Metheringham railway station
Metheringham railway station serves the village of Metheringham in Lincolnshire, England. The station is owned by Network Rail and managed by East Midlands Trains, the train operating company that provides all its rail services; the station is unstaffed and offers limited facilities other than two shelters, bicycle storage and modern'Help Points'. The full range of tickets for travel are purchased from the guard on the train at no extra cost, there are no retail facilities at this station; the station was opened to passengers on 1 July 1882 named Metheringham. It was reopened on 6 October 1975 as Metheringham; the station is being refurbished. The signal box at the south of the station is labelled "Blankney" and operates the level crossing on the B1189 road. There is a basic hourly service in each direction between Lincoln Central and Sleaford that calls here. During the daytime southbound trains continue to Peterborough, whilst a few northbound trains continue to Doncaster. There is no Sunday service.
Blankney & Metheringham Metheringham Train times and station information for Metheringham railway station from National Rail
Ruskington railway station
Ruskington railway station serves the village of Ruskington in Lincolnshire, England. It opened in 1882 as part of the Great Northern and Great Eastern Joint Railway between Sleaford and Lincoln Central, it closed in 1961 but was reopened in 1975. The station is now owned by Network Rail and managed by East Midlands Trains train operating company who provide all rail services; the station is unstaffed and offers limited facilities other than free car parking, two shelters, bicycle storage and modern'Help Points'. The full range of tickets for travel are purchased from the guard on the train at no extra cost, there are no retail facilities at this station. In 2014 work was undertaken to improve access at the station; this included the construction of new railway bridges and disabled access ramps to safely cross the lines. Previous access from one platform to the other was by crossing both railway lines. There is a basic hourly service in each direction between Lincoln Central and Sleaford that calls here - during the daytime southbound services run to Peterborough, whilst a few northbound trains continue to Doncaster.
There is no Sunday service. Train times and station information for Ruskington railway station from National Rail
25 kV AC railway electrification
Railway electrification systems using alternating current at 25 kilovolts are used worldwide for high-speed rail. This electrification is ideal for railways that carry heavy traffic. After some experimentation before World War II in Hungary and in the Black Forest in Germany, it came into widespread use in the 1950s. One of the reasons why it was not introduced earlier was the lack of suitable small and lightweight control and rectification equipment before the development of solid-state rectifiers and related technology. Another reason was the increased clearance distances required where it ran under bridges and in tunnels, which would have required major civil engineering in order to provide the increased clearance to live parts. Railways using older, lower-capacity direct current systems have introduced or are introducing 25 kV AC instead of 3 kV DC/1.5 kV DC for their new high-speed lines. The first successful operational and regular use of the 50 Hz system dates back to 1931, tests having run since 1922.
It was developed by Kálmán Kandó in Hungary, who used 16 kV AC at 50 Hz, asynchronous traction, an adjustable number of poles. The first electrified line for testing was Budapest–Dunakeszi–Alag; the first electrified line was Budapest–Győr–Hegyeshalom. Although Kandó's solution showed a way for the future, railway operators outside of Hungary showed a lack of interest in the design; the first railway to use this system was completed in 1936 by the Deutsche Reichsbahn who electrified part of the Höllentalbahn between Freiburg and Neustadt installing a 20 kV, 50 Hz AC system. This part of Germany was in the French zone of occupation after 1945; as a result of examining the German system in 1951 the SNCF electrified the line between Aix-les-Bains and La Roche-sur-Foron in southern France at using the same 20 kV but converted to 25 kV in 1953. The 25 kV system was adopted as standard in France, but since substantial amounts of mileage south of Paris had been electrified at 1,500 V DC, SNCF continued some major new DC electrification projects, until dual-voltage locomotives were developed in the 1960s.
The main reason why electrification at this voltage had not been used before was the lack of reliability of mercury-arc-type rectifiers that could fit on the train. This in turn related to the requirement to use DC series motors, which required the current to be converted from AC to DC and for that a rectifier is needed; until the early 1950s, mercury-arc rectifiers were difficult to operate in ideal conditions and were therefore unsuitable for use in railway locomotives. It was possible to use AC motors, but they have less than ideal characteristics for traction purposes; this is because control of speed is difficult without varying the frequency and reliance on voltage to control speed gives a torque at any given speed, not ideal. This is why DC series motors are the best choice for traction purposes, as they can be controlled by voltage, have an ideal torque vs speed characteristic. In the 1990s, high-speed trains began to use lighter, lower-maintenance three-phase AC induction motors; the N700 Shinkansen uses a three-level converter to convert 25 kV single-phase AC to 1,520 V AC to 3,000 V DC to a maximum 2,300 V three-phase AC to run the motors.
