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Petersburg, Virginia

Petersburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,420; the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines Petersburg with Dinwiddie County for statistical purposes. It is located on the Appomattox River; the city is just 21 miles south of the historic commonwealth capital city of Richmond. The city's unique industrial past and its location as a transportation hub combined to create wealth for Virginia and the Middle Atlantic and Upper South regions of the nation. Early in the colonial era of the 18th century, Petersburg was the final destination on the Upper Appomattox Canal Navigation System because of its location on the Appomattox River with its connection to the James River to the east at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line and the tying in with the James River shipping traffic was a strategic place for transportation and commercial activities, it connected commerce as far inland as Farmville, Virginia at the foothills of the Blue Ridge and the Appalachian Mountains chain, to shipping further east into the Chesapeake Bay and North Atlantic Ocean.

For similar reasons, 17th century era Fort Henry was built at the order of the Virginia House of Burgesses at Petersburg in 1645 to protect the river traffic. As railroads were being constructed and extended in the state in the 1830s and 1840s, Petersburg was developed as a major transfer point for both north-south and east-west competitors; the Petersburg Railroad, authorized in 1830, three years after the first American railway, the B.& O. in Baltimore, by the state legislatures of both Virginia and North Carolina to the south, which opened in 1833. It was another one of the earliest predecessors of the modern-day CSX Transportation system. Several of the earliest predecessors of the area's other major Class 1 railroad, the Norfolk Southern met at Petersburg. Access to railroads stimulated industry in the city, established because of the water power available at the fall line, as the river plunged from the Piedmont level to lower tidewater lands. During the American Civil War, because of this railroad network, Petersburg was key to Union plans to capture the Confederate States national capital established early in the war at Richmond.

Nine months of trench warfare were conducted by Union forces during the 1864–65 Siege of Petersburg. Battlefield sites are located throughout the city and surrounding areas preserved as Petersburg National Battlefield by the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior; the city is significant for its role in African-American history. Petersburg had one of the oldest free black settlements in the state at Pocahontas Island. Two Baptist churches in the city, whose congregations were founded in the late 18th century, are among the oldest black congregations and churches in the United States. In the 20th century and other black churches were leaders in the national Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s-1960s. In the post-bellum period, a black college which developed as the Virginia State University was established nearby in Ettrick in Chesterfield County. Richard Bland College, now a junior college, was established here as a branch of Williamsburg's famed College of William and Mary.

Petersburg remains a transportation hub, with the network of area highways including Interstate Highways 85, 95, U. S. Route highways with 1, 301, 460. Both CSX and Norfolk Southern rail systems maintain transportation centers at Petersburg. Amtrak serves the city with daily Northeast Regional passenger trains to Norfolk and long-distance routes from states to the South. In the early 21st century, Petersburg civic leaders were highlighting the city's historical attractions for heritage tourism, the industrial sites reachable by the transportation infrastructure. Military activity has been expanded by the federal government at nearby Fort Lee, home of the United States Army's Sustainment Center of Excellence, the Army's Logistics Branch, Ordnance and Transportation Corps. Archaeological excavations at Pocahontas Island have found evidence of a prehistoric Native American settlement dated to 6500 BC; this is in the early third of the Archaic Period. Succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples lived in the area for thousands of years prior to European exploration and colonization.

When the English arrived in Virginia in 1607, the region was occupied by the Appamatuck, a significant tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy. They were governed by a weroance, King Coquonosum, by his sister, Queen Oppussoquionuske; this Algonquian-speaking people had a town at Rohoic Creek. Present-day Petersburg developed east of here. Petersburg was founded at a strategic point at the fall line of the Appomattox River and settled by English colonists. By 1635 they had patented land along the south bank of the Appomattox River as far west as present-day Sycamore Street, about 1 mile inland. In 1646, the Virginia Colony established Fort Henry a short distance from the Appamatuck town, near the falls, it provided water power for mills and industrialization. Col. Abraham Wood sent several famous expeditions out from here in the following years to explore points to the west, as far as the Appalachian Mountains; some time around 1675, Wood's son-in-law, Peter Jones, who commanded the fort and traded with the Indians, opened a trading post nearby, known as Peter's Point.

