click links in text for more info


The Tabacco people, Tobacco nation, the Petun, or Tionontati in their Iroquoian language, were a historical First Nations band government related to the Huron Confederacy. Their homeland was located along the southwest edge of Georgian Bay of Lake Huron, in the area to the west of the Huron territory in Southern Ontario of present-day Canada. One of the smaller Iroquoian tribes when they became known to Europeans, they had eight to ten villages around the 1610s, may have numbered several thousand prior to European contact; the French missionaries of the early 1600s named them the Tobacco Nation because they grew large quantities of tobacco, which they traded extensively. Following decimation by Eurasian infectious diseases after 1634, such as smallpox, to which Native Americans had no immunity, both the Huron-Wendat and Petun societies were in a weakened state through the late 1630s-1640s. Although they each spoke Iroquoian languages, they were independent of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based south of the Great Lakes in present-day New York.

The powerful Iroquois sent raiding parties against the smaller tribes in 1648–1649 as part of the Beaver Wars associated with the lucrative fur trade, destroyed them. Some remnant Petun joined with refugee Huron to become the Huron–Petun Nation, who were known as the Wyandot. AAAMAAJ&pg=PA228&dq=Petun+french+word+for+tobacco+New+france&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj74MucraPXAhUH04MKHfOBAUAQ6AEIODAD#v=onepage&q=Petun%20french%20word%20for%20tobacco%20New%20france&f=false, p=228</ref> from an old French word for tobacco, because of their industrious cultivation of that plant. The word Pétun was derived from comeslanguage; the word became obsolete in the French language. In the Iroquoian Mohawk language, the name for tobacco is O-ye-aug-wa. French colonial traders in the Ohio Valley transliterated the Mohawk name as Guyandotte, their spelling of how it sounded in their language. European-American settlers in the valley adopted this name, they named the Guyandotte River in south-western West Virginia for the Wendat people, who had migrated to the area during the Beaver Wars of the late seventeenth century.

Under settler pressure, the Wendat were forced to move further west to Ohio territory. In the 1830s during the period of Indian Removal, most removed to Indian Territory in present-day Kansas and Oklahoma. Two tribes are federally recognized in the United States: the Wyandotte Nation and the Wyandot Nation of Kansas; the Jesuit Relations of 1652 describes the practice of tattooing among the Petun and the Neutrals: And this in some nations is so common that in the one which we called the Tobacco, in that which – on account of enjoying peace with the Hurons and with the Iroquois – was called Neutral, I know not whether a single individual was found, not painted in this manner, on some part of the body. The Petun nation shared a similar dialect with the Huron Nation and many of the same cultural customs, they had an alliance with the Neutral Nation and with the Ottawa, or Odawa, an Algonquian-speaking nation. By 1648 this nation, along with the Huron, Erie and Wenro nations, were under attack by warriors of the Iroquois Confederacy.

Many were destroyed in 1650 or 1651. Members who survived split into several groups, one traveling to Quebec to present day Wendake, some traveling north to Mackinac and returning to the historic Detroit River region lands as the new Wyandot Nation with Cadillac’s forces and their Odawa partners, while some were forcibly absorbed by the Iroquois or by other nations; some of the Petun joined with the Huron to create the Petun-Huron nation. After years of wandering and living in various areas of the Great Lakes, this group was living near Detroit by 1701 and claimed land north of the Ohio River, they began to trade in Pennsylvania, where they were called a corruption of Wendat. In 1843, they were all resettled in Wyandotte County, Kansas and in 1867, the American government gave them land in Indian Territory, now northeastern Oklahoma. St. Lawrence Iroquoians Mohawk Onondaga Oneida Cayuga Seneca Chonnonton Erie Susquehannock Petun Wenro Huron Cherokee Meherrin Nottoway Tuscarora, left the Carolinas after the wars, migrated to New York by 1722

Hank Heifetz

Henry S. Heifetz is an American poet, documentarian and translator, he has published poems in various collections and journals, one novel, critical writings on film and other topics, numerous translations of Spanish to English, translations of ancient Sanskrit and Tamil poetry into American English verse. His translation of Kalidasa's "Kumarasambhavam," entitled "The Origin of the Young God", was selected as one of the twenty-five best books of the year by the Village Voice in 1990. Heifetz has lived and traveled extensively in India, Latin America and Turkey, he has translated works in several languages, including Spanish and Sanskrit, he has taught writing, film and Indian studies at universities including Yale University, Mount Holyoke College, Wesleyan University, City University of New York, San Jose State University, the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He has completed a new novel and a collection of his own poetry for publication as well as working on a poetic translation of a Sanskrit epic poem.

