Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Fittleworth is a village and civil parish in the District of Chichester in West Sussex, England located seven kilometres west from Pulborough on the A283 road and three miles south east from Petworth. The village has a primary school and one pub, The Swan, it is within the Rape of Arundel. The village is bounded south by the Rother Navigation. In the 2001 census the parish covered 1,164 hectares and had 405 households with a total population of 931 people, of whom 434 were economically active; the 2011 Census included the hamlets of Egdean and Stopham and had a population of 978. Fittleworth is noted in 1167-8 as Fitelwurda, by 1279 Fyteleworth, 1438 Fetilworth and 1488 Fitelworthe; the Olde English FitelanweorJ translates as " the enclosure of Fitela." A Fitela happens to be mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf as nephew of mythological hero Sigmund. The manor of Fittleworth, in the reign of Edward I, was held by William Dawtrey and subsequently by the Bishopric of ChichesterThe Lee and Stanley families were major landowners in Fittleworth through the centuries, as well as the Duke of Norfolk.
Among major property owners were the families of Levett and Edsaw. From 1536 The Swan was the coaching inn, permitted a change of horses for the royal couriers of the King's Post en route from London to the coast, before the long climb up the South Downs at Bury Hill; the village was served by Fittleworth railway station, on a branch line of the now-defunct Midhurst Railways, from 1889 to 1963. There are two bridges at both of stone; the middle span was enlarged in the 1780s to take barge traffic through to Midhurst. When the road was widened in 1967, the Clappers Bridge was rebuilt in entirety. Fittleworth Bridge was rebuilt to take a 25-foot road about twice the previous width; the Swan on the north side of the Rother Navigation is a coaching inn with history going as far back as the late 14th century. The Ancient Order of Froth Blowers was founded here in 1924; the guild was created "to foster the noble Art and gentle and healthy Pastime of froth blowing amongst Gentlemen of-leisure and ex-Soldiers".
It attracted an extraordinary half a million members in the 1930s. Lager beer was ineligible, The Swan rule book stating: "it is unseemly and should be avoided always excepting by Naval Officers visiting German Colonies.". Many Victorian Artists have left paintings on the panelling of the lounge, including George Cole, Rex Vicat Cole, A. W. Weedon and Philip Stretton. One of the Visitors' Books contains music and words to'A Song to the River' by composer Sir Hubert Parry visiting for a boating trip. E. V. Lucas, Lamb's biographer, thought it the most ingeniously placed inn in the world. "It seems to be at the end of all things. The miles of road that one has travelled have been leading nowhere but the Swan."Coates Castle in the village of Coates, West Sussex is a Grade-II mansion about one and half miles south east from the southern boundary of Fittleworth. An area around Coates Castle has been designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest which contains the entire known remaining British population of the Field Cricket Gryllus campestris.
Explorer and broadcaster Duncan Carse lived in the village for over 40 years until his death in 2004. The composer Edward Elgar lived in a house called "Brinkwells" near Fittleworth from 1917 to 1921, it was here that he composed his last four major works: the Violin Sonata in E minor, the String Quartet in E minor, the Piano Quintet in A minor and the Cello Concerto in E minor. A. B. Simpson rediscovered the tuning of bells, publishing two papers in the Pall Mall Magazine in 1895 and 1896; these two articles revolutionised bell tuning, allowed for the great growth of carillons and other tower bell instruments that began in the early part of the twentieth century. The first set of bells founded under Simpson's principles, cast by the Taylor foundry in Loughborough, now form the basis of the carillon at Iowa State University, Iowa; the artist Charles Henry Sims lived there in the early 20th century. Sculptor Alan Thornhill spent his childhood, between 1925 and 1936 here, his family building'Rotherwood'.
