A courtier is a person, in attendance at the court of a monarch or other royal personage. The earliest historical examples of courtiers were part of the retinues of rulers; the court was the centre of government as well as the residence of the monarch, the social and political life were completely mixed together. Monarchs often expected the more important nobles to spend much of the year in attendance on them at court. Not all courtiers were noble, as they included clergy, clerks, secretaries and middlemen with business at court. All those who held a court appointment could be called courtiers but not all courtiers held positions at court; those personal favourites without business around the monarch, sometimes called the camarilla, were considered courtiers. As social divisions became more rigid, a divide present in Antiquity or the Middle Ages, opened between menial servants and other classes at court, although Alexandre Bontemps, the head valet de chambre of Louis XIV, was a late example of a "menial" who managed to establish his family in the nobility.
The key commodities for a courtier were access and information, a large court operated at many levels: many successful careers at court involved no direct contact with the monarch. The largest and most famous European court was that of the Palace of Versailles at its peak, although the Forbidden City of Beijing was larger and more isolated from national life. Similar features marked the courts of all large monarchies, including in India, Topkapı Palace in Istanbul, Ancient Rome, Byzantium or the Caliphs of Baghdad or Cairo. Early medieval European courts travelled from place to place following the monarch as he travelled; this was the case in the early French court. But, the European nobility had independent power and was less controlled by the monarch until around the 18th century, which gave European court life greater complexity; the earliest courtiers coincide with the development of definable courts beyond the rudimentary entourages or retinues of rulers. There were courtiers in the courts of the Akkadian Empire where there is evidence of court appointments such as that of Cup-bearer, one of the earliest court appointments and remained a position at courts for thousands of years.
Two of the earliest titles referring to the general concept of a courtier were the ša rēsi and mazzāz pāni of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.. In Ancient Egypt we find a title translated as high great overseer of the house; the courts influenced by the court of the Neo-Assyrian Empire such as those of the Median Empire and the Achaemenid Empire had numerous courtiers After invading the Achaemenid Empire Alexander the Great returned with the concept of the complex court featuring a variety of courtiers to the Kingdom of Macedonia and Hellenistic Greece. The imperial court of the Byzantine Empire at Constantinople would contain at least a thousand courtiers; the court's systems became prevalent in other courts such as those in the Balkan states, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. Byzantinism is a term, coined for this spread of the Byzantine system in the 19th century. In modern English, the term is used metaphorically for contemporary political favourites or hangers-on. In modern literature, courtiers are depicted as insincere, skilled at flattery and intrigue and lacking regard for the national interest.
More positive representations include the role played by members of the court in the development of politeness and the arts. Examples of courtiers in fiction: Rosencrantz and Guildenstern from William Shakespeare's Hamlet. Sir Lancelot from Arthurian legend, Gríma Wormtongue from J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Count Hasimir Fenring and Gaius Helen Mohiam from Frank Herbert's Dune. Petyr Baelish and Varys from George R. R. Martin's A Song of Fire. Ivan Vorpatril from Lois McMaster Bujold's series Vorkosigan Saga. Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington from J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter books. Brokerage at the Court of Louis XIV, by Sharon Kettering. 1, pp. 69-87.
The Annals by Roman historian and senator Tacitus is a history of the Roman Empire from the reign of Tiberius to that of Nero, the years AD 14–68. The Annals are an important source for modern understanding of the history of the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD. Historian Ronald Mellor calls it "Tacitus's crowning achievement,” which represents the "pinnacle of Roman historical writing". Tacitus' Histories and Annals together amounted to 30 books. Of the 30 books referred to by Jerome about half have survived. Modern scholars believe that as a Roman senator, Tacitus had access to Acta Senatus—the Roman senate's records—which provided a solid basis for his work. Although Tacitus refers to part of his work as "my annals", the title of the work Annals used today was not assigned by Tacitus himself, but derives from its year-by-year structure; the name of the current manuscript seems to be "Books of History from the Death of the Divine Augustus". The Annals was Tacitus' final work and provides a key source for modern understanding of the history of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Tiberius in AD 14 to the end of the reign of Nero, in AD 68.
