The Petronas Towers known as the Petronas Twin Towers, are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat's official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004, until they were surpassed by Taipei 101; the Petronas Towers remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower. A Petronas Towers' structural system is a tube in tube design, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Applying a tube-structure for extreme tall buildings is a common phenomenon; the 88-floor towers are constructed of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion. Another Islamic influence on the design is that the cross section of the towers is based on a Rub el Hizb, albeit with circular sectors added to meet office space requirements; the circular sectors is similar to the bottom part of the Qutub Minar.
The towers were designed by Argentine architect César Pelli. A distinctive postmodern style was chosen to create a 21st-century icon for Malaysia. Planning on the Petronas Towers started on 1 January 1992 and included rigorous tests and simulations of wind and structural loads on the design. Seven years of construction followed at the former site of the original Selangor Turf Club, beginning on 1 March 1993 with excavation, which involved moving 500 truckloads of earth every night to dig down 30 metres below the surface; the construction of the superstructure commenced on 1 April 1994. Interiors with furniture were completed on 1 January 1996, the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2 were completed on 1 March 1996, 3 years after its construction was started, the first batch of Petronas personnel moved into the building on 1 January 1997; the building was opened by the Prime Minister of Malaysia's Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad on 1 August 1999; the twin towers were built on the site of Kuala Lumpur's race track.
Test boreholes found that the original construction site sat on the edge of a cliff. One half of the site was decayed limestone; the entire site was moved 61 metres to allow the buildings to sit on the soft rock. Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest foundations. 104 concrete piles, ranging from 60 to 114 metres deep, were bored into the ground. The concrete raft foundation, comprising 13,200 cubic metres of concrete was continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower; the raft is 4.6 metres thick, weighs 32,500 tonnes and held the world record for the largest concrete pour until 2007. The foundations were completed within 12 months by Bachy Soletanche and required massive amounts of concrete; as a result of the Malaysian government specifying that the buildings be completed in six years, two construction consortia were hired to meet the deadline, one for each tower. Tower 1, the west tower was built by a Japanese consortium led by the Hazama Corporation while Tower 2, the east tower was built by a South Korean consortium led by the Samsung C&T Corporation.
Early into construction a batch of concrete failed a routine strength test causing construction to come to a complete halt. All the completed floors were tested but it was found that only one had used a bad batch and it was demolished; as a result of the concrete failure, each new batch was tested before being poured. The halt in construction had cost US$700,000 per day and led to three separate concrete plants being set up on the site to ensure that if one produced a bad batch, the other two could continue to supply concrete; the sky bridge contract was completed by Kukdong Construction. Tower 2 became the first to reach the world's tallest building at the time. Due to the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete. High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction. Supported by 23-by-23 metre concrete cores and an outer ring of spaced super columns, the towers use a sophisticated structural system that accommodates its slender profile and provides 560,000 square metres of column-free office space.
Below the twin towers is Suria KLCC, a shopping mall, Petronas Philharmonic Hall, the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra. On 15 April 1999, Felix Baumgartner set the world record for BASE jumping by jumping off a window cleaning crane on the Petronas Towers. Thousands of people were evacuated on 12 September 2001 after a bomb threat the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the World Trade Center towers in New York City. Bomb Disposal squads found no bomb in the Petronas towers but they evacuated everyone. Workers and shoppers were allowed to return three hours around noon. No one was hurt during the evacuation. On the evening of 4 November 2005, a fire broke out in the cinema complex of the Suria KLCC shopping centre below the Petronas Towers, triggering panic among patrons. There were no reports of injuries; the buildings were empty, except the shopping mall, Suria KLCC, because of the late
The Nickelodeon UK Kids' Choice Awards 2008 aired on 20 September 2008 on Nickelodeon. It was the UK's second Kids' Choice Awards; the ceremony was presented by X Factor judge Dannii Minogue. The Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards for the UK is similar to the Australian and American versions. Children who voted on the website had chances to get tickets to see the live ceremony in London. Host Minogue was gunged at the ceremony and, although warned, she was shocked, but played along as being unimpressed before dancing as the show closed and the audience got gunged. Ant & Dec Miranda Cosgrove Josh Peck John Cena Dakota Blue Richards William Moseley Anna Popplewell Georgie Henley Same Difference David Mayer Alesha Dixon Suzanne Shaw McFly George Sampson The Saturdays Katie Sheridan Vicky Longley Drake & Josh - Kids' TV show SpongeBob SquarePants - Kids' cartoon Britain's Got Talent - Family TV show Josh Peck - Male TV star Miley Cyrus - Female TV Star Wall-E - Animated film William Moseley - Male film star The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian Georgie Henley - Female film star The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian Simon Cowell - TV baddie George Sampson - Winner Hadouken!
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SOTC Travel Limited SOTC Travel Private Ltd as well as Kuoni Travel Pvt. Ltd. is a step-down subsidiary of Fairfax Financial Holdings Group. Established in 1949, it is a travel and tourism company active across travel segments like Leisure Travel, Business Travel, Destination Management Services and Distribution Visa Marketing Services. SOTC offers customized holidays around the world, it offers Corporate Tours and provides packages for MICE related travel needs. SOTC Trade Fair Tours aims to accommodate the needs of businessmen visiting or presenting in International trade fairs, it claims to have pioneered the concept of designing and promoting escorted tours to international travelers in India. SOTC has created different avenues through tour packages namely ‘Bhraman Mandal’ committed to the Marathi speaking population and ‘Gurjar Vishwadarshan’ for the Gujarati speaking population. SOTC has launched religious tour called'Darshans' aimed at offering integrated spiritual and leisure experience across the popular religious destinations in India.
1996 - Kuoni Group enters India by acquiring a 51% stake in SOTC 1999 - Kuoni Group acquires 100% equity in SOTC 2000 - Kuoni India acquires Sita World Travel 2013 - Launched TVC with new brand architecture'Kuoni Together with SOTC' 2015 - Kuoni Travel Pvt Ltd becomes a step-down of Fairfax Financial Holdings Group 2016 - Kuoni India rebranded to SOTC as part of brand transition post change in control 2016 - SOTC releases new TVC & brand logo Pacific Asia Travel Association Gold Awards 2016 for Consumer Travel Brochure. CNBC Awaaz Travel awards 2011 for ‘Most Preferred Tour Operator for Outbound Travel’ to Kuoni & SOTC India. Today's Traveller Awards 2017 for "Best Outbound Tour Operator". Official website