University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum; the university's coat of arms features a dolphin on its red chief, adopted from Benjamin Franklin's own coat of arms. University of Pennsylvania is home many professional and graduate schools including, the first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate business school and the first "student union" building and organization were founded at Penn; the university has four undergraduate schools which provide a combined 99 undergraduate majors in the humanities, natural sciences and engineering, as well twelve graduate and professional schools.
It provides the option to pursue specialized dual degree programs. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.44% for the class of 2023, the school is ranked as the 8th best university in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report. In athletics, the Quakers field varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference and hold a total of 210 Ivy League championships as of 2017. In 2018, the university had an endowment of $13.8 billion, the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, as well as an academic research budget of $966 million. As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of 64 billionaire alumni. S. House of Representatives. Other notable alumni include 27 Rhodes Scholars, 15 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, 48 Fulbright Scholars. In addition, some 35 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university.
University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities. The university considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons; the building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.
In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia". Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy, he advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith, an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees preferred the traditional curriculum. Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America.
At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House, was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, still vacant, would be an better site; the original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school was chartered July 13, 1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.
All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were consider
Northwest (Washington, D.C.)
Northwest is the northwestern quadrant of Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States, is located north of the National Mall and west of North Capitol Street. It is the largest of the four quadrants of the city, it includes the central business district, the Federal Triangle, the museums along the northern side of the National Mall, as well as many of the District's historic neighborhoods. Politically, Northwest is made up of parts of Wards 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, with Wards 1 and 3 being the only wards located within the quadrant. Northwest includes the following 57 neighborhoods: Northwest contains many college campuses, including American University, George Washington University, Georgetown University, Howard University, the University of the District of Columbia; the Capital One Arena, home of the Washington Wizards, the Washington Capitals, the Georgetown Hoyas as well as the venue for many concerts and other events, is located in the District's Chinatown in Northwest. The National Cathedral, the White House, Rock Creek Park, Embassy Row are located in this quadrant.
Northwest is bounded by the Potomac River on the west, Western Avenue and Eastern Avenue to the north, North Capitol Street to the east, the National Mall to the south. Other principal roads include Connecticut Avenue between Chevy Chase and the White House, Wisconsin Avenue between Friendship Heights and Georgetown, Pennsylvania Avenue between Georgetown and the Capitol, K Street, Massachusetts Avenue, 16th Street. Northwest is served by all six lines of the Washington Metro: the Orange, Red, Blue and Green Lines. Many Metrobus lines run through the quadrant, as well as the DC Circulator. SW—Southwest, Washington, D. C. SE—Southeast, Washington, D. C. NE—Northeast, Washington, D. C
Jacob A. Frenkel
Jacob Aharon Frenkel is an Israeli economist and the Chairman of JPMorgan Chase International. He served as Governor of the Bank of Israel between 1991 and 2000. Frenkel was born in Mandatory Palestine, he earned a B. A. in economics and political science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, an M. A. and Ph. D. in economics at the University of Chicago. He earned his Ph. D. in 1970 with thesis titled Money and the Balance of Payments in a Model of Accumulation. Frenkel is the Chairman of JPMorgan Chase International, which executes the international strategy of the American financial services firm, he serves as Chairman and CEO of the Group of Thirty, a private, consultative group on international economic and monetary affairs. Frenkel served from 2004 to 2009 as Vice Chairman of American International Group and from 2000 to 2004 as Chairman of Merrill Lynch International, as well as Chairman of Merrill Lynch’s Sovereign Advisory and Global Financial Institutions Groups. Between 1991 and 2000 he served two terms as the Governor of the Bank of Israel.