Tacitus wrote the Annals in at least 16 books, but books 7–10 and parts of books 5, 6, 11 and 16 are missing. The period covered by the Histories starts at the beginning of the year AD 69, i.e. six months after the death of Nero and continues to the death of Domitian in 96. It is not known when Tacitus began writing the Annals, but he was well into writing it by AD 116. Modern scholars believe that as a senator, Tacitus had access to Acta Senatus, the Roman senate's records, thus providing a solid basis for his work. Together the Histories and the Annals amounted to 30 books; these thirty books are referred to by Saint Jerome, about half of them have survived. Although some scholars differ on how to assign the books to each work, traditionally fourteen are assigned to Histories and sixteen to the Annals. Tacitus' friend Pliny referred to "your histories". Although Tacitus refers to part of his work as "my annals", the title of the work Annals used today was not assigned by Tacitus himself, but derives from its year-by-year structure.
Of the sixteen books in Annals, the reign of Tiberius takes up six books, of which only Book 5 is missing. These books are neatly divided into two sets of three, corresponding to the change in the nature of the political climate during the period; the next six books are devoted to the reigns of Claudius. Books 7 through 10 are missing. Books 11 & 12 cover the period from the treachery of Messalina to the end of Claudius' reign; the final four books cover the reign of Nero and Book 16 cuts off in the middle of the year AD 66. This leaves the material. Tacitus documented a Roman imperial system of government that originated with the Battle of Actium in September 31 BC, yet Tacitus chose not to start but with the death of Augustus Caesar in AD 14, his succession by Tiberius. As in the Histories, Tacitus maintains his thesis of the necessity of the principate, he says again that Augustus gave and warranted peace to the state after years of civil war, but on the other hand he shows us the dark side of life under the Caesars.
The history of the beginning of the principate is the history of the end of the political freedom that the senatorial aristocracy, which Tacitus viewed as morally decadent and servile towards the emperor, had enjoyed during the republic. During Nero's reign there had been a widespread diffusion of literary works in favor of this suicidal exitus illustrium virorum. Again, as in his Agricola, Tacitus is opposed to those who chose useless martyrdom through vain suicides. In the Annals, Tacitus further improved the style of portraiture that he had used so well in the Historiae; the best portrait is that of Tiberius, portrayed in an indirect way, painted progressively during the course of a narrative, with observations and commentary along the way filling in details. Tacitus portrays both Tiberius and Nero as tyrants, but while he views Tiberius as someone who had once been a great man, Tacitus considers Nero as despicable. Since the 18th century, at least five attempts have been made to challenge the authenticity of the Annals as having been written by someone other than Tacitus, Voltaire's criticism being the first.
Voltaire was critical of Tacitus and said that Tacitus did not comply with the standards for providing a historical background to civilization. In 1878, John Wilson Ross and, in 1890, Polydore Hochart suggested that the whole of the Annals had been forged by the Italian scholar Poggio Bracciolini. According to Robert Van Voorst this was an "extreme hypothesis" which never gained a following among modern scholars; the provenance of the manuscripts containing the Annals goes back to the Renaissance. While Bracciolini had discovered three minor works at Hersfeld Abbey in Germany in 1425, Zanobi da Strada had earlier discovered Annals 11–16 at Monte Cassino where he lived for some time; the copies of Annals at Monte Cassino were moved to Florence by Giovanni Boccaccio, a friend of da Strada, credited with their discovery at Monte Cassino. Regardless of whether the Monte Cassino manuscripts were moved to Florence by Boccaccio or da Strada, Boccaccio made use of
The gens Petronia was a plebeian family at ancient Rome. This gens claimed an ancient lineage, as a Petronius Sabinus is mentioned in the time of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last of the Roman kings, but few Petronii are mentioned in the time of the Republic, they are encountered under the Empire, holding numerous consulships, obtaining the Empire itself during the brief reign of Petronius Maximus in AD 455. The Petronii were of Sabine origin, as indicated by the surname Sabinus, belonging to the legendary figure from the time of Tarquin, alluded to by coins minted by Publius Petronius Turpilianus, depicting the death of Tarpeia, whom according to legend was persuaded by the Sabines under Titus Tatius to open the citadel to them, in the time of Romulus; the nomen Petronius appears to be a patronymic surname derived from the Oscan praenomen Petro or Petrus, the Oscan equivalent of the Latin Quartus and making Petronius cognate with a number of obscure Latin gentilicia, such as Quartius and Quartinius.
