn a short white shoulder cape with a standing collar embroidered in gold, upon, worn the collar of the Order; the habit had a black hat with a plume of white and red ostrich feathers. This habit was identical to that worn by the knights of the Order of the Elephant; each Danish ministry has a quota of Knights and Knights 1st class that they may use at their discretion.
It is most given to high-ranking officers of the police, armed forces and emergency services. Used for politicians in Folketinget after 8 years of elected service. Ministers are given the rank of Knight 1st Class; the rank of Commander is given to Colonels and other high-ranking officials as a retirement-decoration after long service. Commander 1st class is given for Admirals, Supreme-court judges and other governmental leaders as a retirement decoration. Grand Cross is most used for admirals, Supreme-court judges and similar as a reward for meritorious service to Denmark. Grand Cross with Breaststar with Diamonds is most given to high-ranking officers of the Royal Court, such as Hofmarskals; the Grand Commander grade is only given to 8 people. The reigning monarch is always a Grand Commander, he/she may give the grade to 7 others - most close family; the Order of the Dannebrog is used as a tool of diplomacy. If a foreign country has an Order that they give to foreign diplomats in their country their diplomats in Denmark can be given an Order of the Dannebrog.
To be eligible the foreign ambassador must reside in Denmark for at least three years. The Dannebrogordenens Hæderstegn in modern times is only awarded to Danes on whom the Order of the Dannebrog has been bestowed, it is worn by the individual members of the royal family. Its badge is similar to the badge of the Order, but all in silver, is worn on a ribbon or bow with rosette on the left