Henry Saul Heifetz was born May 20, 1935 in the Dorchester-Mattapan area of Boston, Massachusetts, a working-class Jewish neighborhood. Henry and his older brother, were the children of Lithuanian immigrants, Edward, a vegetable-truck driver and Dina, a homemaker. Heifetz graduated from Boston Latin School and was the first member of his immediate family to go to college, attending Harvard University with a full scholarship. In 1957 he married Natasha Alpert, with whom he had two children, a son, a daughter, Samara, he graduated from Harvard in 1959 with a Bachelor of Arts degree, Summa cum Laude, in English and American Literature. After graduation, Heifetz was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship and traveled to Europe where he studied and taught for three years before returning to the United States and settling in New York City in 1962. In New York he began his first novel, "Where Are the Stars in New York?", which he completed after moving to California in 1968. He attended the University of California, where he completed a master's degree in South and Southeast Asian studies in 1979.

In 1983 Heifetz received a PhD with distinction in South Asian studies, with an emphasis on Sanskrit and Tamil, from the University of California, Berkeley. After completing his doctoral degree, Heifetz taught in the Department of South Asian Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, it was there that he met Mira Binford, a filmmaker and academic, who became and remains his life partner. They now divide their time between New York Hamden Connecticut. Heifetz has published many literary translations of articles and books. Among his numerous translations of poetry from Sanskrit and Tamil to English, his version of Kalidasa's "Kumarasambhavam," "The Origin of the Young God", is considered an unparalleled accomplishment. Geoffrey O'Brien wrote in the Village Voice, "The most exciting book of new poetry I've read in the last several years is a translation of a 1600-year-old Sanskrit epic. Hank Heifetz has had the audacity to take on a formally elaborate, densely allusive masterpiece in which rhythm and wordplay are crucial--and the gift to make American poetry out of it."

The poem composed about AD 400, is considered the greatest long poem in classical Sanskrit. It is the love story of Shiva and Parvati, the god and the goddess, who are viewed as lovers and as cosmic principles. In an article in the Journal of South Asian Literature, John E. Cort noted that a new approach to translating Sanskrit poetry into English is "best exemplified in Hank Heifetz's excellent translation of Kalidasa's Kumarasambhavam,'The Origin of the Young God', a translation which marks a new departure for translations of Sanskrit into English, should remain a model for all translators for decades." Poet Robert Creeley wrote of "The Origin of the Young God", "This remarkable translation...holds its active authority as poetry exceptional literary accomplishment." Heifetz's translations of classical Tamil poetry, in collaboration with the distinguished scholar of Tamil, George L. Hart, include major works untranslated as poetry to poetry. "The Four Hundred Songs of War and Wisdom", for instance, had been translated into English prose, but with the participation of Heifetz, the new translation retained the work's poetic form and beauty.

In 2002, Heifetz and Hart were awarded the A. K. Ramanujan Book Prize, in recognition of the quality of their translation. George Hart's "Poets of the Tamil Anthologies: Ancient Poems of Love and War", for which Heifetz was a poetic advisor, was a finalist for the National Book Award in Translation in 1980. On the translation by Heifetz and Hart of "The Forest Book of the Ramayana of Kampan", noted scholar of Tamil, Kamil Zvelebil wrote: "A translation that conveys the sense of the Tamil original as one of the great masterpieces of world literature fills us with admiration and gratitude... penetrating knowledge of the original text coupled with genuine poetic inspiration." Heifetz has worked on poetically revising translations from the Telugu language done by Professor Velcheru Narayana Rao,In addition to the translations of Indian poetry, Heifetz has translated many articles and books from Spanish to English. Working with the Mexican intellectual, Enrique Krauze, Heifetz translated a series of articles by Krauze for The New York Times, The New York Review of Books, others.