Reginald Rex Vicat Cole was an English landscape painter, founded a School of Painting together with Byam Shaw. The Byam Shaw and Vicat Cole School of Art was based in Kensington. Architect Clough Williams-Ellis produced designs in 1929 for Little Bognor's Maxse family, he made a design for a Hesworth Common War Memorial. Bryan Ferry, the English singer owns grounds called Little Bognor House; the Fittleworth Iphigenia was identified as an important Roman sculpture in 2012 after being discovered in the parish by sculptor Jon Edgar. Ford Madox Ford lived in neighbouring Bedham during 1920 and 1921. In The Last Post, part of his tetralogy Parade's End, Sylvia stays with Lady Fittleworth. George ‘Boko’ Fittleworth – Bertie Wooster's friend – was a fictional character of P. G. Wodehouse. Pelham Grenville Wodehouse was born near Guildford. Author Hugo Donnelly spent a year in Fittleworth in the 1960s as a young waiter at The Swan and his writings are included in the anthology Sussex Seams. References to a resting Explorer – Carse – and revisting the sites of Elgar's newfound creative inspiration in Fittleworth Woods are accompanied by notes on other famou
Lancelot Brown, more known with the byname Capability Brown, was an English landscape architect. He is remembered as "the last of the great English 18th century artists to be accorded his due" and "England's greatest gardener", he designed over 170 parks. He was nicknamed "Capability" because he would tell his clients that their property had "capability" for improvement, his influence was so great that the contributions to the English garden made by his predecessors Charles Bridgeman and William Kent are overlooked. Lancelot Brown was born as a land agent's and chambermaid's fifth child in the village of Kirkharle and educated at a school in Cambo until he was 16. Brown’s father William Brown had been Sir William Loraine’s land agent and his mother Ursula had been in service at Kirkharle Hall, his eldest brother John became the estate surveyor and married Sir William's daughter. Elder brother George became a mason-architect. After school Lancelot worked as the head gardener's apprentice at Sir William Loraine's kitchen garden at Kirkharle Hall till he was 23.
In 1739 he journeyed south arriving at the port of Lincolnshire. He moved further inland where his first landscape commission was for a new lake in the park at Kiddington Hall, Oxfordshire, he moved to Wotton Underwood House, seat of Sir Richard Grenville. In 1741, Brown joined Lord Cobham's gardening staff as undergardener at Stowe, where he worked under William Kent, one of the founders of the new English style of landscape garden. At the age of 26 he was appointed as the Head Gardener in 1742, earning £25 a year and residing at the western Boycott Pavilion. Brown was the head gardener at Stowe 1742-1750, he made the Grecian Valley at Stowe, despite its name, is an abstract composition of landform and woodland. Lord Cobham let Brown take freelance commission work from his aristocratic friends, thus making him well known as a landscape gardener; as a proponent of the new English style, Brown became. By 1751, when Brown was beginning to be known, Horace Walpole wrote somewhat slightingly of Brown's work at Warwick Castle: The castle is enchanting.
It is well laid out by one Brown who has set up on a few ideas of Mr. Southcote. By the 1760s, he was earning on average £6,000 a year £500 for one commission; as an accomplished rider he was able to work fast, taking only an hour or so on horseback to survey an estate and rough out an entire design. In 1764, Brown was appointed King George III's Master Gardener at Hampton Court Palace, succeeding John Greening and residing at the Wilderness House. In 1767 he bought an estate for himself at Fenstanton in Huntingdonshire from the Earl of Northampton and was appointed High Sheriff of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire for 1770, although his son Lance carried out most of the duties, it is estimated that Brown was responsible for over 170 gardens surrounding the finest country houses and estates in Britain. His work still endures at Belvoir Castle, Croome Court, Blenheim Palace, Warwick Castle, Harewood House, Appuldurcombe House, Milton Abbey, in traces at Kew Gardens and many other locations, his style of smooth undulating grass, which would run straight to the house, clumps and scattering of trees and his serpentine lakes formed by invisibly damming small rivers, were a new style within the English landscape, a "gardenless" form of landscape gardening, which swept away all the remnants of previous formally patterned styles.
