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Petersburg Borough, Alaska

Petersburg Borough is a borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. According to Census Bureau estimates, the population was 3,221 in 2018; the borough seat is Petersburg. Petersburg is the most created county equivalent in the United States; when the borough incorporated in 2013, it took area from the Hoonah-Angoon Census Area and the former Petersburg Census Area. The remaining portion of Petersburg Census Area was added to Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area. Petersburg Census Area was created in 2008 from the remaining portion of Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area upon the incorporation of the City and Borough of Wrangell. Located in central Southeast Alaska, the Petersburg Borough encompasses 3,829 square miles. Juneau Borough, Alaska - northwest Wrangell Borough, Alaska - southeast Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area, Alaska - southwest Hoonah–Angoon Census Area - north and west Regional District of Kitimat-Stikine, British Columbia, Canada - east Kupreanof Hobart Bay Petersburg List of boroughs in Alaska Official website Petersburg Chamber of Commerce Petersburg Public Access Atlas Map of the former census area

In-group favoritism

In-group favoritism, sometimes known as in-group–out-group bias, in-group bias, intergroup bias, or in-group preference, is a pattern of favoring members of one's in-group over out-group members. This can be expressed in evaluation of others, in allocation of resources, in many other ways; this effect has been researched by many psychologists and linked to many theories related to group conflict and prejudice. The phenomenon is viewed from a social psychology standpoint. Studies have shown; these cultural groups can be divided based on trivial observable traits, but with time, populations grow to associate certain traits with certain behaviour, increasing covariation. This incentivises in-group bias. Two prominent theoretical approaches to the phenomenon of in-group favoritism are realistic conflict theory and social identity theory. Realistic conflict theory proposes that intergroup competition, sometimes intergroup conflict, arises when two groups have opposing claims to scarce resources. In contrast, social identity theory posits a psychological drive for positively distinct social identities as the general root cause of in-group favoring behavior.

In 1906, the sociologist William Sumner posited that humans are a species that join together in groups by their nature. However, he maintained that humans had an innate tendency to favor their own group over others, proclaiming how "each group nourishes its own pride and vanity, boasts itself superior, exists in its own divinities, looks with contempt on outsiders"; this is seen on the group level with ingroup–outgroup bias. When experienced in larger groups such as tribes, ethnic groups, or nations, it is referred to as ethnocentrism. Realistic conflict theory posits that competition between groups for resources is the cause of in-group bias and the corresponding negative treatment of members of the out-group. Muzafer Sherif's Robbers Cave Experiment is the most known demonstration of realistic conflict theory. In the experiment, 22 eleven-year-old boys with similar backgrounds were studied in a mock summer camp situation, with researchers posing as camp personnel; the boys were divided into two equal groups and encouraged to bond, with the aim of fostering an in-group mentality.

The researchers introduced a series of competitive activities which pitted groups against each other for a valuable prize. Hostility and out-group negativity ensued. Lastly, researchers attempted to reverse the hostility by engaging the boys in situations of mutual interdependence, an effort which resulted in relative harmony between the two groups. Sherif concluded from this experiment that negative attitudes toward out-groups arise when groups compete for limited resources. However, he theorised that inter-group frictions could be reduced and positive relations created, but only in the presence of an over-arching goal, which could only be achieved with the two groups' cooperation. According to social identity theory, one of the key determinants of group biases is the need to improve self-esteem; the desire to view one's self positively is transferred onto the group, creating a tendency to view one's own group in a positive light, by comparison, outside groups in a negative light. That is, individuals will find a reason, no matter how insignificant, to prove to themselves why their own group is superior.

This phenomenon was pioneered and studied most extensively by Henri Tajfel, a British social psychologist who looked at the psychological root of in-group/out-group bias. To study this in the lab and colleagues created minimal groups, which occur when "complete strangers are formed into groups using the most trivial criteria imaginable". In Tajfel's studies, participants were split into groups by flipping a coin, each group was told to appreciate a certain style of painting none of the participants were familiar with when the experiment began. What Tajfel and his colleagues discovered was that—regardless of the facts that a) participants did not know each other, b) their groups were meaningless, c) none of the participants had any inclination as to which "style" they like better—participants always "liked the members of their own group better and they rated the members of their in-group as more to have pleasant personalities". By having a more positive impression of individuals in the in-group, individuals are able to boost their own self-esteem as members of that group.