The system works in reverse for regenerative braking. The choice of 25 kV was related to the efficiency of power transmission as a function of voltage and cost, not based on a neat and tidy ratio of the supply voltage. For a given power level, a higher voltage allows for a lower current and better efficiency at the greater cost for high-voltage equipment, it was found that 25 kV was an optimal point, where a higher voltage would still improve efficiency but not by a significant amount in relation to the higher costs incurred by the need for larger insulators and greater clearance from structures. To avoid short circuits, the high voltage must be protected from moisture. Weather events, such as "the wrong type of snow", have caused failures in the past. An example of atmospheric causes occurred in December 2009, when four Eurostar trains broke down inside the Channel Tunnel. Electric power from a generating station is transmitted to grid substations using a three-phase distribution system. At the grid substation, a step-down transformer is connected across two of the three phases of the high-voltage supply.
The transformer lowers the voltage to 25 kV, supplied to a railway feeder station located beside the tracks. SVCs are used for voltage control. In some cases dedicated single-phase AC power lines were built to substations with single phase AC transformers; such lines were built to supply the French TGV. Railway electrification using 25 kV, 50 Hz AC has become an international standard. There are two main standards that define the voltages of the system: EN 50163:2004+A1:2007 - "Railway applications. Supply voltages of traction systems" IEC 60850 - "Railway Applications. Supply voltages of traction systems"The permissible range of voltages allowed are as stated in the above standards and take into account the number of trains drawing current and their distance from the substation; this system is now part of the European Union's Trans-European railway interoperability standards. Systems based on this standard but with some variations have been used. In countries where 60 Hz is the normal gr
Doncaster railway station
Doncaster railway station is on the East Coast Main Line in the United Kingdom, serving the town of Doncaster, South Yorkshire. It is 155 miles 77 chains down the line from London King's Cross and is situated between Retford and York on the main line, it is managed by London North Eastern Railway. It is a major passenger interchange between the main line, Cross Country Route and local services running across the North of England, it is the point for which London North Eastern Railway services branching off to Leeds diverge from the main route continuing north towards Edinburgh. The railway station was built in 1849 replacing a temporary structure constructed a year earlier, it was rebuilt in its present form in 1938 and has had several slight modifications since that date, most notably in 2006, when the new interchange and connection to Frenchgate Centre opened. In May 2015, construction commenced on a new Platform 0 to the north-east of the station adjacent to the Frenchgate Centre on the site of the former cattle dock.
It will be used by terminating Northern services to Hull, Beverley and Scarborough. This will allow these services to operate independently of the East Coast Main Line, it is joined to the rest of the station via a accessible overbridge. The station has nine platforms on three islands. Platforms 1, 3, 4 and 8 can take through trains. Platforms 2 and 5 are south-facing bays, 0, 6 and 7 are north facing bays. A First Class Lounge is available on platform 3A. Platform 0 is scheduled to take exclusively Northern services to and from Hull and Bridlington; the brand new platform opened on 12 December 2016. Platform 1 is scheduled to take southbound London North Eastern Railway, Grand Central and Hull Trains trains towards London King's Cross. London North Eastern Railway services come from Leeds and Edinburgh, Grand Central services from Bradford Interchange to London King's Cross, which operate non-stop from Doncaster and Hull Trains services from Hull. Platform 2 has no scheduled trains and is not for public use.
Platform 3A is scheduled to take some southbound East Coast Main Line trains towards London King's Cross - London North Eastern Railway services here originate in York calling at all stations along the route. Platform 3B takes services to Sheffield and Manchester / Manchester Airport, operated by Northern and TransPennine Express and will take services from Sheffield when there is congestion. Between platforms 3 and 4 are the high speed up and down lines from London Platform 4 is scheduled to take northbound London North Eastern Railway services towards York and Edinburgh. However, southbound CrossCountry services towards Birmingham New Street and beyond depart from this platform. Platform 5 is a bay platform used for Northern and East Midlands Trains services to Sheffield and Lincoln Central. Platform 6 is a bay platform used exclusively for Northern commuter services to Leeds. Platform 7 is in public use, but when it is, is used for Northern services towards Scunthorpe via all stations. Platform 8 is used for northbound London North Eastern Railway services towards Leeds.