He is credited with reducing inflation in Israel and achieving price stability, liberalizing Israel’s financial markets, removing foreign exchange controls, integrating the Israeli economy into the global financial system. During 1995–1996, Frenkel served as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Inter-American Development Bank and, during 1999–2000, as Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Between 1987 and 1991, he was the Economic Counselor and Director of Research at the International Monetary Fund, between 1973 and 1987 he was on the faculty of the University of Chicago where he held the position of the David Rockefeller Professor of International Economics and served as Editor of the Journal of Political Economy, he is a fellow of the Econometric Society, a foreign honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the Board of Directors of the National Bureau of Economic Research, a former member of the International Advisory Board of the Council on Foreign Relations, a member of the Trilateral Commission, a member of the board of the Council for the United States and Italy, a member of the Investment Advisory Council of the Prime Minister of Turkey, a member of the International Advisory Council of the China Development Bank.
He is a member of the Board of Directors of the Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economics. In June 2013 he was nominated to be the Governor of the Bank of Israel for a second time. In July 2013, following official inquiries into an event that took place in Hong Kong Airport in November 2006, he withdrew his nomination. Frankel denied any wrongdoing but authorities in Hong Kong stated that he had been arrested at the airport for suspected theft of a suit bag from a duty-free shop. Frenkel did not disclose the incident to the Committee on Senior Appointments, which vetted his nomination for a new governor of the Bank of Israel. Frenkel serves on the Leadership Council for Concordia, a nonpartisan, nonprofit based in New York City focused on promoting effective public-private collaboration to create a more prosperous and sustainable future. Frenkel won the 2002 Israel Prize in Economics, he received the Tel-Aviv University Hugo Ramniceanu Prize for Economics, the Czech Karel Englis Prize in Economics, the “Order de Mayo al Merito” decoration from the Government of Argentina and the “Order of Merit” decoration from the Republic of Italy.
He is a recipient of several Honorary Doctoral degrees and other decorations and awards, including the “1993 Economic Policy Award” by “Emerging Markets” and the “1997 Central Banker of the Year Award” by “Euromoney”. Frenkel, Jacob A. "Current Problems of the International Monetary System: Reflections on European Monetary Integration." Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 111: 216–21. All NBER publications by Jacob Frenkel List of Israel Prize recipients Appearances on C-SPAN
José de Gregorio
José de Gregorio Rebeco is a Chilean economist and—from 2007 to 2011—the Governor of the Central Bank of Chile. He was Vice-Governor from December 2003, member of the Bank's Board from June 2001, he is a nonresident Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics. De Gregorio has a degree in civil engineering and a master’s degree in engineering from the University of Chile, where he received the Marcos Orrego Puelma award for the best graduate for his year, he obtained a doctorate in Economics in 1990 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. De Gregorio has published in international academic reviews and books on issues including stabilization policies, foreign exchange regimes and economic growth, he has served as a referee for several academic journals and is an associate editor with the journals International Tax and Public Finance and Latin American Economic Review. He is a member of the Executive Committee of the Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association and was co-director of the organizing committee for the annual Lacea meeting in 1999.
From March 2000 to June 2001, de Gregorio was a “tri-minister”, acting as the minister of the combined portfolios of the Economy and Energy, as president of the National Energy Commission. During this period he served as president on the boards of the state-owned companies, Codelco and Enami, president of the Corfo and Cochilco boards. De Gregorio is a full professor at the University of Chile. In 1997 and 2000 he was professor and head of post-graduate programs at the Center of Applied Economics at the University of Chile, where he has taught macroeconomics and international economics since 1994, he served on the executive of the Latin American Doctoral Program in Economics, carried out jointly by Mexico’s ITAM, Torcuato di Tella University and the University of Chile. From 1994 to 1997, de Gregorio coordinated economic policy within the Chilean Ministry of Finance. From 1990 to 1994 de Gregorio worked as an economist in the research department of the International Monetary Fund, where he participated in missions to Guyana and Italy.