Robert Cialdini and his research team looked at the number of university T-shirts being worn on college campuses following either a win or loss at the football game. They found that the Monday after a win, there were more T-shirts being worn, on average, than following a loss. In another set of studies, done in the 1980s by Jennifer Crocker and colleagues using the minimal group paradigm, individuals with high self-esteem who suffered a threat to the self-concept exhibited greater ingroup biases than did people with low self-esteem who suffered a threat to the self-concept. While some studies have supported this notion of a negative correlation between self-esteem and in-group bias, other researchers have found that individuals with low self-esteem showed more bias toward both in-group and out-group members; some studies have shown that high-self-esteem groups showed more bias than did lower self-esteem groups. This research may suggest that there is an alternative explanation and additional reasoning as to the relationship between self-esteem and in-group/out-group biases.

Alternatively, it is possible that researchers have used the wrong sort of self-esteem measures to test the link between self-esteem and in-group bias (glo

A Horse Called Bear

A Horse Called Bear is a 2015 American family drama film about orphaned boy who inherits a horse. It was directed by Daniel Knudsen; the film was awarded the Dove seal of family approval from the Dove Foundation and was released May 26, 2015. A Horse Called Bear tells the story of Ethan who inherits his mother's horse after she dies unexpectedly in a car accident. Being a city kid he has no desire to own a horse and tells the lawyer managing his mother's estate to sell it; the horse was purchased by one of the ranch hands to use as a training horse for young riders. Ethan moves across the country to live with his grandparents. While living with them he learns, he is hired by his uncle and begins to work at the ranch with his mom's horse "Bear." During this time he falls in love with the horse and buys it back. Nicholas Ryan Gibbs as Ethan Riley Wayne E. Brown as Otto Brown Austin Farnsworth as Austin Baker Katelyn Grace Farnsworth as Katelyn Baker Allison Marie Farnsworth as Allison Baker Dawn Storey as Gloria Brown Kristina Kaylen as RachelRyan-Iver Klann and Daniel Knudsen appear in the film.

Principal photography for A Horse Called Bear took place in August and September 2013. Various locations in and around Howell, Michigan were used for filming. A Horse Called Bear premiered at the Historic Howell Theater and was released on DVD May 26, 2015; the film was a semifinalist for "Best Feature Film" in the 2015 Christian Worldview Film Festival. The film was part of the official selections at the 2015 International Christian Film Festival in Orlando, Florida. Official Site Crystal Creek Media A Horse Called Bear on IMDb

Eisenhower Middle/High School

Located near Russell, Eisenhower Middle/High School is a Grades 6-12 school that serves around 550 pupils. Eisenhower was constructed in 1956 and was last renovated in 1968 when 100 tons of toxic material was added to the building. Eisenhower is under current renovations that started in 2013, it is one of four high schools in the Warren County School District. In 2011, the graduation rate was 92%. In 2010, the Pennsylvania Department of Education issued a new, 4 year cohort graduation rate. According to traditional graduation rate calculations 2010 - 96% 2009 - 92% In 2010-2011, 43 students took the SAT exams; the school's Verbal Average Score was 487. The Math average score was 520; the Writing average score was 492. This was the third year of declining SAT scores at the school. In 2009, EMHS students' Verbal Average Score was 521; the Math average score was 533. The Writing average score was 498. Pennsylvania ranked 40th among state with SAT scores: Verbal - 493, Math - 501, Writing - 479. In the United States 1.65 million students took the exam in 2011.

They averaged 514 math and 489 in writing. In 2011 and 2010, Eisenhower MIddle High School achieved AYP status.11th Grade Reading 2011 - 72% on grade level. State - 69.1% of 11th graders are on grade level. 2010 - 81% on grade level. In Pennsylvania, 66% of 11th graders are on grade level. 2009 - 85%. State - 65% 2008 - 72%. State - 65% 2007 - 69%. State - 65% 11th Grade Math: 2011 - 64%, on grade level. In Pennsylvania, 60.3% of 11th graders are on grade level. 2010 - 75%. State - 59% 2009 - 74%. State - 56%. 2008 - 64%. State - 56% 2007 - 60%. State - 53%11th Grade Science: 2011 - 37% on grade level. State - 40% of 11th graders were on grade level. 2010 - 38%. State - 39% 2009 - 50%. State - 40% 2008 - 44%. State - 39%8th Grade Reading 2011 - 79% on grade level. In Pennsylvania, 81.8% of 8th graders on grade level. 2010 - 79%. State - 81% 2009 - 75%, State - 80% 2008 - 74%, State - 78% 2007 - 83%, State - 75%8th Grade Math: 2011 - 75% on grade level. In Pennsylvania, 76.9% of 8th graders are on grade level 2010 - 76%.

