Ponts Couverts, Strasbourg
The Ponts Couverts are a set of three bridges and four towers that make up a defensive work erected in the 13th century on the River Ill in the city of Strasbourg in France. The three bridges cross the four river channels of the River Ill that flow through Strasbourg's historic Petite France quarter; the Ponts Couverts have been classified as a Monument historique since 1928. Construction of the Ponts Couverts commenced in 1230, they were opened in 1250; as a defensive mechanism, they were superseded by the Barrage Vauban, just upstream, in 1690, but remained in use as bridges. As built, each of the bridges was covered by a wooden roof that served to protect the defenders who would have been stationed on them in time of war; these roofs were removed in 1784, but name Ponts Couverts has remained in common use since. Ponts Couverts on archi-wiki.org
A fisherman or fisher is someone who captures fish and other animals from a body of water, or gathers shellfish. Worldwide, there are fish farmers. Fishermen may be both men or women. Fishing has existed as a means of obtaining food since the Mesolithic period. Fishing has existed as a means of obtaining food since the Mesolithic period. Fishing had become a major means of survival as well as a business venture. Fishing and the fisherman have influenced Ancient Egyptian religion. Bastet was manifested in the form of a catfish. In ancient Egyptian literature, the process that Amun used to create the world is associated with the tilapia's method of mouth-brooding. According to the FAO, there were about 39 million fishers in countries producing more than 200,000 tonnes in 2012, nearly 140% the number in 1995; the total fishery production of 66 million tonnes equated to an average productivity of 3.5 tonnes per person. Most of this growth took place in Asian countries, where four-fifths of world fishers and fish farmers dwell.
Most fishermen are men involved in deep-sea fisheries. Women fish in some regions collect shellfish and seaweed. In many artisanal fishing communities, women are responsible for making and repairing nets, post-harvest processing and marketing. Recreational fishing is fishing for competition, it can be contrasted with commercial fishing, fishing for economic profit, or subsistence fishing, fishing for survival. The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod, line and any one of a wide range of baits. Lures are used in place of bait; some people make handmade lures, including artificial flies. The practice of catching or attempting to catch fish with a hook is called angling; when angling, it is sometimes required that the fish be caught and released. Big-game fishing is fishing from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna and marlin. Noodling and trout tickling are recreational activities. For some communities, fishing provides not only a source of food and work but community and cultural identity.
The fishing industry is hazardous for fishermen. Between 1992 and 1999, US commercial fishing vessels averaged 78 deaths per year; the main contributors to fatalities are: inadequate preparation for emergencies poor vessel maintenance and inadequate safety equipment lack of awareness of or ignoring stability issues. Many fishermen, while accepting that fishing is dangerous, staunchly defend their independence. Many proposed laws and additional regulation to increase safety have been defeated because fishermen oppose them. Alaska's commercial fishermen work in one of the world's harshest environments. Many of the hardships they endure include isolated fishing grounds, high winds, seasonal darkness cold water and short fishing seasons, where long work days are the norm. Fatigue, physical stress, financial pressures face most Alaska fishermen through their careers; the hazardous work conditions faced by fishermen have a strong impact on their safety. Out of 948 work-related deaths that took place in Alaska during 1990-2006, one-third occurred to fishermen.
This is equivalent to an estimated annual fatality rate of 128/100,000 workers/year. This fatality rate is 26 times that of the overall U. S. work-related fatality rate of 5/100,000 workers/year for the same time period. While the work-related fatality rate for commercial fishermen in Alaska is still high, it does appear to be decreasing: since 1990, there has been a 51 percent decline in the annual fatality rate; the successes in commercial fishing are due in part to the U. S. Coast Guard implementing new safety requirements in the early 1990s; these safety requirements contributed to 96 percent of the commercial fishermen surviving vessel sinkings/capsizings in 2004, whereas in 1991, only 73 percent survived. While the number of occupational deaths in commercial fishermen in Alaska has been reduced, there is a continuing pattern of losing 20 to 40 vessels every year. There are still about 100 fishermen. Successful rescue is still dependent on the expertly trained personnel of the US Coast Guard Search and Rescue operations, such efforts can be hindered by the harshness of seas and the weather.
