Trowbridge is the county town of Wiltshire, England, on the River Biss in the west of the county, 8 miles south east of Bath, from which it is separated by the Mendip Hills, which rise 3 miles to the west. The town is 38 miles south of Gloucester and 20 miles south east of Bristol. Long a market town, the Kennet and Avon canal to the north of Trowbridge has played an instrumental part in the town's development as it allowed coal to be transported from the Somerset Coalfield and so marked the advent of steam-powered manufacturing in woollen cloth mills; the town was foremost producer of this mainstay of contemporary clothing and blankets in south west England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by which time it held the nickname "The Manchester of the West". The civil parish of Trowbridge had a population of 33,108 at the 2011 census; the parish encompasses the settlements of Longfield, Lower Studley, Upper Studley, Studley Green and Trowle Common. Adjacent parishes include Staverton, West Ashton, North Bradley and Wingfield.
The origin of the name Trowbridge is uncertain. On John Speed's map of Wiltshire, the name is spelt Trubridge. There is evidence. In the 10th century written records and architectural ruins begin marking Trowbridge's existence as a village. In Domesday Book the village of Straburg, as Trowbridge was known, was recorded as having 24 households well endowed with land arable ploughlands, rendering 8 pounds sterling to its feudal lord a year, its feudal lord was an Anglo-Saxon named Brictric, the largest landowner in Wiltshire. He seems to have administered his estates from Trowbridge; the first mention of Trowbridge Castle was in 1139. The castle is thought to have been a motte-and-bailey castle, its influence can still be seen in the town today. Fore Street follows the path of the castle ditch, town has a Castle Street and the Castle Place Shopping Centre, it is the Castle was built by Humphrey I de Bohun. The most notable member of the family was Henry de Bohun, born around 1176, who became lord of the manor when he was about 15 years of age.
It was he who began to shape the medieval town. In 1200 he obtained a market charter, arguably the earliest for a town in Wiltshire, one of the earliest in England, his officials were to lay out burgage plots for traders and shopkeepers. The outline of these plots can still be seen today in the footprints of some of the present shops in Fore Street. Within Trowbridge Castle was a 10th-century Anglo-Saxon church. Henry de Bohun turned this to secular use and instead had a new church built outside the Castle. In the base of the tower of the present day church, below the subsequently added spire, can be seen the Romanesque architecture of the period. In 1200 Henry de Bohun was created Earl of Hereford by King John. Like other barons, Henry was threatened by King John and his caput of Trowbridge was taken from him. Henry joined with the other barons to oppose John's arbitrary rule and forced him to seal Magna Carta at Runnymede; some years after Runnymede, Henry regained control of Trowbridge. Trowbridge developed as a centre for woollen cloth production from the 14th century.
Thus before the start of the Tudor period, the towns of south-west Wiltshire stood out from the rest of the county with all the signs of increasing wealth and prosperity during the period of trade recovery led by exports begun under Yorkist Edward IV and, still more, during expansion under Henry VII, when England's annual woollen exports increased from some 60,000 to some 80,000 cloths of assize. During the 17th century, the production of woollen cloth became industrialised. However, mechanisation was resisted by workers in traditional trades. Thomas Helliker, a shearman's apprentice, became one of the martyrs of the Industrial Revolution in 1803 when he was hanged at Fisherton Jail Salisbury. At one point in 1820 Trowbridge's scale of production was such it was described as the "Manchester of the West", it had over 20 woollen cloth producing factories, making it comparable to Northern industrial towns such as Rochdale. The woollen cloth industry declined in the late 19th century with the advent of ring-spinning and this decline continued throughout the 20th century.