State - 75% 2009 - 73%. State - 71% 2008 - 73%. State - 70% 2007 - 82%. State - 68%8th Grade Science: 2011 - 62% on grade level 18. State – 58.3% of 8th graders were on grade level. 2010 - 58%. State – 57% 2009 - 65%. State - 55% 2008 - 45%, State - 52% The high school offers a Dual Enrollment program. In 2010 eight students participated in the program; this state program permits high school students to take courses, at local higher education institutions, to earn college credits. Students remain enrolled at their high school; the courses count towards earning a college degree. The students continue to have full access to programs at their high school; the college credits are offered at a discounted rate. The district offers the program in cooperation with Clarion University of Pennsylvania and St. Bonaventure University; the state offered a small grant to assist students in costs for tuition and books Under the Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement, many Pennsylvania colleges and universities accept these credits for students who transfer to their institutions.

For the 2009-10 funding year, Warren County School District received a state grant of $24,762 for the program. The school offers several Advanced Placement courses including: AP Chemistry, AP Physics and AP United States History. Students taking these class can earn credits towards high school graduation. In the spring of each school year the students can take a national College Board exam. If the student scores well enough, they may be awarded college credits for the course at a university or college; the type and amount of credits awarded is at the discretion of the institution of higher education. In January 2012, the Warren County School Board held a public hearing regarding its intent to close the school. In response to the closure proposal, a group from the community is appealing for the establishment of a charter school; the district offers a variety of clubs and sports. Eligibility for participation is determined by school board policy. By Pennsylvania law, all K-12 students in the district, including those who attend a private nonpublic school, cyber charter school, charter school and those homeschooled, are eligible to participate in the extracurricular programs including all athletics.

They must meet the same eligibility rules. Eisenhower participated in PIAA District 10: Students at Eisenhower can participate at cooperative sports at Warren Area High School for Swimming; the following extacurriculars are available at Eisenhower Middle/High School. Academic Bowl Audio Visual Club Crossroads Concert Band Jazz Band Key Club Middle Level Choir National Honor Society Prom Committee SADD Senior Choir Spanish Student Council Trap Team Yearbook Sophomores and Seniors at Eisenhower have the opportunity to spend one-half of each school day at the Warren County Career Center in Warren where they can learn from one of fourteen career programs, as well as the possibility of earning advanced placement credits for post-secondary education

Stephen Groombridge

Stephen Groombridge FRS was a British merchant and astronomer. He was born at Goudhurst in Kent on 7 January 1755, he succeeded when about 21 to the business in West Smithfield of a linendraper named Greenland, to whom he had been apprenticed. And until 1816, he was a successful West India merchant, he lived at Goudhurst, where he built a small observatory. In 1806, using a new transit circle built by Edward Troughton, he began compiling a star catalogue of stars down to about eighth or ninth magnitude, he spent ten years making observations on the Groombridge Transit Circle and another ten years doing reductions of the data. In 1827 he suffered a "severe attack of paralysis" from which he never recovered. Others continued the work, continuing with corrections for nutation among others. Groombridge died in Blackheath, his Catalogue of Circumpolar Stars was published posthumously in 1838 with the help of fellow astronomer George Biddell Airy and others. An earlier edition was found to contain errors and was withdrawn.

In 1842, one of the stars in his catalogue, Groombridge 1830, was discovered by Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander to have a high proper motion. For many decades its proper motion was the highest known. Groombridge, Stephen. A Catalogue of Circumpolar Stars. London: John Murray.- edited by George Biddell Airy. The 16th nearest star system Ashbrook, Joseph; the Astronomical Scrapbook. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Sky Publishing. Pp. 352–359.* Adapted from Sky & Telescope, May, 1974, page 296Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2 145 Brief biography Photo of Groombridge's transit circle Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Stephen, Leslie. "Groombridge, Stephen". Dictionary of National Biography. 23. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Dark Horse – A Live Collection

Dark Horse – A Live Collection is an album by American singer/songwriter and Rock Star: Supernova contestant/6th place Ryan Star. Released only weeks after Star was eliminated from the show at the end of August 2006, a lot of the material on the album are his performances on the show, but there are some original songs as well; the recording with the Rock Star house band was set up by the CBS show producer Mark Burnett who arranged the fast distribution of the album. Ryan got the album title when Dave Navarro, a judge with Supernova stated that he was the dark horse in the competition. "Back of Your Car" "Clocks" "In the Air Tonight" "Sink or Swim" "We Might Fall" "O" "Iris" "Losing My Religion" "I Alone" "Perfect" "Enjoy the Silence" "Head Like a Hole"