Heifetz acted as translator and reviser of two books by Krauze, "Mexico: Biography of Power", "Redeemers: Ideas and Power in Latin America". "Mexico: Biography of Power" was included

Angelo Ramazzotti

Angelo Francesco Ramazzotti was an Italian Roman Catholic who served as the Patriarch of Venice. He established the Pontifical Institute for Foreign Missions in 1850. Ramazzotti had served as the Bishop of Pavia prior to his relocation to Venice and died less than a week before Pope Pius IX could elevate him to the cardinalate, he became well known across Venice for his love of the people and for his careful attention and consideration of the social and pastoral issues that faced the archdiocese. He brought to Venice his sense of calmness and resolve in tending to the social needs of the poor and to all people in general as a means of rekindling the Christian virtues in Venice, his cause of beatification has commenced and he was bestowed with the title of Servant of God in 1976. Pope Francis recognized his life of heroic virtue and conferred upon him the title of Venerable on 14 December 2015. Angelo Francesco Ramazzotti was born in Milan on 3 August 1800 as the second of two sons to Giuseppe Ramazzotti and Giulia Maderna.

His elder brother was Filippo. He received confirmation in October 1806 and felt his religious vocation which awakened in him a desire to become part of the priesthood, he studied in Pavia where he obtained a doctorate in both canon law and civil law on 10 August 1823. He practiced law until 1826, he received the minor orders on 22 December 1826 and 21 December 1827. Ramazzotti received the subdiaconate on 14 March 1829 and the diaconate on 4 April 1829, he was ordained to the priesthood on 13 June 1829. He became a member of the Oblate Missionaries of Rho after his ordination, he was elected as the order's superior-general three times. Pope Pius IX appointed him as the Bishop of Pavia in 1850 and he received episcopal consecration a month after the appointment in the church of San Carlo al Corso on 30 June 1850, he accepted in obedience to the pontiff. He was installed on 20 September 1850, he looked after the needs of the people. He visited the sick in hospitals and created institutions to shelter orphans and abandoned children.

He founded the Pontifical Institute for Foreign Missions in 1850 and was promoted as the Patriarch of Venice in 1858. A surprised Ramazzotti appealed to the pope to rethink the appointment but his pleas were ignored. Official news on 22 August 1861 revealed that Ramazzotti would be promoted to the cardinalate on 27 September 1861 and when he heard he attempted to dissuade Pope Pius IX from the elevation due to his poor health - he suffered from angina pectoris, he made an appeal to Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli on the grounds on his financial condition that he could not afford the expenses for the cardinalate. Angelo Ramazzotti died on 24 September 1861 in Crespano del Grappa where he had gone in order to recover from his ailments. Bishop Giovanni Antonio Farina - future saint - celebrated his funeral and he was buried in Saint Mark's Basilica, his remains were transferred to Milan on 3 March 1957. The Patriarch of Venice, Cardinal Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. Roncalli hailed Ramazzotti as a "true saint".

The cause of beatification commenced under Pope Paul VI on 13 February 1976. This bestowed him with the posthumous title of Servant of God; the process commenced on a diocesan level at the same time which concluded its work on 16 February 1978. That process was validated on 4 December 1998; the Positio - which documented his life of heroic virtue - was submitted to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in Rome in 1999. The historical consultants to the cause met in 2014 and the theological consultants approved the documentation on 3 March 2015, it went to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints before it could go to the pope for approval - that meeting of the congregation took place on 3 November 2015 though further discussions were held on 1 December 2015. Pope Francis recognized his life of heroic virtue on 14 December 2015 which allowed him to confer upon him the title of Venerable. A miracle is required to be attributed to his intercession for beatification. Works by or about Angelo Ramazzotti at Internet Archive Hagiography Circle Catholic Hierarchy Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Joseph G. Butler Jr.

Joseph Green Butler Jr. was an American industrialist and popular historian. He is remembered for establishing the first museum in the United States dedicated to American art, he was born in the industrial town of Temperance Furnace, Mercer County, the son of Joseph Green and Temperance Butler. His family's presence in the country traced back to the period preceding the American Revolution. Joseph G. Butler Jr.'s Anglo-Irish ancestors emigrated from the vicinity of Dublin to colonial America in 1759. According to Joseph G. Butler Jr.'s obituary, his father, Joseph Green Butler, was a "widely known iron manufacturer and blast furnace expert". His grandfather, Joseph Butler, established the first blast furnace in central Pennsylvania; when Butler was still a child, his family relocated to Niles, where he attended a village school along with future president William McKinley. Butler became involved in the iron business at the age of 30. In time, his industrial activities centered on Youngstown, where he became a pivotal figure in the community's transition from iron to steel production.