However, Trowbridge's West of England cloth maintained a reputation for excellent quality until the end. The last mill, Salter's Home Mill, closed in 1982 and is now the home of Boswell's Café and Trowbridge Museum and Art Gallery, integrated into the Shires Shopping Centre; the museum portrays the history of woollen cloth production in the town. There are working looms on display. Clark's Mill is now home to the County Court; this is one of few such buildings still known to exist in the United Kingdom. Buildings associated with the textile industry
Robert Cornthwaite was an English prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He was the first Bishop of Leeds. Robert Cornthwaite was born in Preston, the son of William and Elizabeth Cornthwaite, he entered St Cuthbert's College, Ushaw on 9 May 1830, received the Tonsure and the four minor orders from Bishop Francis George Mostyn on 5 June 1841. During his last year at Ushaw, Cornthwaite taught Humanities, he entered the English College, Rome on 30 September 1842, took the oath there on 2 July 1842. He was ordained a subdeacon in December 1843, a deacon on 3 March 1844, a priest on 9 November 1845. After leaving the English College on 13 April 1846, he joined the mission at Carlisle, he returned to Rome on his appointment as the Rector of the English College, Rome on 25 August 1851, remaining in that post until resigned in September 1857. On his return to England, he became the Missionary Rector of St Augustine's, Darlington and Secretary to William Hogarth, Bishop of Hexham and Newcastle, he was appointed Cameriere d'onore extra Urbem to His Holiness on 16 July 1858, made Canon and Theologian of the Chapter of the Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle.
On 3 September 1861, Cornthwaite was appointed to succeed John Briggs as bishop of the Diocese of Beverley. His consecration to the Episcopate took place on 10 November 1861, the principal consecrator was Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman, Archbishop of Westminster, with Thomas Grant, Bishop of Southwark, Richard Roskell, Bishop of Nottingham serving as co-consecrators. In December 1865, Cornthwaite brought the Little Sisters of the Poor to Leeds; the sisters set up their first home in Hanover Square. On the 20 December 1878, the Diocese of Beverley was suppressed and it was replaced by the dioceses of Leeds and Middlesbrough. Cornthwaite continued to serve as the Bishop of Leeds until his death on 16 June 1890, aged 72, he is buried at the Church of Sicklinghall. Robert Cornthwaite letters, 1852-1853 at Pitts Theology Library, Candler School of Theology
Jennifer Kaye Ringley is an Internet personality and former lifecaster. She is known for creating the popular website JenniCam. Live webcams transmitted static shots from cameras aimed through windows or at coffee pots. Ringley's innovation was to allow others to view her daily activities, she was the first web-based "lifecaster". She retired from lifecasting at the end of 2003. In June 2008, CNET hailed JenniCam as one of the greatest defunct websites in history. Regarded by some as a conceptual artist, Ringley viewed her site as a straightforward document of her life, she did not wish to filter the events that were shown on her camera, so sometimes she was shown nude or engaging in sexual behavior, including sexual intercourse and masturbation. This was a new use of Internet technology in 1996 and some viewers were interested in its sociological implications while others watched it for sexual arousal; the JenniCam website coincided with a rise in surveillance as a feature of popular culture, exemplified by the 1998 film The Truman Show and reality television programs such as Big Brother, as a feature of contemporary art and new media art.
From a sociological point of view, JenniCam was an important early example of how the internet could create a cyborg subject by integrating human images with the internet. As such, JenniCam set the stage for conversations regarding the relationship of technology and gender. Ringley's desire to maintain the purity of the cam-eye view of her life created the need to establish that she was within her rights as an adult to broadcast such information, in the legal sense, that it was not harmful to other adults. Unlike for-profit webcam services, Ringley did not spend her day displaying her naked body and she spent much more time discussing her romantic life than she did her sex life. Ringley maintained her webcam site for eight months. Sources stated. Nate Lanxon of CNET said "remember this is 1996 and the Web as we know it now had lost its virginity, let alone given birth to the God-child we know as the modern Internet." On April 3, 1996, during her junior year at Dickinson College in Carlisle, the 19-year-old Ringley installed a webcam in her college dorm room and provided images from that cam on a webpage.