His landscapes were at the forefront of fashion. They were fundamentally different from what they replaced, the well-known formal gardens of England which were criticised by Alexander Pope and others from the 1710s. Starting in 1719, William Kent replaced these with more naturalistic compositions, which reached their greatest refinement in Brown's landscapes. At Hampton Court, Brown encountered Hannah More in 1782 and she described his "grammatical" manner in her literary terms: "'Now there' said he, pointing his finger,'I make a comma, there' pointing to another spot,'where a more decided turn is proper, I make a colon. Brown's patrons saw the idealised landscapes he was creating for them in terms of the Italian landscape painters they admired and collected, as Kenneth Woodbridge first observed in the landscape at Stourhead, a "Brownian" landscape in which Brown himself was not involved. Brown's sternest critic was his contemporary Uvedale Price, who likened Brown's clumps of trees to "so many puddings turned out of one common mould."
Russell Page, who began his career in the Brownian landscape of Longleat but whose own designs have formal structure, accused Brown of "encouraging his wealthy clients to tear out their splendid formal gardens and replace them with his facile compositions of grass, tree clumps and rather shapeless pools and lakes." Richard Owen Cambridge, the English poet and satirical author, declared that he hoped to die before Brown so that he could "see heaven before it was'improved'." This was a typical statement reflecting the controversy about Brown's work, which has continued over the last 200 years. By contrast, a recent historian
Petworth Cottage Museum
Petworth Cottage Museum, at 346 High Street, West Sussex is a Leconfield Estate worker's cottage. It has been restored and furnished as it might have been in about 1910 when the occupier was a Mrs. Mary Cummings, an Irish Catholic. Mary worked as a seamstress at home; the collection includes two oil on canvas paintings by an unknown artist. These show an interior view of Petworth Gaol, or House of Correction, in the 1860s; the museum was opened by Lord and Lady Egremont in May 1996 and is run by an independent charitable trust, the Petworth Cottage Trust. Volunteer staff provide guided tours. Petworth Cottage Museum website
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a local government district, is located at the western end of the South Downs National Park, along the course of the River Itchen, it is situated 60 miles south-west of London and 13.6 miles from its closest city. At the time of the 2011 Census, Winchester had a population of 45,184; the wider City of Winchester district which includes towns such as Alresford and Bishop's Waltham has a population of 116,800. Winchester developed from the Roman town of Venta Belgarum, which in turn developed from an Iron Age oppidum. Winchester's major landmark is Winchester Cathedral, one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the distinction of having the longest nave and overall length of all Gothic cathedrals in Europe; the city is home to the University of Winchester and Winchester College, the oldest public school in the United Kingdom still using its original buildings. The area around Winchester has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with three Iron Age hillforts, Oram's Arbour, St. Catherine's Hill, Worthy Down all in the nearby vicinity.
In the Late Iron Age, a more urban settlement type developed, known as an oppidum, although the archaeology of this phase remains obscure. It was overrun by the confederation of Gaulish tribes known as the Belgae sometime during the first century BCE, it seems to have been known as Wentā or Venta, derived from the Brittonic for "town" or "meeting place", or the word for "white", due to Winchester's situation upon chalk. After the Roman conquest of Britain, the settlement served as the capital of the Belgae and was distinguished as Venta Belgarum, "Venta of the Belgae". Although in the early years of the Roman province it was of subsidiary importance to Silchester and Chichester, Venta eclipsed them both by the latter half of the second century. At the beginning of the third century, Winchester was given protective stone walls. At around this time the city covered an area of 144 acres, making it among the largest towns in Roman Britain by surface area. There was a limited suburban area outside the walls.
Like many other Roman towns however, Winchester began to decline in the fourth century. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain in 410, urban life seems to have continued at Venta Belgarum until around 450 AD, a small administrative centre might have continued after that on the site of the Anglo-Saxon palace. Ford identifies the community as the Cair Guinntguic listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain in his History of the Britons. Amid the Saxon invasions of Britain, cemeteries dating to the 6th and 7th centuries suggest a revival of settlement; the city became known as Wintan-ceastre in Old English. In 648, King Cenwalh of Wessex erected the Church of SS Peter and Paul known as the Old Minster; this became a cathedral in the 660s when the West Saxon bishopric was transferred from Dorchester-on-Thames. The present form of the city dates to reconstruction in the late 9th century, when King Alfred the Great obliterated the Roman street plan in favour of a new grid in order to provide better defence against the Vikings.