In 1892, he joined local industrialist Henry Wick in the organization of the Ohio Steel Company, which built two Bessemer plants along the Mahoning River, just northwest of Youngstown. The company went into production in 1895, only to be sold four years to the Pittsburgh-based National Steel Company. In 1901, the local plant became the Ohio Works of the Carnegie Steel Company, part of the U. S. Steel Corporation. Butler's influence extended well beyond Ohio, however. By the early 20th century, he was a nationally known industrialist who served as director of the American Iron and Steel Institute, president of the Portage Silica Company, a director of the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company, Pennsylvania & Lake Erie Dock Company and Suburban Railway Company and Ohio Power & Light Company, Commercial National Bank of Youngstown. Among American industrialists, he was known affectionately as "Uncle Joe". Butler's most celebrated legacy is the Butler Institute of American Art, located near the modern-day campus of Youngstown State University.

He established the institution in 1919. The industrialist's commitment to this groundbreaking museum was reflected in his last will and testament. According to contemporary news accounts, Butler left the bulk of his $1,500,000 estate to the Butler Institute. Scarcely more than three decades after Butler's death, Time magazine published a feature story which described the art museum as "booming". In a passage that praised the late industrialist's vision as well as its realization, the magazine's editors wrote: "To set the American tone of the place, he planted a befeathered bronze Indian in front of the $500,000 colonnaded building designed by the Manhattan firm of McKim, Mead & White. With Youngstown University nearby, the two blocks surrounding the museum soon developed into the cultural strip of the U. S.'s third biggest steel center". As a philanthropist and community leader, Butler was instrumental in the conception and realization of other civic projects, including Niles' National McKinley Birthplace Memorial, a monument to the memory of his personal friend, President William J. McKinley.

In addition, Butler was the author of several well-received historical works, including an overview of the development of the U. S. steel industry, a history of the Mahoning Valley, a biography of President McKinley. His published works include a volume titled, Presidents I Have Seen and Known. Butler was acquainted with every U. S. president from Abraham Lincoln to Calvin Coolidge. Joseph G. Butler Jr. died on the eve of his 87th birthday. A memorial service held at the Butler Institute of American Art featured a eulogy delivered by Youngstown educator O. L. Reid; the speaker highlighted Butler's rare combination of pragmatism and artistic sensibility when he stated, "His fathers were iron masters and in some of them must have been a keen rush of joy before the sheer beauty of the white flame of their furnaces". Butler's funeral services were held at St. John's Episcopal Church, in Youngstown, his remains were interred at Belmont Park Cemetery, in nearby Liberty, Ohio. Works by Joseph G. Butler Jr. at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Joseph G. Butler Jr. at Internet Archive

Kaliya Nayanar

Kaliya Nayanar known as Kalia Nayanar, Kaliya and Kaliyar, is a Nayanar saint, venerated in the Hindu sect of Shaivism. He is counted as the forty-fourth in the list of 63 Nayanars; the Nayanar saint is described to serve the god Shiva by lighting lamps in his Thyagaraja Temple. He is said to have been willing to cut his throat to fill the lamps with his blood, when he ran out of oil; the life of Kaliya Nayanar is described in the Periya Puranam by Sekkizhar, a hagiography of the 63 Nayanars. Kaliya Nayanar was the merchant caste, he was an oil-monger from Thiruvottriyur, presently in the city premises of India. It is famous for its Thyagaraja Temple, dedicated to the patron god of Shaivism. Kaliya is said to have lived on the Chakrapadi Street in Thiruvottriyur. Kaliya was wealthy, he served Shiva by keeping the lamps in the temple lit night. To test Kaliya's devotion and reveal his absolute love for Shiva to the world, Shiva made his wealth diminish over time. However, Kaliya continued his service by supplying oil for lighting the lamps at the temple.

His family refused to help him with the service. He worked as a daily wage labourer to pay for the oil, unmindful of his status, he worked in borrowed oil from work to light the lamps of the temple. As the people working in the oil business grew, he lost his source of income as a labourer, he sold his properties. When all his oil was over, he decided to kill himself to fulfil his commitment to Shiva, he took a knife to slit his throat. However, Shiva caught hold of his hand. Shiva appeared with his consort blessed Kaliya, whose wound magically healed. Kaliya was granted a place in Shiva's abode Kailash. A holy day in the Tamil month of Adi, when the moon enters the Jyeshtha nakshatra is assigned for worship of Kaliya Nayanar. Kaliya Nayanar receives collective worship as part of the 63 Nayanars, their icons and brief accounts of his deeds are found in many Shiva temples in Tamil Nadu. Their images are taken out in procession in festivals