The webpage would automatically refresh every three minutes with the most recent picture from the camera. Anyone with Internet access could observe the mundane events of Ringley's life. JenniCam was one of the first web sites that voluntarily surveyed a private life, her first webcam contained only black-and-white images of her in the dorm room. JenniCam attracted up to four million views a day at its peak. At times during the first couple of years of JenniCam, Ringley performed stripteases for the webcam; this continued until an incident occurred wherein she was discovered by a group of hackers on Efnet who teased her for their own amusement. After she reacted humorously to their taunts, JenniCam was hacked, Ringley received death threats; the hackers turned out to be 100 people including a handful of teen pranksters, but Ringley did no more stripteases after that. The camera tended to be turned off during private moments, but this custom was abandoned, images were captured of Ringley engaging in sex.
In May 1997, Ringley graduated from Dickinson with a Bachelor of Arts in Economics. When Ringley moved to Washington, D. C. in 1998, she added webcams to cover the additional living space. She began charging for access to her site, allowing both paid and free access with the paid access updating the images more than the free access, she added more pages to her website that included pictures of her ferrets. Her site was doing well as she listed her profession as "web designer" for her site; as Ringley attracted a following both on and off the Internet, more than 100 media outlets from The Wall Street Journal to Modern Ferret ran features. Ringley owned several ferrets and Modern Ferret featured Jenni and one of her pets on the front cover; as an actress, she was cast in "Rear Windows'98," a 1998 episode of the TV series Diagnosis: Murder, portraying Joannecam, a fictionalized version of herself. She hosted her own Internet talk show titled The Jennishow on The Sync, an early webcasting network based in Laurel, Maryland.
Ringley's standard of living improved with a new larger apartment, expensive furniture and several business trips to Amsterdam with her accountant. She claimed that the experience improved her self body image. Ringley began to take trips to visit other cam girls, including Ana Voog of Anacam.com. At the height of her popularity, an estimated three to four million people watched JenniCam.org daily. She purchased the domain jennicam.com as well. She appeared July 1998 as a guest on the Late Show with David Letterman. At the end of the interview, after having been corrected once, Letterman plugged the site as Jennicam.net instead of the correct Jennicam.com. People visiting the non-existent Jennicam.net found a pornographic site with the greeting, "Thanks Dave". She appeared on The Today Show and World News Tonight With Peter Jennings. In 1999, clips from The Jennishow were included in the Museum of Modern Art's exhibition "Fame After Photography." When Ringley moved to Sacramento, she documented the boxing of her possessions with free live streaming and full audio.
Ringley received some criticism from
International Albinism Awareness Day is celebrated annually on June 13 to celebrate the human rights of persons with albinism worldwide. Around the mid-2000s, reports made public a rising number of violent attacks on and murders of persons with albinism in Tanzania. Many reports have accused perpetrators to attribute magical powers to the bodies of persons with albinism and, thus, to be motivated to use them for lucky charms and occult rituals; until 2015, perpetrators harmed many more. In response, the Tanzania Albinism Society and other NGOs began campaigning for the human rights of persons with albinism. TAS celebrated the first ‘Albino Day’ on May 4, 2006, it became ‘National Albino Day’ from 2009 onwards and was called'National Albinism Day'. On an international level, the Canadian NGO Under the Same Sun joined late Ambassador of the Mission of Somalia to the United Nations, Yusuf Mohamed Ismail Bari-Bari, in his effort to pass a resolution promoting and protecting the rights of persons with albinism.