An alternative derivation would be from the cognomen Petrus, a rustic, although this may derive from the Oscan praenomen. Petronius belongs to a large class of gentilicia derived from other names ending in -o, most of which are plebeian; the early Petronii used the praenomina Gaius and Publius, all of which were common throughout Roman history. Other names occur toward the end of the second century AD, including Quintus and Sextus, but these may have been inherited from other families; this list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Petronius Sabinus, said to have copied the Sibylline Books during the reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, with the assistance of a certain Marcus Tullius or Atilius. Gaius Petronius, one of the legates sent to Asia Minor in 156 BC, in order to study the conflict between Attalus of Pergamon and Prusias of Bithynia. Marcus Petronius Passer, mentioned in passing by Varro in Rerum Rusticarum, his treatise on agriculture. Petronius, a military tribune serving in the army of Marcus Licinius Crassus, the triumvir, in 55 BC.
Petronius was with Crassus. Petronius, one of the conspirators in the assassination of Caesar, was apprehended by Marcus Antonius in Asia, put to death. Gaius Petronius, governor of Egypt, circa 25 to 21 BC, fought against Amanirenas of Kush known as "Candace of Aethiopia", took a number of towns. A friend of Herod, Petronius supplied Judaea with grain during a famine. Publius Petronius Turpilianus, triumvir monetalis in the time of Augustus, is known from a number of remarkable coins. Petronius the same person as the physician Marcus Petronius Heras, a writer on pharmacy mentioned by a number of sources, he must have lived toward the beginning of the first century AD. Marcus Petronius Heras, a physician mentioned in an inscription recorded by Jan Gruter the same person as the writer on pharmacy. Publius Petronius, consul suffectus in AD 19, serving from the Kalends of July to the end of the year. Gaius Petronius Umbrinus, consul suffectus for the months of September to December, AD 25. Petronius, the centurion charged with guarding the tomb of Jesus, in the non-canonical Gospel of Peter.
Publius Petronius, succeeded Lucius Vitellius as governor of Syria from AD 37 to 41, with orders to install a statue of Caligula in the Temple at Jerusalem. He was a legate pro praetore under Claudius. Gaius Petronius Pontius Nigrinus, consul in AD 37, the year which saw the death of Tiberius. Aulus Petronius Lurco, consul suffectus in AD 58, serving from the Kalends of July to the end of the year. Gaius Petronius Arbiter an intimate friend of Nero, noted for his decadence, he was appointed proconsul of Bithynia, held the consulship. Accused of treason, he weakened himself by bloodletting, until his death in AD 66, he is best known as the author of the Satyricon. Publius Petronius Turpilianus, consul in AD 61, governor of Britain from 61 to 63. After the suppression of the Pisonian conspiracy, he was among those to whom Nero awarded the triumphal insignia. Publius Petronius Niger, consul suffectus for the months of May to August in AD 62. Titus Petronius Niger, consul suffectus for the months of July and August in AD 63.
Petronius Priscus, banished by Nero in AD 66, after the conspiracy of Piso was suppressed. Tacitus gives no indication that Priscus was in any way involved in the conspiracy, instead suggesting that his exile was arbitrary, he was permitted to settle in the islands of the Aegean. Marcus Petronius Umbrinus, consul suffectus in AD 81 for the months of September and October. Petronius Secundus, praetorian prefect under Domitian, joined the conspiracy that led to the emperor's assassination. Lucius Petronius Sabinus, consul suffectus for the months of September and October, AD 145. Marcus Petronius Mamertinus, consul suffectus in AD 150. Marcus Petronius M. f. Sura Mamertinus, consul in AD 182. Marcus Petronius M. f. Sura Septimianus, brother of Sura Mamertinus, consul in AD 190. Petronia M. f. sister of Marcus Petronius Sura Mamertinus, married the senator Marcus Antoninus Antius Lupus. Petronius M. f. M. n. Antoninus, son of Marcus Petronius Sura Mamertinus. Quintus Petronius Didius Severus, father of the emperor Didius Julianus.