The Bolling fam

Live Hot Potatoes!

Live Hot Potatoes! was the first live concert album released by Australian children's music group, The Wiggles. It was released in 2005 by ABC Music distributed by Roadshow Entertainment, it won the ARIA Music Award for Best Children's Album. Overture Toot Toot, Chugga Chugga, Big Red Car Introduction Rock-a-Bye Your Bear Let's Wake Jeff Up! Jeff's Favourite Instrument Let's Wake Jeff Up Again! Introduction Lights, Action, Wiggles! Introduction Hoop-Dee-Doo Introduction D. O. R. O. T. H. Y. Introduction Rolling Down the Sandhills/Running Up the Sandhills Introduction Can You Introduction Butterflies Flit Network Wiggles News Where's Jeff? Music With Murray Play Your Guitar with Murray The Monkey Dance Introduction We're Dancing with Wags the Dog Central Park New York Introduction Here Come The Reindeer Introduction Fruit Salad Introduction Captain Feathersword Fell Asleep on His Pirate Ship Eagle Rock Introduction I Wave My Arms and Swing My Baton Hot Potato Christmas Medley Farewell Live Hot Potatoes! is a third live in concert video.

It was filmed during their show on 20 December 2004 in Sydney on the Lights Camera Action Wiggles Tour, released in 2005. However, an earlier release appeared on the American DVD screener and contained an additional opening and Greg's voice during the songs, although it did not have a title card or the closing credits; as listed in the closing credits. Ones listed in parentheses are implied; the Wiggles areMurray Cook Jeff Fatt Anthony Field Greg PageAlso featuringCaptain Feathersword: Paul Paddick Live Hot Potatoes! on IMDb

Richard Southwood

Sir Thomas Richard Edmund Southwood GOM DL FRS was a British biologist, Professor of Zoology and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford. A specialist on entomology, he developed the field of insect ecology and the development of study techniques, he wrote a landmark textbook on Ecological Methods. He was well known for developing the field of entomology through mentorship of a circle of researchers at Silwood Park. Southwood was born in Marlborough Cottage in Northfleet near Gravesend where his father's family dealt in farm and dairy products. In 1935 the family moved to Parrock Manor, his parents encouraged his interest in natural history. Richard became interested in natural history at an early age, developed his skills on the family dairy farm in Kent, his father had received some education at the Wye College. Other early influences included Tom Longstaff, he was educated at Bronte School, Gravesend Grammar School and Imperial College London BSc in biology, MSc botany worked for his PhD degree in zoology studies at Rothamsted Experimental Station.

He returned to Imperial as a Research Assistant and lecturer, in 1967 became Head of the Department of Zoology and Applied Entomology, Director of Imperial College's Field Station at Silwood Park. He became Dean of Science and Chair of the Division of Life Sciences. Southwood's research at Imperial concentrated on insect communities and population dynamics, his 1966 book Ecological Methods described techniques available for the study of populations and ecosystems, including population estimates with different sampling techniques. In 1979, he took up the Linacre Chair of Zoology in the University of Oxford, was elected a Fellow of Merton College. In 1989, he moved from being Head of the Department of Zoology to take up the Vice-Chancellorship of the University, from which position he set up a working party that would recommend the reform of the university's governance. Having stepped down from that position in 1993, he continued to research and write, in 2003 published The Story of Life, a book based on the first-year undergraduate lectures he gave at Oxford.

Southwood served as Chairman of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution from 1981 to 1985, having been first appointed to the Commission in 1974. Under his chairmanship, the 1983 report Lead in the Environment aroused public concern about lead pollution, he was Chairman of the National Radiological Protection Board from 1985 until 1994, chaired the Working Party on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy set up by the British Government in 1988. In 1993–1994 he was the first head of the Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy at the Central European University in Budapest. Southwood was a contributing member of the Oxford Round Table, an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of contemporary issues. A portrait of Sir Richard Southwood hangs at Oxford. Sir Richard Southwood married, in Alison Langley who he met at Rothamsted. Knight Bachelor, United Kingdom Grand Officer of the Order of Merit, Portugal British Naturalists' Association Peter Scott Memorial Award

