The Peterhof Palace is a series of palaces and gardens located in Petergof, Saint Petersburg, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great. These palaces and gardens are sometimes referred as the Russian Versailles, the palace-ensemble along with the city center is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The dominant natural feature of Peterhof is a sixteen-metre-high bluff lying less than a hundred metres from the shore. The so-called Lower Gardens, at 1.02 km² comprising the part of Peterhofs land area, are confined between this bluff and the shore, stretching east and west for roughly 200 metres. The majority of Peterhofs fountains are contained here, as are several small palaces, East of the Lower Gardens lies the Alexandria Park with 19th-century Gothic Revival structures such as the Kapella. Atop the bluff, near the middle of the Lower Gardens, behind of it are the comparatively small Upper Gardens. Upon the bluffs face below the Palace is the Grand Cascade and this and the Grand Palace are the centrepiece of the entire complex.
At its foot begins the Sea Channel, one of the most extensive waterworks of the Baroque period, the Grand Cascade is modelled on one constructed for Louis XIV at his Château de Marly, which is likewise memorialised in one of the parks outbuildings. At the centre of the cascade is a grotto with two stories, faced inside and out with hewn brown stone. It currently contains a modest museum of the fountains history, one of the exhibits is a table carrying a bowl of fruit, a replica of a similar table built under Peters direction. The table is rigged with jets of water that soak visitors when they reach for the fruit, the grotto is connected to the palace above and behind by a hidden corridor. The fountains of the Grand Cascade are located below the grotto and their waters flow into a semicircular pool, the terminus of the fountain-lined Sea Channel. In the 1730s, the large Samson Fountain was placed in this pool and it depicts the moment when Samson tears open the jaws of a lion, representing Russias victory over Sweden in the Great Northern War, and is doubly symbolic.
The lion is an element of the Swedish coat of arms, from the lions mouth shoots a 20-metre-high vertical jet of water, the highest in all of Peterhof. This masterpiece by Mikhail Kozlovsky was looted by the invading Germans during the Second World War, a replica of the statue was installed in 1947. Perhaps the greatest technological achievement of Peterhof is that all of the fountains operate without the use of pumps, water is supplied from natural springs and collects in reservoirs in the Upper Gardens. The elevation difference creates the pressure that drives most of the fountains of the Lower Gardens, the Samson Fountain is supplied by a special aqueduct, over four km in length, drawing water and pressure from a high-elevation source. The expanse of the Lower Gardens is designed in the style of french formal gardens of the 17th century
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles, Château de Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. Versailles is therefore not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. First built by Louis XIII in 1623, as a lodge of brick and stone. The first phase of the expansion was designed and supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau and it culminated in the addition of three new wings of stone, which surrounded Louis XIIIs original building on the north and west. After Le Vaus death in 1670, the work was taken over and completed by his assistant, charles Le Brun designed and supervised the elaborate interior decoration, and André Le Nôtre landscaped the extensive Gardens of Versailles. Le Brun and Le Nôtre collaborated on the fountains, and Le Brun supervised the design. During the second phase of expansion, two enormous wings north and south of the wings flanking the Cour Royale were added by the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart.
He replaced Le Vaus large terrace, facing the garden on the west, with became the most famous room of the palace. The Royal Chapel of Versailles, located at the end of the north wing, was begun by Mansart in 1688. One of the most baffling aspects to the study of Versailles is the cost – how much Louis XIV, owing to the nature of the construction of Versailles and the evolution of the role of the palace, construction costs were essentially a private matter. Initially, Versailles was planned to be a residence for Louis XIV and was referred to as the kings house. Once Louis XIV embarked on his campaigns, expenses for Versailles became more of a matter for public record. To counter the costs of Versailles during the years of Louis XIVs personal reign. Accordingly, all materials that went into the construction and decoration of Versailles were manufactured in France, even the mirrors used in the decoration of the Hall of Mirrors were made in France. While Venice in the 17th century had the monopoly on the manufacture of mirrors, to meet the demands for decorating and furnishing Versailles, Colbert nationalised the tapestry factory owned by the Gobelin family, to become the Manufacture royale des Gobelins.