Lucius Fulvius Gavius Petronius Aemilianus, consul in AD 206. Lucius Petronius Taurus Volusianus, consul in AD 261, Praefectus Urbi, praetorian prefect under the emperor Gallienus. Petronius Annianus, consul in AD 314. Petronius Probianus, consul in AD 322. Petronius Probinus, consul in AD 341. Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus, consul in AD 371. Anicius Petronius Probus, consul in AD 406
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the name for each instance of that project; the project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, translations. Conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, it has expanded to become a general-content library; the project began in November 24, 2003 under the name Project Sourceberg, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later; the project holds works that are either in the public domain or licensed. Verification was made offline, or by trusting the reliability of other digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, which ensures the reliability and accuracy of the project's texts; some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, from comics to film to audio books. Some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question; the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. Wikisource's early history included several changes of name and location, the move to language subdomains in 2005; the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing primary evidence and original source texts, as an archive in its own right; the collection was focused on important historical and cultural material, distinguishing it from other digital archives such as Project Gutenberg. The project was called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages. In 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion.
Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this. In describing the proposed project, user The Cunctator said, "It would be to Project Gutenberg what Wikipedia is to Nupedia," soon clarifying the statement with "we don't want to try to duplicate Project Gutenberg's efforts. Project Sourceberg can work as an interface for linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, as an interface for people to submit new work to PG." Initial comments were sceptical, with Larry Sanger questioning the need for the project, writing "The hard question, I guess, is why we are reinventing the wheel, when Project Gutenberg exists? We'd want to complement Project Gutenberg--how, exactly?", Jimmy Wales adding "like Larry, I'm interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, whatever we want it to be."The project began its activity at ps.wikipedia.org.
The contributors understood the "PS" subdomain to mean either "primary sources" or Project Sourceberg. However, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. Project Sourceberg launched on November 24, 2003 when it received its own temporary URL, at sources.wikipedia.org, all texts and discussions hosted on ps.wikipedia.org were moved to the temporary address. A vote on the project's name changed it to Wikisource on December 6, 2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23, 2004. Since Wikisource was called "Project Sourceberg", its first logo was a picture of an iceberg. Two votes conducted to choose a successor were inconclusive, the original logo remained until 2006. For both legal and technical reasons – because the picture's license was inappropriate for a Wikimedia Foundation logo and because a photo cannot scale properly – a stylized vector iceberg inspired by the original picture was mandated to serve as the project's logo.
The first prominent use of Wikisource's slogan — The Free Library — was at the project's multilingual portal, when it was redesigned based upon the Wikipedia portal on August 27, 2005. As in the Wikipedia portal the Wikisource slogan appears around the logo in the project's ten largest languages. Clicking on the portal's central images links to a list of translations for Wikisource and The Free Library in 60 languages. A MediaWiki extension called ProofreadPage was developed for Wikisource by developer ThomasV to improve the vetting of transcriptions by the project; this displays pages of scanned works side-by-side with the text relating to that page, allowing the text to be proofread and its accuracy verified independently by any other editor. Once a book, or other text, has been scanned, the raw images can be modified with image processing software to correct for page rotations and other problems; the retouched images can be converted into a PDF or DjVu file and uploaded to either Wikis
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the legendary seventh and final King of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic. He is known as Tarquin the Proud, from his cognomen Superbus. Ancient accounts of the regal period mingle legend. Tarquin was said to have been the son or grandson of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, to have gained the throne through the murders of both his wife and his elder brother, followed by the assassination of his predecessor, Servius Tullius, his reign is described as a tyranny. Tarquin was said to be the son or grandson of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, Tanaquil. Tanaquil had engineered her husband's succession to the Roman kingdom on the death of Ancus Marcius; when the sons of Marcius subsequently arranged the elder Tarquin's assassination in 579 BC, Tanaquil placed Servius Tullius on the throne, in preference to her own sons. According to an Etruscan tradition, the hero Macstarna equated with Servius Tullius and killed a Roman named Gnaeus Tarquinius, rescued the brothers Caelius and Aulus Vibenna from captivity.