Such a resolution came about when the Human Rights Council on June 13, 2013 adopted the first resolution on albinism. On, in its resolution 26/10 of June 26, 2014 the Human Rights Council recommended June 13 to be proclaimed as International Albinism Awareness Day by the United Nations' General Assembly; the UN's General Assembly adopted on December 18, 2014 resolution 69/170 to proclaim, with effect from 2015, June 13 as International Albinism Awareness Day. The chosen date is reminiscent of the UN’s first resolution, passed on June 13 a year before. Today, IAAD is celebrated around the world from Tanzania, to Argentina, to Senegal, to Fiji, the United Kingdom and Namibia; each year a theme is chosen to set the tone for the days celebrations. So far, they have been the following: Website for International Albinism Awareness Day United Nations' on International Albinism Awareness Day OHCHR on Albinism National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation in the United States on International Albinism Awareness Day
Frederick Merkle Bayer was an emeritus curator of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, as well as a prominent marine biologist who specialized in the study of soft corals. Frederick Bayer was born on Halloween night 1921, in Asbury Park, New Jersey, but spent much of his childhood in south Florida, where he collected seashells and became an amateur naturalist. Bayer joined the Army Air Forces from December 1942 to December 1945. While in the Army Air Forces, he was a photographic technician with the 36th Photo Reconnaissance unit in the Pacific War during World War II. While in the military, he sketched and collected fish and butterflies throughout New Guinea, the Philippines, Okinawa. Bayer received his bachelor's degree from the University of Miami, he continued his studies and obtained a master's degree in taxonomy from George Washington University in 1954. In 1958, he completed a doctorate in taxonomy from George Washington University. Bayer worked at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History from 1947 until 1961.
He returned to work at the museum again from 1975 until 1996. He served as a professor at the University of Miami's marine science school between 1961 and 1975. While at Miami, Bayer participated in a number of soft coral-collecting expeditions in the Caribbean Sea and in the waters off West Africa. Following his arrival at the Smithsonian, Bayer was sent to Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean to study the effects of nuclear testing on the island's marine life, as part of the re-survey conducted one year after the Able and Baker tests of 1946 were carried out. Bayer spent several months doing field research throughout the rest of Micronesia. Bayer wrote over 130 scholarly papers on the taxonomy of soft coral, he focused much of his soft coral research on octocorals. He discovered 170 new species of marine life, 40 new genera, three new families. Japan's Emperor Hirohito, a marine biologist named a hydroid, Hydractinia bayeri, in honor of Frederick Bayer. Bayer returned the favor while Hirohito was on a state visit to Washington, D.
C. in 1975. He presented Hirohito with a rare snail shell, the "size of a hat."Bayer served as a member of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature from 1972 to 1995. He was an accomplished bio-illustrator. Bayer designed a total of fourteen scientifically accurate marine scenes; these particular scenes were used for a set of Haitian postage stamps in 1973. Frederick Bayer died of congestive heart failure on October 2, 2007, at the Washington Home hospice in Washington D. C. at the age of 85. Taxa named in honor of Frederick Bayer include: Bayerxenia Alderslade, 2001 Bayericerithium Petuch, 2001 Bayerotrochus Harasewych, 2002 Bayergorgia Williams & López-González, 2005 Hydractinia bayeri Hirohito, 1984 Taxa named by Frederick Bayer include: gastropods: Babelomurex fax Babelomurex sentix Bayerotrochus midas Bayerotrochus pyramus Cyomesus chaunax and Teramachia chaunax Bayer, 1971 are synonyms of Latiromitra cryptodon Lyria cordis Bayer, 1971 Peristarium Bayer, 1971 Peristarium aurora Peristarium electra Peristarium merope Perotrochus amabilis Perotrochus lucaya Bayer, 1965 Scaphella evelina Bayer, 1971 Siphonochelus tityrus Thelyssa Bayer, 1971 Thelyssa callisto Bayer, 1971 Volutomitra erebus Bayer, 1971 Volutomitra persephone Bayer, 1971bivalves: Amphichama inezae Other malacologists named Bayer include: Charles Gustave François Hubert Bayer from Netherlands L. Bayer from Belgium/Africa portrait of Frederick Bayer publication list obituary of Frederick Bayer at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology website