Petra known to its inhabitants as Raqmu, is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan. Petra lies around Jabal Al-Madbah in a basin surrounded by mountains which form the eastern flank of the Arabah valley that runs from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba; the area around Petra has been inhabited as early as 7,000 BC, the Nabataeans might have settled in what would become the capital city of their kingdom, as early as the 4th century BC. However, archaeological work has only discovered evidence of Nabataean presence dating back to the second century BC, by which time Petra had become their capital; the Nabataeans were nomadic Arabs who invested in Petra's proximity to the trade routes by establishing it as a major regional trading hub. The trading business gained the Nabataeans considerable revenue and Petra became the focus of their wealth; the Nabataeans were accustomed to living in the barren deserts, unlike their enemies, were able to repel attacks by taking advantage of the area's mountainous terrain.
They were skillful in harvesting rainwater and stone carving. Petra flourished in the 1st century AD, when its famous Khazneh structure – believed to be the mausoleum of Nabataean king Aretas IV – was constructed, its population peaked at an estimated 20,000 inhabitants. Although the Nabataean kingdom became a client state of the Roman Empire in the first century BC, it was only in 106 AD that it lost its independence. Petra fell to the Romans, who renamed it as Arabia Petraea. Petra's importance declined as sea trade routes emerged, after an earthquake in 363 destroyed many structures. In the Byzantine era several Christian churches were built, but the city continued to decline, by the early Islamic era it was abandoned except for a handful of nomads, it remained unknown to the world. Access to the city is through a 1.2-kilometre-long gorge called the Siq, which leads directly to the Khazneh. Famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system, Petra is called the'Rose City' because of the colour of the stone from which it is carved.
It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985. UNESCO has described Petra as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage". In 2007, Al-Khazneh was voted one of the New7Wonders of the World. Petra is a symbol of Jordan, as well as Jordan's most-visited tourist attraction. Tourist numbers peaked at 918,000 in 2010, but there followed a temporary slump during the political instability generated by the Arab Spring, which affected countries surrounding Jordan. Visitor numbers subsequently increased and reached a record-breaking 1.1 million tourists in 2019, marking the first time that the figure rose above the 1 million mark. Pliny the Elder and other writers identify Petra as the capital of the Nabataean Kingdom and the centre of their caravan trade. Enclosed by towering rocks and watered by a perennial stream, Petra not only possessed the advantages of a fortress, but controlled the main commercial routes which passed through it to Gaza in the west, to Bosra and Damascus in the north, to Aqaba and Leuce Come on the Red Sea, across the desert to the Persian Gulf.
Excavations have demonstrated that it was the ability of the Nabataeans to control the water supply that led to the rise of the desert city, creating an artificial oasis. The area is visited by flash floods, but archaeological evidence shows that the Nabataeans controlled these floods by the use of dams and water conduits; these innovations stored water for prolonged periods of drought and enabled the city to prosper from its sale. In ancient times, Petra might have been approached from the south on a track leading across the plain of Petra, around Jabal Haroun, the location of the Tomb of Aaron, said to be the burial place of Aaron, brother of Moses. Another approach was from the high plateau to the north. Today, most modern visitors approach the site from the east; the impressive eastern entrance leads steeply down through a dark, narrow gorge, in places only 3–4 m wide, called the Siq, a natural geological feature formed from a deep split in the sandstone rocks and serving as a waterway flowing into Wadi Musa.
At the end of the narrow gorge, the Siq, stands Petra's most elaborate ruin, popularly known as Al Khazneh, hewn into the sandstone cliff. While remaining in remarkably preserved condition, the face of the structure is marked by hundreds of bullet holes made by the local Bedouin tribes that hoped to dislodge riches that were once rumoured to be hidden within it. A little further from the Treasury, at the foot of the mountain called en-Nejr, is a massive theatre, positioned so as to bring the greatest number of tombs within view. At the point where the valley opens out into the plain, the site of the city is revealed with striking effect; the theatre has been cut into several of the tombs during its construction. Rectangular gaps in the seating are still visible. Enclosing it on three sides are rose-coloured mountain walls, divided into groups by deep fissures and lined with knobs cut from the rock in the form of towers. In 2016, archaeologists using satellite imagery and drones discovered a large unknown monumental structure whose beginnings were tentatively dated to about 150 BCE, the time when the Nabataeans initiated their public building programme.