The platform is used for Northern local services to Scunthorpe via all stations. Southbound CrossCountry services are scheduled to use this platform, but only at times when the station is otherwise congested. There are presently no ticket barriers in operation at this station; the station has been refurbished in 2006 and is now directly connected to the Frenchgate Centre extension in Doncaster town centre. The station now has a new booking office for tickets and information, three new lifts, refurbished staircases and subway. There is some food outlets. More interactive touch screens have been installed around the station by London North Eastern Railway services to provide information about local attractions, live departures and disruptions and station facilities; as well as this, mobile phone charging points are now available on the concourse, touch screen, self service ticketing machines have been installed across the concourse and the stairways to the subway have now been divided into two way systems to improve the flow of passengers during peak times.
In a route study by Network Rail it was proposed that new platforms could be built on the western side of the station to meet demand expected in the future. In March 2019, it was revealed that there were plans that as part of the East Coast Programme in CP6 to add an additional platform at Doncaster. On 9 August 1947, a passenger train was in a rear-end collision with another due to a signalman's error. 18 people were killed and 188 were injured. On 16 March 1951 a derailment occurred south of the station in which 14 passengers were killed and 12 injured. Seven train operating companies call at Doncaster, the highest number of companies in the UK and is equal in number only to Crewe in the UK. Train operators include the following: CrossCountryCrossCountry have dropped most Doncaster to Edinburgh services, they offer an hourly service to Newcastle and Reading with one service per day running through to both Edinburgh Waverley and Guildford or Southampton Central. The majority of CrossCountry s
Lincoln Central railway station
Lincoln Central railway station serves the city of Lincoln in Lincolnshire, England. The station is managed by East Midlands Trains train operating company. East Midlands Trains provides the majority of services, supplemented by Northern and London North Eastern Railway; the station is part of the PlusBus scheme, where train and bus tickets can be bought together at a saving. Lincoln Central bus station, the city's main bus station, is within a couple of minutes' walk from the railway station, located to the north-east of the station, on the opposite side of St. Mary's Street and accessed via a pedestrian crossing and pedestrianised plaza; the station buildings were designed by John Henry Taylor of London in 1848, for the Great Northern Railway company. It is built in a Tudor revival style of yellow brick, with stone dressings and slate roofs, with 6 ridge and 8 side wall stacks. Lincoln Central has been the only station in Lincoln since the closure of Lincoln St. Marks in 1985. However, like Rotherham Central, it has retained its "Central" suffix.
In late 2010, East Midlands Trains announced that it intended to develop an improved customer service area and improve the café and toilets. Train services run between Lincoln Central and Newark North Gate & Leicester via Newark Castle and Nottingham using the Nottingham–Lincoln line. Peterborough & Sleaford via the Peterborough–Lincoln line Grimsby Town via Market Rasen, with occasional journeys to CleethorpesThere is a once-daily service to London St Pancras operated by East Midlands Trains, another to London King's Cross operated by London North Eastern Railway. There are five platforms at the station, numbered 1–5: Platforms 1 and 2 are bay platforms used for daytime stabling of trains and for terminating arrivals from the east which will return east. Platforms 3, 4 and 5 are bidirectional through platforms used for services on all routes. All three through platforms are used in. Platform 3 is the platform face adjacent the main station building and is nearest to the station entrance; the ticket barriers, buffet/shop, a waiting room, accessible toilet and staff facilities are all sited on platform 3.
Platforms 4 and 5 are the two faces of the island platform. Passenger waiting rooms and toilets are on the island platform. Lincoln Central station is home to an East Midlands Trains train crew depot. East Midland Trains operates Class 153, Class 156 and Class 158 DMUs on the local services, with Class 222 DEMUs operating the daily service to London St Pancras. 222 DEMUs are used on the Leicester to Lincoln services when a DMU is not available. Northern services are operated by Class 158 DMUs however other units can appear, such as 142s, 144s or 150s; the daily London North Eastern Railway service is operated by a HST. From 2019, Northern will be introducing new Class 195 Civity trains to replace the 144s. Lincoln Central annually sees multiple charter trains throughout the year for the Lincoln Christmas Market Network Rail instituted a major resignalling scheme for Lincoln Central during the years 2007–2008 which saw: the replacement of the semaphore signals with colour light signals, the concentration of all signalling control into one signal box rather than the previous four, track relaying, ballasting new points and crossovers which allow all three through platforms at Lincoln to be used in both directions and allows trains from the east to enter the two bay platforms directly.