Gettysburg Academy

Gettysburg Academy was an antebellum boys' boarding school for which the vernacular architecture schoolhouse was the "first home" of the Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg and Gettysburg College. The March 19, 1810 incorporation by the commonwealth appropriated $2,000, the academy opened in 1814 for the school year with Samuel Ramsay as the first teacher. By 1822 the boarding school had three dormitories, a gymnasium and beginning in 1926, the academy trustees allowed the Lutheran seminary to use the facility — D. Jacobs established a preparatory school in June 1827; the facility was purchased at Sheriff's sale in 1829 by Samuel Simon Schmucker and designated the "Gettysburg Gymnasium". The 1829 headmaster was Dr. Charles H. Huber, 2 sons of Mexico's president-elect attended; the last graduation was in 1835. When the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg began, the Reuning House was being used by Rebecca Eyster's Young Ladies Seminary, which acted as an American Civil War hospital for casualties during the battle.

Eyster's "School Halls" were advertised for rent in 1877, the house was used as World War I officers' quarters, Reuning House is a now a private residence protected by a 1972 borough ordinance extending the historical district to include the building

Katabatic wind

A katabatic wind is the technical name for a drainage wind, a wind that carries high-density air from a higher elevation down a slope under the force of gravity. Such winds are sometimes called fall winds. Katabatic winds can rush down elevated slopes at hurricane speeds, but most are not as intense as that, many are 10 knots or less. Not all downslope winds are katabatic. For instance, winds such as the föhn and chinook are rain shadow winds where air driven upslope on the windward side of a mountain range drops its moisture and descends leeward drier and warmer. Examples of true katabatic winds include the bora in the Adriatic, the Bohemian Wind or Böhmwind in the Ore Mountains, the Santa Ana in southern California, the piteraq winds of Greenland, the oroshi in Japan. Another example is "the Barber", an enhanced katabatic wind that blows over the town of Greymouth in New Zealand when there is a southeast flow over the South Island. "The Barber" has a local reputation for its coldness. A katabatic wind originates from radiational cooling of air atop a plateau, a mountain, glacier, or a hill.

Since the density of air is inversely proportional to temperature, the air will flow downwards, warming adiabatically as it descends. The temperature of the air depends on the temperature in the source region and the amount of descent. In the case of the Santa Ana, for example, the wind can become hot by the time. In Antarctica, by contrast, the wind is still intensely cold; the entire near-surface wind field over Antarctica is determined by the katabatic winds outside the summer season, except in coastal regions when storms may impose their own wind field. Katabatic winds are most found blowing out from the large and elevated ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland; the buildup of high density cold air over the ice sheets and the elevation of the ice sheets brings into play enormous gravitational energy. Where these winds are concentrated into restricted areas in the coastal valleys, the winds blow well over hurricane force, reaching around 300 km/h. In Greenland these winds are called piteraq and are most intense whenever a low pressure area approaches the coast.

In a few regions of continental Antarctica the snow is scoured away by the force of the katabatic winds, leading to "dry valleys" such as the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Since the katabatic winds are descending, they tend to have a low relative humidity, which desiccates the region. Other regions may have a similar but lesser effect, leading to "blue ice" areas where the snow is removed and the surface ice sublimates, but is replenished by glacier flow from upstream. In the Fuegian Archipelago in South America as well as in Alaska in North America, a wind known as a williwaw is a particular danger to harboring vessels. Williwaws originate in the snow and ice fields of the coastal mountains, they can be faster than 120 knots. Anabatic wind Foehn wind Bill. Weather A-Z - Katabatic Winds By Bill Giles OBE, BBC, Retrieved 2008-10-14 McKnight, TL & Hess, Darrel. Katabatic Winds. In Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation, pp. 131–2. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-020263-0 Parish, Thomas R..