He has worked as a consultant for foreign companies. He was a visiting researcher at the IMF and the World Bank, visiting professor at the Anderson School, University of California - Los Angeles. From 1983 to 1986 he was a researcher at the Corporación de Investigaciones Económicas para Latinoamérica, Cieplan. De Gregorio was chosen as "The Best Central Bank President in Latin America for 2008" in a poll taken among bankers and economists by British magazine "The Banker", which belongs to the journalism conglomerate of the Financial Times
Simeon Djankov is a Bulgarian economist. From 2009 to 2013, he was the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance of Bulgaria in the government of Boyko Borisov. Prior to his cabinet appointment, Simeon Djankov was a Chief economist of the finance and private sector vice-presidency of the World Bank, he was an associate editor of the Journal of Comparative Economics from 2004 to 2009. Djankov was a chairman of the board of the European Bank for Development. In 2013 he was appointed rector of the New Economic School in Moscow, he is a member of the World Bank's Knowledge and Advisory Council, a Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics. Since November 2015, Dr Djankov is policy director of the Financial Markets Group at the London School of Economics. Simeon Djankov is listed as the most-published Bulgarian economist. Djankov was born in Lovech, Bulgaria on 13 July 1970, Djankov attended high school "Ekzarh Yosif I" in Lovech. In 1989, he passed the entrance exam to the named "Karl Marx Institute of Economics".
Simeon Djankov holds a 1997 doctorate from the University of Michigan, on the topic "Three Essays on the Economics of Transition." His main thesis advisor was Alan Deardorff. During his tenure at the University of Michigan and the World Bank, Djankov published over 70 articles in professional journals. Journals include the American Economic Review, the Quarterly Journal of Economics, the Journal of Political Economy, the Journal of Finance, the Journal of Financial Economics, his co-authors include Nobel Prize winner Oliver Hart, John Bates Clark Medal winner Andrei Shleifer, MacArthur Fellows Program winner Sendhil Mullainathan. He has co-edited the book "The Resolution of Financial Distress" with Stijn Claessens and Ashoka Mody; the book focuses on the principles of and practical approaches to addressing the public policy trade-off involved in systemic corporate and financial sector crises and the lessons learned from the changes taking place in bankruptcy frameworks around the world. It includes research on recent public policy initiatives for distress resolution or market-based restructuring.
Nobel Prize winner Joseph Stiglitz was a contributing author. In 2016, Dr. Djankov was asked to chair the 25th Anniversary event of EBRD in London and conference in Budapest; the anniversary event involved Vaira Vike-Freiberga, former President of Latvia and Minister Imad Najib Fakhoury, EBRD Governor for Jordan. The conference on Reinvigorating Growth featured a debate with Bulgarian President Rosen Plevneliev, EU Commissioner Valdis Dombrovskis and EBRD President Sir Suma Chakrabarti. After resigning from the government of Boyko Borisov, Simeon Djankov joined the Harvard Kennedy School as visiting faculty, his teaching is focused on the politics of development. During his time at Harvard, Dr Djankov edited a special issue of the Journal of Comparative Economics on the 25th anniversary from the start of transition in Eastern Europe. Jointly with Anders Aslund at the Atlantic Council, he co-authored a book on the transformation from communism; the book contains chapters by Leszek Balcerowicz on Poland, Vaclav Klaus on the Czech Republic, Lajos Bokros on Hungary, Ivan Miklos on Slovakia, Mart Laar on Estonia.
On 2 October 2013 it was announced that the Board of Directors of private Moscow-based university New Economic School known as the Russian Economic School had approved Simeon Djankov as its rector. The New Economic School has Russia's premier economics graduate program, which had produced over 350 PhD economists since 1993, it is funded, was established by Harvard economics professors Zvi Griliches and Nobel Prize winner Eric Maskin. During the tenure of Dr Djankov as Rector, the New Economic School was relocated to a new campus in the Skolkovo Innovation Center; the Financial Markets Group was founded by Charles Goodhart and Mervyn King in 1986 to study the development of banking and non-bank financial institutions. Dr Djankov's appointment as director serves to expand the focus of research to emerging markets, his latest research is on the effects of Brexit on the City of London, as presented in "EU Attitudes towards Brexit" and written up in "The City of London after Brexit". His views on Brexit are that a soft exit of Great Britain from the European Union will be in the interest of all Europeans.