As a direct result, terminating trains no longer need to shunt from one side of the station to the other to take up their return workings, reducing turnaround times for terminating trains and improve train service punctuality and reliability. As part of the overall scheme, Lincoln Central's platforms have been renumbered from 3–7 to 1–5: All four existing signal boxes - High Street, East Holmes, West Holmes and Pelham Street Junction - were closed and replaced by a new state of the art signalling centre near the West Holmes box. Pelham Street and West Holmes boxes were demolished, but the High Street and East Holmes boxes are listed buildings and are preserved. Lincoln Central is included in the Lincoln Transport Hub redevelopment scheme, with aims to improve connectivity between bus and rail services in Lincoln by the construction of a new bus station adjacent to the railway station, alongside improvements to the railway station itself, including a new pedestrianised plaza outside the main entrance on St Mary's Street.
Construction of the Transport Hub commenced in August 2016 and was completed in January 2018. There are plans for improvements to the railway station itself, alongside the construction of a new footbridge over the railway line from Tentercroft Street into the city centre to increase the connectivity of the city centre on foot and by cycle. In addition to this, there is construction of a coffee shop within the station premises. For many years, Lincoln had not been served with a direct rail service to London. However, the awarding of two new rail franchises saw this remedied. On 14 August 2007, it was announced that National Express East Coast would take over the InterCity East Coast franchise in December 2007; as part of the commitmen
Peterborough is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, with a population of 196,640 in 2015. Part of Northamptonshire, it is 75 miles north of London, on the River Nene which flows into the North Sea 30 miles to the north-east; the railway station is an important stop on the East Coast Main Line between Edinburgh. The city is 70 miles east of Birmingham, 38 miles east of Leicester, 81 miles south of Kingston upon Hull and 65 miles west of Norwich; the local topography is flat, in some places the land lies below sea level, for example in parts of the Fens to the east of Peterborough. Human settlement in the area began before the Bronze Age, as can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the current city centre with evidence of Roman occupation; the Anglo-Saxon period saw the establishment of a monastery, which became Peterborough Cathedral. The population grew after the railways arrived in the 19th century, Peterborough became an industrial centre noted for its brick manufacture.
After the Second World War, growth was limited until designation as a New Town in the 1960s. Housing and population are expanding and a £1 billion regeneration of the city centre and surrounding area is under way; as in much of the United Kingdom, industrial employment has fallen, with a significant proportion of new jobs in financial services and distribution. EtymologyThe town's name changed to Burgh from the late tenth century after Abbot Kenulf had built a defensive wall around the abbey, developed into the form Peterborough; the contrasting form Gildenburgh is found in the 12th century history of the abbey, the Peterborough version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and in a history of the abbey by the monk Hugh Candidus. Present-day Peterborough is the latest in a series of settlements which have at one time or other benefited from its site where the Nene leaves large areas of permanently drained land for the fens. Remains of Bronze Age settlement and what is thought to be religious activity can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the city centre.
The Romans established a fortified garrison town at Durobrivae on Ermine Street, five miles to the west in Water Newton, around the middle of the 1st century AD. Durobrivae's earliest appearance among surviving records is in the Antonine Itinerary of the late 2nd century. There was a large 1st century Roman fort at Longthorpe, designed to house half a legion, or about 3,000 soldiers. Peterborough was an important area of ceramic production in the Roman period, providing Nene Valley Ware, traded as far away as Cornwall and the Antonine Wall, Caledonia. Peterborough is shown by its original name Medeshamstede to have been an Anglian settlement before AD 655, when Sexwulf founded a monastery on land granted to him for that purpose by Peada of Mercia, who converted to Christianity and was ruler of the smaller Middle Angles sub-group, his brother Wulfhere murdered his own sons converted and finished the monastery by way of atonement. Hereward the Wake rampaged through the town in 1069 or 1070. Outraged, Abbot Turold erected a fort or castle, from his name, was called Mont Turold: this mound, or hill, is on the outside of the deanery garden, now called Tout Hill, although in 1848 Tot-hill or Toot Hill.
The abbey church was rebuilt and enlarged in the 12th century. The Peterborough Chronicle, a version of the Anglo-Saxon one, contains unique information about the history of England after the Norman conquest, written here by monks in the 12th century; this is the only known prose history in English between the conquest and the 14th century. The burgesses received their first charter from "Abbot Robert" – Robert of Sutton; the place suffered materially in the war between King John and the confederate barons, many of whom took refuge in the monastery here and in Crowland Abbey, from which sanctuaries they were forced by the king's soldiers, who plundered the religious houses and carried off great treasures. The abbey church became one of Henry VIII's retained, more secular, cathedrals in 1541, having been assessed at the Dissolution as having revenue of £1,972.7s.0¾d per annum. When civil war broke out, Peterborough was divided between supporters of King Charles I and the Long Parliament; the city lay on the border of the Eastern Association of counties which sided with Parliament, the war reached Peterborough in 1643 when soldiers arrived in the city to attack Royalist strongholds at Stamford and Crowland.