"Continental-Scale Simulation of the Antarctic Katabatic Wind Regime". Journal of Climate. 4: 135–46. Bibcode:1991JCli....4..135P. Doi:10.1175/1520-0442004<0135:CSSOTA>2.0. CO. Bromwich, David H.. "Satellite Analyses of Antarctic Katabatic Wind Behavior". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 70: 738–49. Bibcode:1989BAMS...70..738B. Doi:10.1175/1520-0477070<0738:SAOAKW>2.0. CO. Bromwich, David H.. "An Extraordinary Katabatic Wind Regime at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica". Monthly Weather Review. 117: 688–95. Bibcode:1989MWRv..117..688B. Doi:10.1175/1520-0493117<0688:AEKWRA>2.0. CO. Media related to Katabatic wind at Wikimedia Commons

2010 Campeonato Ecuatoriano de FĂștbol Serie A

The 2010 Campeonato Ecuatoriano de Fútbol de la Serie A was the 52nd season of the Serie A, Ecuador's premier football league. It ran from February 7 to December 12. Emelec and LDU Quito each won the First and Second Stage and played each other in the championship finals. LDU Quito won the first leg at home by a score of 2–0. Emelec could not overturn the deficit with a 1–0 win at home in the second leg. LDU Quito won their tenth national title. A new format for the 2010 season was announced by the Ecuadorian Football Federation on December 15, 2009; the season was divided into three stages. The First and Second Stages were identical stages with a double round-robin format; each team played the others once at home and once away. The winners of each stage qualified to play a two-legged tie in the Third Stage for the title; the two highest non-stage winners in the aggregate table of the First and Second Stages played each in another two-legged tie in a Third Stage playoff for third place. Had the same team won both stages, they would have been automatically be crowned the champion.

In that case, a two-legged tie would have been held in the Third Stage between the two best-placed teams in the aggregate table to determine, the runner-up and who finished in third place. The two teams at the bottom of the aggregate table of the first two stages were relegated to the Serie B for the following season; the two stage winners earned a berth to the 2011 Copa Libertadores. The berth Ecuador 1 went to the champion, Ecuador 2 went to the runner-up, Ecuador 3 went to the third-place finisher. Teams qualified to two Copa Sudamericanas; the top-three teams in the First Stage qualified to the 2010 Copa Sudamericana. The winner of the Second Stage earned the Ecuador 1 berth for the 2011 Copa Sudamericana. Twelve teams competed in the 2010 Serie A season. LDU Portoviejo and Técnico Universitario were relegated last season to the Serie B after accumulating the fewest points in the First and Second Stage aggregate table, they were replaced by Independiente José Terán and Universidad Católica, the 2009 Serie B winner and runner-up, respectively.

This was Universidad Católica's 27th season in the Serie A, having last played in the league in 2008. This was Independiente José Terán's first season in the Serie A. One team used a different stadium this season. ESPOLI chose to move from Estadio La Cocha in Latacunga to Estadio Olímpico Municipal Etho Vega in Santo Domingo de Los Colorados. IM: Interim manager; the first stage began on February 7 and ended on July 4. Emelec qualified to the championship playoff; the second stage began July 9 and ended on November 27. LDU Quito qualified to the championship playoff; the Third Stage began on December 4 and ended on December 12. Both ties in the Third Stage were determined by points. If there was a tie in points, the tie-breakers to be used in order were goal difference, away goals, a penalty shoot-out. Deportivo Quito and Barcelona qualified to the Third-place Playoff by being the two best non-stage winners in the aggregate table; the winner of the playoff earned the Ecuador 3 berth in the 2011 Copa Libertadores.

By having the greater number of points in the aggregate table, Barcelona played the second leg as the home team. Emelec and LDU Quito qualified to the Finals by being the First Stage and Second Stage winners, respectively; the winner earned the Ecuador 1 berth in the 2011 Copa Libertadores. By having the greater number of points in the aggregate table, Emelec played the second leg as the home team. Source: Longest winning streak: 7 games — Emelec Longest unbeaten streak: 15 games — LDU Quito Longest losing streak: 6 games — Barcelona Largest home win: LDU Quito 5–0 Emelec. Best player: Jaime Ayoví Best goalkeeper: José Francisco Cevallos Best defender: Marcelo Fleitas Best midfielder: David Quiroz Best striker: Hernán Barcos Best young player: Dennys Quiñónez Best manager: Edgardo Bauza Best Ecuadorian playing abroad: Christian Benítez Best referee: Carlos Vera Official website