Rollins College

Rollins College is a private liberal arts college in Winter Park, Florida. It was founded in 1885 and is a member of the SACS, NASM, ACS, FDE, AAM, AACSB International, Council for Accreditation of Counseling, Related Educational Programs. Rollins has several graduate programs. Rollins College is Florida's oldest post-secondary institution, has been independent and coeducational from conception. Lucy Cross, founder of the Daytona Institute in 1880, first placed the matter of establishing a college in Florida before the Congregational Churches in 1884. In 1885, the Church put her on the committee in charge of determining the location of the first college in Florida. Cross is known as the "Mother of Rollins College." Rollins was incorporated and named in the Lyman Park building in nearby Sanford, Florida on 28 April 1885, opening for classes in Winter Park on November 4 of that year. It was established by New England Congregationalists who sought to bring their style of liberal arts education to the frontier St. John's basin.

A commemorative plaque listing the names of the founders was dedicated 1 March 1954 and is displayed in historic Downtown Sanford. Early benefactors of Rollins College included Chicago businessman Alonzo Rollins, for whom the college is named. Rollins made substantial donations to enable the founding of the college, was a trustee and its first treasurer. Another early benefactor was Franklin Fairbanks of Vermont. Fairbanks was President of the family business, Fairbanks Scales, was a founder of Winter Park, a donor to Rollins College and a trustee. In March of 1936 during a visit to Central Florida, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was conferred an honorary degree in literature at the Knowles Chapel on campus. Other U. S. Presidents who have visited the campus include Calvin Coolidge, Harry Truman, Ronald Reagan, Barack Obama In March 1933, President Hamilton Holt fired John Andrew Rice, an atheist scholar and unorthodox teacher, whom Holt had hired, along with three other "golden personalities", in his push to put Rollins on the cutting edge of innovative education.

Holt required all professors to make a "loyalty pledge" to keep their jobs. The publicized case was investigated by the American Association of University Professors, it is known as the "Rollins College Case" among historians of tenure; the American Association of University Professors censured Rollins. Rice and the three other golden personalities, all of them dismissed for refusing to make the loyalty pledge, founded Black Mountain College. In October 1994, the school made international headlines when the government of Japan, per the request of its Okinawa Prefecture, asked for the return of a statue, taken as war loot after the Battle of Okinawa in 1945 by Clinton C. Nichols, a then-lieutenant commander in the United States Navy and a Rollins alum. Nichols had presented the statue of Ninomiya Sontoku, a prominent 19th-century Japanese agricultural leader, philosopher and economist, to then-President Hamilton Holt, who promised to keep the statue permanently in the main lobby of the Warren Administration Building.

At first, the school rejected the offer made by Okinawan officials, who suggested that a replica of the statue will be presented to the school if the original was returned to the island. S. State Department and the school's board of trustees, then-President Rita Bornstein accepted the offer and the statue was returned to Okinawa in 1995 in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II. In addition to providing the school with a replica of the original statue, the government of Okinawa and Rollins signed "an agreement of cooperation" that pledges to develop additional cooperative projects between the College and Shogaku Junior and Senior High School, the Okinawan school where the original statue has been placed. On March 31, 1998, the body of Jennifer Leah Kairis, a sophomore student, was found in her Ward Hall dormitory room by a residential assistant. Kairis, who had attended a fraternity party held by the Tau Kappa Epsilon chapter on campus hours before she had died, was both intoxicated and had a large amount of prescription drugs in her system.

At first, the assistant medical examiner at the Orange County coroner's office ruled Kairis' death as a homicide. However, that conclusion was changed after Dr. Shashi Gore, the county's chief medical examiner ruled that she had died as a result of an accidental prescription drug overdose. Kairis' parents, who always believed their daughter was raped and murdered by her college boyfriend, requested a lengthy state investigation into their daughter's death due to their belief that the Winter Park Police Department botched the case. On March 4, 2004, Dr. Bruce Hyma, the Miami-Dade County chief medical examiner and expert toxicologist hired by State Attorney Lawson Lamar ruled that Kairis had committed suicide via a prescription drug overdose; the seven-year investigation was closed on April 13, 2005. Regardless of the investigation's outcome, the Kairis family asked Governor Jeb Bush to bring in an outside medical examiner to take another look at the case and autopsy results and order an independent investigation of their daughter's death to resolve what they called the "Dueling Medical Examiners".

In March 2011, the school generated significant media coverage after an op-ed article published in the school's newspaper, "The Sandspur," and written by freshman student writer Jamie Pizzi resulted in an outcry by many students and faculty members at the school. In the article, Pizzi compared illegal aliens to home intruders and criticized th