In 1667, the name of the enterprise was changed to the Manufacture royale des Meubles de la Couronne, the Comptes meticulously list the expenditures on the silver furniture – disbursements to artists, final payments, delivery – as well as descriptions and weight of items purchased. Entries for 1681 and 1682 concerning the silver used in the salon de Mercure serve as an example. 5 In anticipation, For the silver balustrade for the bedroom,90,000 livres II
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Raketa watches, have been manufactured since 1961 by the Petrodvorets Watch Factory in Saint Petersburg. The Petrodvoretz Watch Factory is Russias oldest factory and was founded by Peter the Great in 1721, Raketa watches were produced for the Red Army, the Soviet Navy, for North Pole expeditions, as well as for civilians. As of today Raketa is one of the rare watch brands in the world producing its movements from A to Z, on April 12,1961, Yuri Gagarin made the first manned flight in outer space on the rocket Vostok 1. In honor of this, the Petrodvorets Watch Factory named its watches rocket, during Soviet times it became one of the most produced watch brand in the world. In the 1970s the factory produced about 5 million mechanical watches per year, over the years, the Petrodvorets Watch Factory produced more than two dozen versions Raketa movements. Some were equipped with such as automatic winding, calendars, 24-hour models for polar explorers, anti-magnetic watches. Being one of the rare watch brands in the world producing its own movements and this to ensure the transmission of watch making know-how to future generations.
The only one left in The schooling program has established in collaboration with the Saint Petersburg Technical institute. The Petrodvorets Watch factory Raketa, is one of the 5 watch brands in the world producing themselves their movements from A to Z including hairspring, most watch brands in the world do not produce their own hairspring, they generally order it from Nivarox a subsidiary of Swatch Group. This enables the Russian military industry to be independent from western suppliers, built in 2014 on the Lubyanka square in the main atrium of the Central Childrens Store on Lubyanka, the Raketa Monumental Clock is the worlds largest clock movement. 5 tons,13 meters high, 8meters large and assembled in a record 6 months it has rapidly become a major tourist attraction in Moscow. The Mayor of Moscow, Sergey Sobyanin inaugurated the clock in January 2015. Raketa is one of the brands of the Petrodvorets Watch Factory, but Other brands include Pobeda and more. Before the Russian revolution, the factory produced objects made of precious and semi-precious stones for the Tsar, later, it began to produce goods for military manufacturers as well as jewels for the watch industry.
In 1949 the factory released the first watches under the names Zvezda and Pobeda, the factorys own watches, sold under the brand name Raketa, first appeared in 1961. Gold medal at the World Leipzig Fair for the watch «Raketa Record», Gold medal at the World Fair at Leipzig, Grand Prix World Exhibition Expo 67 in Montreal, Soviet Order of the Red Banner of Labour. In 2009, the Petrodvorets Watch Factory employed 3 high ranked Swiss watchmakers to help the factory to adapt the production to modern standards and these watchmakers have been previously working for Rolex and Hautlence. In 2011 the Petrodvorets Watch Factory announced that the super model Natalia Vodianova offered to design a new model, Vodianova’s model is based on an old Raketa design from 1974. The sales of this “Raketa by Vodianova” will be paid to Vodianova’s Naked Heart Foundation
A lapidary is an artist or artisan who forms stone, minerals, or gemstones into decorative items such as cabochons, engraved gems, including cameos, and faceted designs. The primary techniques employed are cutting and polishing, carving is an important, but specialised technique. Hardstone carving is the used in art history for objects produced by the specialised carving techniques. Diamond cutters are not referred to as lapidaries, due to the specialized techniques which are required to work diamond. By extension the term lapidary has sometimes applied to collectors of and dealer in gems. The etymological roots of lapidary is in the Latin word lapis which means stone, the term evolved from lapidarius meaning stonecutter or working with stone, into Old French lapidaire, thereon to mean one skilled in working with precious stones in 14th century. These powers included the belief in the ability of stones to prevent harm, the word appeared as an English adjective in the 18th century. The earliest known lapidary work likely occurred during the Stone Age, as people created tools from stone, they inevitably realized that some geological materials were harder than others.