This may recollect an otherwise forgotten attempt by the sons of Tarquin the elder to reclaim the throne. To forestall further dynastic strife, Servius married his daughters, known to history as Tullia Major and Tullia Minor, to Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the future king, his brother Arruns. Tarquin's sister, married Marcus Junius Brutus, was the mother of Lucius Junius Brutus, one of the men who would lead the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom; the elder sister, Tullia Major, was of mild disposition, yet married the ambitious Tarquin. Her younger sister, Tullia Minor, was of fiercer temperament, she came to despise him, conspired with Tarquin to bring about the deaths of Tullia Major and Arruns. After the murder of their spouses and Tullia were married. Together, they had three sons: Titus and Sextus, a daughter, who married Octavius Mamilius, the prince of Tusculum. Tullia encouraged her husband to advance his own position persuading him to usurp Servius. Tarquin solicited the support of the patrician senators those from families who had received their senatorial rank under Tarquin the Elder.
He bestowed presents upon them, spread criticism of Servius the king. In time, Tarquin felt ready to seize the throne, he went to the senate-house with a group of armed men, sat himself on the throne, summoned the senators to attend upon King Tarquin. He spoke to the senators, denigrating Servius as a slave born of a slave; when word of this brazen deed reached Servius, he hurried to the curia to confront Tarquin, who leveled the same accusations against his father-in-law, in his youth and vigor carried the king outside and flung him down the steps of the senate-house and into the street. The king's retainers fled, as he made his way and unattended, toward the palace, the aged Servius was set upon and murdered by Tarquin's assassins on the advice of his own daughter. Tullia, drove in her chariot to the senate-house, where she was the first to hail her husband as king, but Tarquin bade her return home, concerned. As she drove toward the Urbian Hill, her driver stopped horrified at the sight of the king's body, lying in the street.
But in a frenzy, Tullia herself seized the reins, drove the wheels of her chariot over her father's corpse. The king's blood spattered against the chariot and stained Tullia's clothes, so that she brought a gruesome relic of the murder back to her house; the street where Tullia disgraced the dead king afterward became known as the Vicus Sceleratus, the Street of Crime. Tarquin commenced his reign by refusing to bury the dead Servius, putting to death a number of leading senators, whom he suspected of remaining loyal to Servius. By not replacing the slain senators, not consulting the senate on matters of government, he diminished both the size and the authority of the senate. In another break with tradition, Tarquin judged capital crimes without the advice of counselors, causing fear amongst those who might think to oppose him, he made a powerful ally when he betrothed his daughter to Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum, among the most eminent of the Latin chiefs. Early in his reign, Tarquin called a meeting of the Latin leaders to discuss the bonds between Rome and the Latin towns.
The meeting was held at a grove sacred to the goddess Ferentina. At the meeting, Turnus Herdonius inveighed against Tarquin's arrogance, warned his countrymen against trusting the Roman king. Tarquin bribed Turnus' servant to store a large number of swords in his master's lodging. Tarquin called together the Latin leaders, accused Turnus of plotting his assassination; the Latin leaders accompanied Tarquin to Turnus' lodging and, the swords being discovered, the Latin's guilt was speedily inferred. Turnus was condemned to be thrown into a pool of water in the grove, with a wooden frame, or cratis, placed over his head, into which stones were thrown, drowning him; the meeting of the Latin chiefs continued, T
The Satyricon, Satyricon liber, or Satyrica, is a Latin work of fiction believed to have been written by Gaius Petronius, though the manuscript tradition identifies the author as Titus Petronius. The Satyricon is an example of Menippean satire, different from the formal verse satire of Juvenal or Horace; the work contains a mixture of verse. As with the Metamorphoses of Apuleius, classical scholars describe it as a "Roman novel", without implying continuity with the modern literary form; the surviving portions of the text detail the misadventures of the narrator, Encolpius, a retired, famous gladiator of the area, his slave and sexual partner Giton, a handsome sixteen-year-old boy. It is one of the two most extensive witnesses to the Roman novel, the only other being the extant Metamorphoses of Apuleius, which has significant differences in style and plot. Satyricon is regarded as useful evidence for the reconstruction of how lower classes lived during the early Roman Empire. Encolpius: The narrator and principal character Giton: A handsome sixteen-year-old boy, a slave and a sexual partner of Encolpius Ascyltos: An ex-gladiator and friend of Encolpius, rival for the ownership of Giton Trimalchio: An vulgar and wealthy freedman Eumolpus: An aged and lecherous poet of the sort rich men are said to hate Lichas: An enemy of Encolpius Tryphaena: A woman infatuated with Giton Corax: A barber, the hired servant of Eumolpus Circe: A woman attracted to Encolpius Chrysis: Circe's servant in love with Encolpius The work is narrated by its central figure, Encolpius, a retired, famous gladiator of the area.