The point of these statistics is to state the obvious: politicians in the UK and the rest of the EU should be constructive about Brexit. If financial service companies move out of London, it is unlikely that many would relocate to another EU city. Financial centers outside of the EU would be more to attract the business because other EU financial centers rank so much lower. Dr Djankov argues. There are three reasons for this continued dominance over European financial services: The pre-eminence of the British court system in upholding the rule of law, including the protection of creditor and shareholder rights. Still, Brexit's Effect on the City will be noticeable, reducing revenues by 12-18% and employment by 7-8%. Dr Djankov has proposed a Brexit readiness index to gauge progress towards eventual separation from the European Union; the Brexit Readiness Score is updated quarterly. In June 2008, Djankov established the think-tank Ideas42, jointly with Antoinette Schoar, Eldar Shafir and Sendhil Mullainathan, a Harvard University-
Ben van Beurden
Bernardus Cornelis Adriana Margriet “Ben” van Beurden is the CEO of Royal Dutch Shell plc. Van Beurden joined Shell in 1983, after graduating with a master's degree in Chemical Engineering from Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Van Beurden's career in Shell spans both Downstream businesses, he has held a number of operational and commercial roles including those in Chemicals and LNG. In his 30-year career in Shell, Van Beurden has worked in a number of geographies, from his native Netherlands, to Malaysia, United Kingdom and the United States. Before becoming the CEO of Shell, Van Beurden was the Director of Shell's Downstream business from January to September 2013. Prior to this, he was the Executive Vice President Chemicals from December 2006 based out of London, when he served on the boards of a number of leading industry associations, including the International Council of Chemical Associations and the European Chemical Industry Council, he has held a number of key roles in the group's Upstream and Downstream businesses, including the post of Vice President Manufacturing Excellence from January 2005.
Lauded for his “deep knowledge of the industry and proven executive experience across a range of Shell businesses”, Van Beurden is credited with turning around Shell's struggling chemicals division. From a loss-making enterprise in 2008, the Chemicals business now contributes 5 percent of net earnings, he worked for a third of his 30-year Shell career in its liquefied natural gas business, which has become a crucial driver of the group's growth. In 2014, he was paid €24.2 million. In 2018, Van Beurden's compensation was £17.2 million, a 51% increase on his 2017 pay packet. European Round Table of Industrialists, Member Born on 23 April 1958, Van Beurden is a Dutch citizen. With his wife Stacey, he has a son. According to his official bio, he enjoys reading and travelling with his family
Justin James Michael Wolfers is an Australian and American economist and public policy scholar. He is professor of economics and public policy at the University of Michigan, a Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics. Wolfers holds a Ph. D. in Economics and an A. M in Economics, both from Harvard University, a Bachelor of Economics from the University of Sydney, he attended Harvard as a Fulbright Scholar. Justin attended James Ruse Agricultural High School.. He is noted for his research on its relation to income. Wolfers moved to the University of Michigan as professor of economics and public policy beginning in fall 2012 with his partner, fellow economist Betsey Stevenson. Prior to coming to the University of Michigan, Wolfers was associate professor of business and public policy at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, he is a contributor to the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal, was an editor of the Brookings Papers on Economic Activity from 2009 through Fall 2015.
Wolfers' research has explored the economics of sports, sports betting, prediction markets and the family. In 2007, he was named in David Leonhardt's New York Times column as one of 13 young economists who were the future of economics. In 2014, he was named by International Monetary Fund as one of the 25 brightest young economists who are expected to shape the world's thinking about the global economy in the future. Wolfers and Stevenson have one daughter and another baby, they have publicly discussed many times being in a Shared Earning/Shared Parenting relationship. Nickeled and Dimed by Barbara Ehrenreich Personal website at the University of Michigan Curriculum Vitae Roberts, Russ. "Stevenson and Wolfers on Happiness and the Reinhart-Rogoff Controversy". EconTalk. Library of Economics and Liberty. Appearances on C-SPAN