The Royalist forces were defeated within a few weeks and retreated to Burghley House, where they were captured and sent to Cambridge. While the Parliamentary soldiers were in Peterborough, they ransacked the cathedral, destroying the Lady Chapel, chapter house, high altar and choir stalls, as well as mediaeval decoration and records. Housing and sanitary improvements were effected under the provisions of an Act of Parliament passed in 1790. After the dissolution the dean and chapter, who succeeded the abbot as lords of the manor, appointed a high bailiff and the constables and other borough officers were elected at their court leet. Among the privileges claimed by the abbot as early as the 13th century was that of ha
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply. Electric railways use electric locomotives to haul passengers or freight in separate cars or electric multiple units, passenger cars with their own motors. Electricity is generated in large and efficient generating stations, transmitted to the railway network and distributed to the trains; some electric railways have their own dedicated generating stations and transmission lines but most purchase power from an electric utility. The railway provides its own distribution lines and transformers. Power is supplied to moving trains with a continuous conductor running along the track that takes one of two forms: overhead line, suspended from poles or towers along the track or from structure or tunnel ceilings. Both overhead wire and third-rail systems use the running rails as the return conductor but some systems use a separate fourth rail for this purpose. In comparison to the principal alternative, the diesel engine, electric railways offer better energy efficiency, lower emissions and lower operating costs.
Electric locomotives are usually quieter, more powerful, more responsive and reliable than diesels. They have an important advantage in tunnels and urban areas; some electric traction systems provide regenerative braking that turns the train's kinetic energy back into electricity and returns it to the supply system to be used by other trains or the general utility grid. While diesel locomotives burn petroleum, electricity can be generated from diverse sources including renewable energy. Disadvantages of electric traction include high capital costs that may be uneconomic on trafficked routes. Different regions may use different supply voltages and frequencies, complicating through service and requiring greater complexity of locomotive power; the limited clearances available under overhead lines may preclude efficient double-stack container service. Railway electrification has increased in the past decades, as of 2012, electrified tracks account for nearly one third of total tracks globally. Electrification systems are classified by three main parameters: Voltage Current Direct current Alternating current Frequency Contact system Third rail Fourth rail Overhead lines Overhead lines plus linear motor Four rail system Five rail systemSelection of an electrification system is based on economics of energy supply and capital cost compared to the revenue obtained for freight and passenger traffic.
Different systems are used for intercity areas. Six of the most used voltages have been selected for European and international standardisation; some of these are independent of the contact system used, so that, for example, 750 V DC may be used with either third rail or overhead lines. There are many other voltage systems used for railway electrification systems around the world, the list of railway electrification systems covers both standard voltage and non-standard voltage systems; the permissible range of voltages allowed for the standardised voltages is as stated in standards BS EN 50163 and IEC 60850. These take into account the number of trains drawing their distance from the substation. Increasing availability of high-voltage semiconductors may allow the use of higher and more efficient DC voltages that heretofore have only been practical with AC. 1,500 V DC is used in Japan, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, France, New Zealand, the United States. In Slovakia, there are two narrow-gauge lines in the High Tatras.
In the Netherlands it is used on the main system, alongside 25 kV on the HSL-Zuid and Betuwelijn, 3000 V south of Maastricht. In Portugal, it is used in Denmark on the suburban S-train system. In the United Kingdom, 1,500 V DC was used in 1954 for the Woodhead trans-Pennine route; the system was used for suburban electrification in East London and Manchester, now converted to 25 kV AC. It is now only used for the Wear Metro. In India, 1,500 V DC was the first electrification system launched in 1925 in Mumbai area. Between 2012-2016, the electrification was converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC, the countrywide system. 3 kV DC is used in Belgium, Spain, the northern Czech Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, former Soviet Union countries and the Netherlands. It was used by the Milwaukee Road from Harlowton, Montana to Seattle-Tacoma, across the Continental Divide and including extensive branch and loop lines in Montana, by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad in the United States, the Kolkata suburban railway in India, before it was converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC. DC volt