The surviving sections of the novel begin with Encolpius traveling with a companion and former lover named Ascyltos, who has joined Encolpius on numerous escapades. Encolpius' slave, Giton, is at his owner's lodging. In the first passage preserved, Encolpius is in a Greek town in Campania Puteoli, where he is standing outside a school, railing against the Asiatic style and false taste in literature, which he blames on the prevailing system of declamatory education, his adversary in this debate is Agamemnon, a sophist, who shifts the blame from the teachers to the parents. Encolpius discovers that his companion Ascyltos has left and breaks away from Agamemnon when a group of students arrive. Encolpius locates Ascyltos and Giton, who claims that Ascyltos made a sexual attempt on him. After raising their voices against each other, the fight ends in laughter and the friends reconcile but still agree to split at a date. Encolpius tries to have sex with Giton, but he's interrupted by Ascyltos, who assaults him after catching the two in bed.
The three go to the market. Returning to their lodgings, they are confronted by Quartilla, a devotee of Priapus, who condemns their attempts to pry into the cult's secrets; the companions are overpowered by Quartilla, her maids, an aged male prostitute, who sexually torture them provide them with dinner and engage them in further sexual activity. An orgy ensues and the sequence ends with Encolpius and Quartilla exchanging kisses while they spy through a keyhole at Giton having sex with a virgin girl; this section of the Satyricon, regarded by classicists such as Conte and Rankin as emblematic of Menippean satire, takes place a day or two after the beginning of the extant story. Encolpius and companions are invited by one of Agamemnon's slaves, to a dinner at the estate of Trimalchio, a freedman of enormous wealth, who entertains his guests with ostentatious and grotesque extravagance. After preliminaries in the baths and halls, the guests enter the dining room, where their host joins them. Extravagant courses are served while Trimalchio flaunts his pretence of learning.
Trimalchio's departure to the toilet allows space for conversation among the guests. Encolpius listens to their ordinary talk about their neighbours, about the weather, about the hard times, about the public games, about the education of their children. In his insightful depiction of everyday Roman life, Petronius delights in exposing the vulgarity and pretentiousness of the illiterate and ostentatious wealthy of his age. After Trimalchio's return from the lavatory, the succession of courses is resumed, some of them disguised as other kinds of food or arranged to resemble certain zodiac signs. Falling into an argument with Agamemnon, Trimalchio reveals that he once saw the Sibyl of Cumae, who because of her great age was suspended in a flask for eternity. Supernatural stories about a werewolf and witches are told. Following a lull in the conversation, a stonemason named Habinnas arrives with his wife Scintilla, who compares jewellery with Trimalchio's wife Fortunata. Trimalchio sets forth his will and gives Habinnas instructions on how to build his monument when he is dead.