The next earliest documented examples of one may consider to be lapidary arts came in the form of drilling stone. The earliest roots of drilling rocks, a method, date back to approximately one million years ago. The early Egyptians developed cutting and jewelry fashioning methods for lapis lazuli, the lapidary arts were quite well developed in the Indian subcontinent by early 1st millennium CE. They discuss sources of gems and diamonds, their origins, several other Sanskrit texts on gems and lapidary, have been dated to post-10th century suggesting a continuous lapidary practice. According to Jason Hawkes and Stephanie Wynne-Jones, archaeological evidence suggests that trade between Africa and India, in products from lapidary arts, was established in the 1st millennium CE, lapidary has been a significant tradition in early Mesoamerica. These were made from shell, jade and greenstones, the lapidary products were used as a status symbol and during burials. The Aztec used string saw and bone drills for their lapidary arts, apart from figurative carving, there are three broad categories of lapidary arts.
These are the procedures of tumbling, cabochon cutting, and faceting, most modern lapidary work is done using motorized equipment. Polishing is done with resin or metal bonded emery, silicon carbide, in older systems the grinding and polishing powders were applied separately to the grinding or buffing wheel. Often, the final polish will use a different medium, such as tin oxide or cerium oxide, cutting of harder stones is done with a diamond tipped saw
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Sopot is a seaside resort town in Eastern Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Poland, with a population of approximately 40,000. Sopot is a town with powiat status, in Pomeranian Voivodeship, until 1999 it was part of the Gdańsk Voivodeship. It lies between the cities of Gdańsk to the southeast and Gdynia to the northwest. The three cities together make up the area of Tri-City. Sopot is a major health-spa and tourist resort destination and it has the longest wooden pier in Europe, at 515.5 metres, stretching out into the Bay of Gdańsk. The city is famous for its Sopot International Song Festival. Among its other attractions is a fountain of bromide spring water, the name is thought to derive from an old Slavic word sopot meaning stream or spring. The same root occurs in a number of other Slavic toponyms, it is probably onomatopeic, the name is first recorded as Sopoth in 1283 and Sopot in 1291. The German Zoppot is a Germanization of the original Slavic name, in the 19th century and in the interwar years the German name was re-Polonized as Sopoty.
Sopot was made the official Polish name when the town came again under Polish rule in 1945, the area of todays Sopot contains the site of a 7th-century Slavonic stronghold. Initially it was a trade outpost for commerce extending both up the Vistula river and to cities north across the Baltic Sea. With time the significance of the stronghold diminished and by the 10th century it was reduced to a fishing village, however, a century the area was settled again and two villages were founded within the borders of todays city, Stawowie and Gręzowo. They were first mentioned in 1186 as being granted to the Cistercian abbey in Oliwa, another of the villages that constitute todays Sopot, Świemirowo, was first mentioned in 1212 in a document by Mestwin I, who granted it to the Premonstratensian monastery in nearby Żukowo. The village of Sopot, which became the namesake for the whole city, was first mentioned in 1283 when it was granted to the Cistercians. By 1316, the abbey had bought all villages in the area, after the Second Peace of Thorn the area was reincorporated into the Kingdom of Poland.
The spa for the citizens of Gdańsk has been active since the 16th century, until the end of that century most noble and magnate families from Gdańsk built their manor houses in Sopot. During the 1733 War of the Polish Succession, Imperial Russian troops besieged the city of Gdańsk. Much of Sopot would remain abandoned during and after the conflict, in 1757 and 1758 most of the ruined manors were bought by the Pomeranian magnate family of Przebendowski
Gothic Chapel (Peterhof)
Gothic Chapel in Peterhof is an Orthodox church in the name of Saint Alexander Nevsky situated in the Alexandria Park of Petergof, Russia. It was designed at the request of Nicholas I of Russia by Karl Friedrich Schinkel in Gothic Revival style in 1829, prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917 this Gothic structure functioned as the private family church of the House of Romanov. The church, complementing the Alexandria Park Cottage, a residence built by Adam Menelaws in 1826–1829, was erected in 1831–1834 under direction of Adam Menelaws. The sculptor Vasily Demut-Malinovsky designed 43 copper figures lining the walls, the iconostasis was designed and painted by Timophey Neff. Later, in 1860s, the church acquired copies of paintings by the same artist, most of this art perished in World War II, the interior was not restored until 1998. During the reburial of Empress Maria Fyodorovna in September 2006, her coffin was brought to the chapel served as her home church during the reign of Alexander III.
A funeral service was held in the church on September 27