Furthermore, the people involved in Search and Rescue operations are themselves at considerable risk for injury or death during these rescue attempts. Fishing Recreational fishing Aquaculture Fish farming Dirty and demeaning Fishery List of American fishers Fields, Leslie Leyland Out On The Deep Blue: Women and the Oceans They Fish. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-27726-0 Jones, Stephen Working Thin Waters: Conversations with Captain * Lawrence H. Malloy, Jr. University Press of New England. ISBN 978-1-58465-103-1 Moore, Charles W Did fishermen discover the New World? For Those in Peril: Dangers at Sea for fishermen on the East Coast of Scotland historyshelf.org Fisher Folk at Sea and Ashore North East Folklore Archive, Aberdeenshire Council. Retrieved 9 March 2011
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
St Thomas' Church, Strasbourg
St Thomas' Church is a historical building in Strasbourg, eastern France. It is the main Lutheran church of the city since its Cathedral became Catholic again after the annexation of the town by France in 1681, it is nicknamed the "Protestant Cathedral" or the Old Lady, the only example of a hall church in the Alsace region. The building is located on the Route Romane d'Alsace, it is classified as a Monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture since 1862. Its congregation forms part of the Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Lorraine; the site on which the current church stands was used as a place of worship under the patronage of Thomas the Apostle as early as the sixth century. In the ninth century, Bishop Adelochus established a magnificent church with adjoining school, however both burned down in 1007, again in 1144. In 1196, construction began on the façade of a new, fortress-like building with an imposing steeple, built in the Roman style. Interrupted several times, the building work was completed in the style of the late Gothic.
Around 1450, the church commissioned a set of oil on panel paintings dedicated to the Passion of Jesus. Most of the surviving panels of this once scattered set are now kept in the Staatliche Kunsthalle in Karlsruhe, why the anonymous master who painted them earned the notname of ″Master of the Karlsruhe Passion″, it is assumed that he is identical with the painter Hans Hirtz, recorded in Strasbourg before 1460. The upper right angle of the Christ Carrying the Cross shows the St. Thomas Church as it still looks today. In 1524, the church, a pillar of local Catholic faith thanks notably to the efforts of the canon and poet Gottfried von Hagenau, converted to the Protestant faith, a status which it maintained despite annexation of Alsace to the Catholic France, it still administers the primary and secondary schools École Saint-Thomas and Foyer Jean Sturm, as well as the Séminaire Protestant, a seminary located in the adjacent Baroque building. The church played a crucial part in the liturgical revival as the place where, from 1888, Friedrich Spitta tested new forms of church service, where the Akademische Kirchenchor was brought into being.
Julius Smend came to preach from 1893, between 1894 and 1899, the Gesangbuch für Elsaß-Lothringen was developed there. On May 7, 2006, the church was the place of the official celebration for the creation of the Union des églises protestantes d'Alsace et de Lorraine, or UEPAL; the church is the oldest on the territory of former south-west Germany. Inside it is 65 metres long and 30 metres wide, with a height of 22m. There is a gallery on the left outer aisle, chapels to the left and right of the apse; the church is internationally renowned for its historic and musically-significant organs: the 1741 Silbermann organ, played by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1778 and faithfully restored in 1979 by Alfred Kern. Another organ is the 1905 organ built by Fritz Haerpfer, following a design by Albert Schweitzer. Monuments at the church date from between 1130 and 1850. Most famous are the richly decorated sarcophagus of Bishop Adelochus by the Master of Eschau and the huge, late-Baroque mausoleum of Marshall Maurice de Saxe, created by Jean-Baptiste Pigalle.
Among the many other remarkable monuments, the Renaissance tombstone of Nikolaus Roeder von Tiersberg is notable for its realistic depiction of his decaying corpse. Roeder had been the donor of the life-size Mount of Olives group of sculptures now to be seen inside Strasbourg Cathedral. Neoclassical sculptor Landolin Ohmacht is represented by two works, one of them dedicated to Jean-Frédéric Oberlin. A late-Gothic representation of Saint Michael a work by Jost Haller, is, after the Saint Christopher in St. Peter and St. Paul's Church, the largest of its kind in France. Of the medieval leaded windows, only the rose at the front of the church remains intact. In the nave, the upper parts of the windows are lavishly decorated with architectural and botanical motifs; the representations of saints that were found below were destroyed in the 16th century by Protestant iconoclasts. The choir windows are of a contemporary style. Saint Thomas' Church at Structurae St Thomas' Church, Strasbourg at archINFORM History and description of the organs Website of the church community
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs. It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. If the structural frame of load-bearing timber is left exposed on the exterior of the building it may be referred to as half-timbered, in many cases the infill between timbers will be used for decorative effect; the country most known for this kind of architecture is Germany. Timber framed houses are spread all over the country except in the southeast; the method comes from working directly from trees rather than pre-cut dimensional lumber. Hewing this with broadaxes and draw knives and using hand-powered braces and augers and other woodworking tools, artisans or framers could assemble a building. Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in many parts of the world, many styles of historic framing have developed.
These styles are categorized by the type of foundation, walls and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers, the roof framing details. A simple timber frame made of straight vertical and horizontal pieces with a common rafter roof without purlins; the term box frame has been used for any kind of framing. The distinction presented here is. Purlins are found in plain timber frames. A cruck is a pair of curved timbers which form a bent or crossframe. More than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the UK. Several types of cruck frames are used. True cruck or full cruck: blades, straight or curved, extend from ground or foundation to the ridge acting as the principal rafters. A full cruck does not need a tie beam. Base cruck: tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck: blades land on masonry wall, extend to the ridge. Middle cruck: blades land on masonry wall, are truncated by a collar. Upper cruck: blades land on a tie beam similar to knee rafters.