Encolpius and his companions, by now wearied and disgusted, try to leave as the other guests proceed to the baths, but are prevented by a porter. They escape; the vigiles, mistaking the sound of horns for a signal that a fire has broken out, burst into the residence. Using this sudden alarm as an excuse to get rid of the sophist Agamemnon, whose company Encolpius and his friends are weary of, they flee as if from a real fire. Enco
According to Roman tradition, Lucretia or Lucrece was a noblewoman in ancient Rome whose rape by Sextus Tarquinius, an Etruscan king's son, was the cause of a rebellion that overthrew the Roman monarchy and led to the transition of Roman government from a kingdom to a republic. There are no contemporary sources; the incident kindled the flames of dissatisfaction over the tyrannical methods of the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. As a result, the prominent families instituted a republic, drove the extensive royal family of Tarquin from Rome, defended the republic against attempted Etruscan and Latian intervention; as a result of its sheer impact, the rape itself became a major theme in European art and literature. One of the first two consuls of the Roman Republic, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus was Lucretia's husband. All the numerous sources on the establishment of the republic reiterate the basic events of Lucretia's story, though accounts vary slightly. Lucretia's story is not considered a myth by most historians, but rather a historical legend about an early history, a major part of Roman folklore before it was first written about.
The evidence points to the historical existence of a woman named Lucretia and a historical incident that played a critical part in the real downfall of a real monarchy. Many of the specific details, are debatable, vary depending on the writer. Post-Roman uses of the legend became mythical in portrayal, being of artistic rather than historical merit; as the events of the story move the date of the incident is the same year as the first of the fasti. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a major source, sets this year "at the beginning of the sixty-eighth Olympiad... Isagoras being the annual archon at Athens". Lucretia therefore died in 508 BC; the other historical sources tend to support this date, but the year is debatable within a range of about five years. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome, being engaged in the siege of Ardea, sent his son, Tarquin, on a military errand to Collatia. Tarquin was received with great hospitality at the governor's mansion, home of Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, son of the king's nephew, Arruns Tarquinius, former governor of Collatia and first of the Tarquinii Collatini.
Collatinus' wife, daughter of Spurius Lucretius, prefect of Rome, "a man of distinction," made sure that the king's son was treated as became his rank, although her husband was away at the siege. In a variant of the story and Collatinus, at a wine party on furlough, were debating the virtues of wives when Collatinus volunteered to settle the debate by all of them riding to his home to see what Lucretia was doing, she was weaving with her maids. The party awarded her the palm of victory and Collatinus invited them to visit, but for the time being they returned to camp. At night, Tarquin entered her bedroom by stealth going around the slaves who were sleeping at her door, she awakened. He identified himself and offered her two choices: she could submit to his sexual advances and become his wife and future queen, or he would kill her and one of her slaves and place the bodies together claim he had caught her having adulterous sex. In the alternative story, he returned from camp a few days with one companion to take Collatinus up on his invitation to visit and was lodged in a guest bedroom.
He entered Lucretia's room while she lay naked in her bed and started to wash her belly with water, which woke her up. Tarquin returned to camp; the next day Lucretia dressed in black and went to her father's house in Rome and cast herself down in the supplicant's position, weeping. Asked to explain herself, she insisted on first summoning witnesses and after disclosing the rape, called on them for vengeance, a plea that could not be ignored, as she was speaking to the chief magistrate of Rome. While they were debating the proper course of action, she drew a concealed dagger and stabbed herself in the heart, she died with the women present keening and lamenting. "This dreadful scene struck the Romans who were present with so much horror and compassion that they all cried out with one voice that they would rather die a thousand deaths in defence of their liberty than suffer such outrages to be committed by the tyrants."In the alternative version, she did not go to Rome, but sent for her father and her husband asking them to bring one friend each.
Those selected were Publius Valerius Publicola from Rome and Lucius Junius Brutus from the camp at Ardea. They found Lucretia in her room, she explained what had happened and after exacting an oath of vengeance—"Pledge me your solemn word that the adulterer shall not go unpunished."— and while they were discussing the matter, drew the poignard and stabbed herself in her heart. In another version Collatinus and Brutus were encountered returning to Rome unaware, were briefed, were brought to the death scene. Brutus happened to be a politically motivated participant. By kinship he was a Tarquin on his mother's side, the son of Tarquinia, daughter of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the third king before last, he was a candidate for the throne. By law, however, as he was a Junius on his father's side, he was not a Tarquin and therefore could propose the exile of the Tarquins without fear for himself. Superbus had taken his