It is located outside the main area of the city, at the foot of Jabal an-Nmayr and about 0.5 mi south of the city centre, but is facing east, not towards the city, has no visible relationship to it. The structure consists
Edward Joseph Fitzgerald was an American who worked for the War Production Board during World War II and was an adviser to Senator Claude Pepper. He was alleged to have been a member of the Perlo group of Soviet spies. Fitzgerald's name in Venona project decrypt 588 New York to Moscow, 29 April 1944, was sent in the clear to Moscow by Soviet Case Officer Iskhak Akhmerov reporting on Elizabeth Bentley's meeting with Perlo group; the decryption reads, in part, KRAMER, PERLO, FLATO, GLASSER, Edward FITZGERALD and others in a group of 7 or 8 FELLOW COUNTRYMENT. UMNITsA talked with AMT and PERLO, they told her that nobody was interested in them. KRAMER is the leader of the group. All occupy responsible posts in CARTHAGE. Elizabeth Bentley, who functioned as the Perlo group's main contact with the Soviet intelligence, told the FBI after her defection, "I would state that Victor Perlo represented this group in meetings with me more than other members of the group, Fitzgerald about four or five times.....".
After World War II, Fitzgerald resigned from his position with the U. S. Department of Commerce. In 1954, Fitzgerald was offered immunity from prosecution, which removed the legal grounds to plead the Fifth Amendment. Fitzgerald nonetheless went to jail, his alleged code name in Soviet intelligence and in the Venona files is "Ted". Edward Fitzgerald is referenced in the following Venona project decryptions: Elizabeth Bentley reports on new KGB recruits from American Communist Party, Venona 588 New York to Moscow, 29 April 1944. KGB agent & Earl Browder instruct Bentley on new recruits, Venona 687 New York to Moscow, 13 May 1944. KGB NY Reports on new Agents from ACP working in US Govt, Venona 769, 771 KGB New York to Moscow, 30 May 1944. ALBERT's material photos. Silvermasters network known, Venona 179, 180 KGB Moscow to New York, 25 February 1945. Visit the Cold War International History Project for the full text of Alexander Vassiliev's Notebooks containing more information on Fitzgerald's involvement in Soviet espionage Edward Fitzgerald testimony, 1 May 1953, “Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments,” part 5, 241–326.
Vassiliev, Alexander Vassiliev’s Notes on Anatoly Gorsky’s December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks, retrieved 21 April 2012United States. National Counterintelligence Center. A Counterintelligence Reader, Vol 3 Chap 1. NACIC. No date. Pg. 31. FBI Silvermaster file, pgs. 135, 144, 144, 146, 147, 169, 178, 182, 198, 207, 434, 447 in original. Haynes, John Earl. Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08462-5. Pgs. 117, 118, 119, 121, 128, 163
Nataliya Olehivna Pohrebniak is a Ukrainian sprint athlete who specializes in the 100 metres. Pohrebniak was part of the Ukrainian women's 4 × 100 m that won gold during the 2010 European Athletics with 42.29 – the fastest time in the world that year. Pohrebnyak was born in the Kharkiv Oblast, represents the club Dynamo Kharkiv. In the 100 metres she finished fourth at the 2007 European Junior Championships, won the silver medal at the 2009 European U23 Championships. In the 200 metres she finished seventh at the 2009 European U23 Championships, she competed at the 2004 and 2006 World Junior Championships and the 2007 and 2009 World Championships, as well as the 2008 Olympic Games. In the Olympic 100 metres race she placed fourth in her first round heat, which meant elimination. However, her time of 11.60 was among the ten fastest losing times, resulting in a second round spot. There she failed to qualify for the semi finals as her time of 11.55 was the eighth fastest time in her race. She won a silver medal at the 2007 European Junior Championships in the 4 x 100 metres relay.
At the 2007 World Championships the Ukrainian team failed to finish the race. At the 2008 Olympic Games the Ukrainian 4 x 100 m team was disqualified. Disqualification occurred at the 2004 World Junior Championships, she competed at the 2009 World Championships without reaching the final. At the 2009 European U23 Championships the team again failed to finish the race, her personal best times are 11.109 seconds in the 100 metres, achieved in 2015.