Jointed cruck: blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. See also: hammerbeam roof End cruck is not a style, but on the gable end of a building. Aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts; these interior posts carry more structural load than the posts in the exterior walls. This is the same concept of the aisle in church buildings, sometimes called a hall church, where the center aisle is technically called a nave. However, a nave is called an aisle, three-aisled barns are common in the U. S. the Netherlands, Germany. Aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or cruck-framed buildings, have purlins supporting the rafters. In northern Germany, this construction is known as variations of a Ständerhaus. Half-timbering refers to a structure with a frame of load-bearing timber, creating spaces between the timbers called panels, which are filled-in with some kind of nonstructural material known as infill; the frame is left exposed on the exterior of the building.
The earliest known type of infill, called opus craticum by the Romans, was a wattle and daub type construction. Opus craticum is now confusingly applied to a Roman stone/mortar infill as well. Similar methods to wattle and daub were used and known by various names, such as clam staff and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis, to name only three. Wattle and daub was the most common infill in ancient times; the sticks were not always technically wattlework, but individual sticks installed vertically, horizontally, or at an angle into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of daub has many recipes, but was a mixture of clay and chalk with a binder such as grass or straw and water or urine; when the manufacturing of bricks increased, brick infill replaced the less durable infills and became more common. Stone laid in mortar as an infill was used in areas where mortar were available. Other infills include bousillage, fired brick, unfired brick such as adobe or mudbrick, stones sometimes called pierrotage, planks as in the German ständerbohlenbau, timbers as in ständerblockbau, or cob without any wooden support.
The wall surfaces on the interior were “ceiled” with wainscoting and plastered for warmth and appearance. Brick infill sometimes called nogging became the standard infill after the manufacturing of bricks made them more available and less expensive. Half-timbered walls may be covered by siding materials including plaster, tiles, or slate shingles; the infill may be covered by other materials, including weatherboarding or tiles. or left exposed. When left exposed, both the framing and infill were sometimes done in a decorative manner. Germany is famous for its decorative half-timbering and the figures sometimes have names and meanings; the decorative manner of half-timbering is promoted in Germany by the German Timber-Frame Road, several planned routes people can drive to see notable examples of Fachwerk buildings. Gallery of infill types: Gallery of some named figures and decorations: The collection of elements in half timbering are sometimes given specific names: The term half-timbering is not as old as the German name Fachwerk or the French name colombage, but it is the standard English name for this style.
One of the first people to publish the term "half-timbered" was Mary Martha Sherwood, who employed it in her book, T
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Old Saint Peter's Church, Strasbourg
The Church of Old Saint Peters is a by simultaneum Catholic and Lutheran church building in Strasbourg, Alsace is first mentioned in 1130. In the Middle Ages it was one of Diocese of Strasbourg's nine parish churches. On 22 May 1398 the Chapter of the Abbey of Honau, in Rhinau since 1290, moved to Old St Peter's because of flooding in Rhinau; the Chapter stayed there until 1529, conducting its services in the choir, while the parish occupied the nave. When the Catholic rite was restored in 1683, the Chapter returned to the Church and stayed there until 1790, when it was wound up. On 20 February 1529, when Strasbourg joined the Reformation and suspended the practice of the mass, the Church became Lutheran. Martin Bucer and the other Strasbourg reformers had campaigned for several years to have Protestant services in all of Strasbourg's churches, but in 1525 the city council had voted to retain the mass in several churches, including Old St Peter's. In 1535, in the context of the Reform, a Latin school, or'Middle school' was opened at Old Saint Peters.
In 1683, two years after the annexation of Strasbourg by France, Louis XIV ordered that part of the Church be returned to the Catholics and that a wall be constructed inside the church by the rood screen, to restrict the Protestant services to the Nave. It was not until 2012. In the 19th century, the Catholic part of the Church was extended; the extension was designed by the architect Conrath and opened in 1867. The Catholic Church contains relics of Brigit of Kildare as well as a number of important works of art classified as Monuments historiques such as the "Passion of Christ", a series of ten Gothic paintings by Heinrich Lutzelmann, the "Scenes from the Life of St Peter" an series of four wooden early Renaissance or late Gothic reliefs made around 1500 and a series of four 1504 paintings depicting "Scenes of the Life of Christ after the Resurrection"; the Lutheran part of the church, presently owned and used by a congregation within the Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine features some notable works of art, among which the wooden Renaissance relief "Holy Family" by Hans Wydyz, classified as a Monument historique.
Views of the Catholic Church Views of the Protestant Church Media related to Églises St Pierre le Vieux at Wikimedia Commons