The city's first mint appears to date from this period. In the early tenth century there were two new ecclesiastical establishments, the convent of Nunnaminster, founded by Alfred's widow Ealhswith, the New Minster. Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester was a leading figure in the monastic reform movement of the tenth century, he replaced them with monks. He created the drainage system, the'Lockburn', which served as the town drain until 1875, still survives. In the late tenth century, the Old Minster was enlarged as a centre of the cult of the ninth century Bishop of Winchester, Saint Swithun; the three minsters were the home of what architectural historian John Crook describes as "the supreme artistic achievements" of the Winchester School. The consensus among historians of Anglo-Saxon England is that the court was mobile in this period and there was no fixed capital. Martin Biddle has suggested that Winchester was a centre for royal administration in the seventh and eighth centuries, but this is questioned by Barbara Yorke, who sees it as significant that the shire was named after Hamtun, the forerunner of Southampton.
However, Winchester is described by the historian Catherine Cubitt as "the premier city of the West Saxon kingdom." There was a fire in the city in 1141 during the Rout of Winchester. William of Wykeham played a role in the city's restoration; as Bishop of Winchester he was responsible for much of the current structure of the cathedral, he founded the still extant public school Winchester College. During the Middle Ages, the city was an important centre of the wool trade, before going into a slow decline; the curfew bell in the bell tower, still sounds at 8:00 pm each evening. While Jews lived in Winchester from at least 1148, in the 13th century the Jewish community in the city was one of the most important in England. There was an archa in the city, the Jewish quarter was located in the city's heart. There were a series of blood libel claims levied against the Jewish community in the 1220s and 1230s, the cause of the hanging of the community's leader, Abraham Pinch, in front of the synagogue that he was head of.
Simon de Montfort ransacked the Jewish quarter in 1264, in 1290 all Jews were expelled from England. The City Cross has been dated to the 15th century, features 12 statues of the Virgin Mary and various historical figures. Several statues appear to have been added t
Sussex Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Sussex in southern England. Its headquarters is located in Malling House, East Sussex. Policing in the county can be traced back to the first force established in Brighton in 1830. A few years on 13 March 1844 Chief Constable Henry Solomon was murdered in his office by a prisoner he was interviewing, he is believed to be the only chief officer to have suffered such a fate. Prior to 1830 local watchmen were appointed to provide some degree of law enforcement in the area. In 1812, there were some 12 watchmen. By 1814 the number had grown at this time the title of constable was in use for them. By 1868 the force had grown to 100 officers and helmets replaced top hats. In 1918 the first woman was appointed as a police officer in this force and by 1930 it had grown to 216 officers. On 14 September 1933, Brighton Police were the first force to introduce police radios. Forces were established for the counties of East Sussex and West Sussex, as well as separate forces in the boroughs of Brighton, Hove and Hastings.
These forces amalgamated temporarily during the Second World War, from 1943 until 1947, but with the exception of Hove, policing reverted to the old system for another two decades. Hove remained part of East Sussex Constabulary. On 1 January 1968 Sussex Constabulary was created from the amalgamation of Brighton Borough Police, Eastbourne Borough Police, Hastings Borough Police, West Sussex Constabulary and East Sussex Constabulary. In 1974 the amalgamated forces became Sussex Police. Brighton ConstabularyHenry Solomon appointed 18 May 1838 Thomas Hayter Chase appointed 22 May 1844 George White appointed 21 December 1853 Owen Crowhurst appointed 7 December 1876 Isaiah Barnden appointed 8 August 1877 James Terry appointed 6 April 1881 Thomas Carter appointed 27 January 1894 Sir William Gentle appointed 26 September 1901 Charles Griffin appointed 5 June 1920 William James Hutchinson appointed 1 December 1933 Charles Field Williams Ridge appointed 1 July 1956 Albert Edgar Rowsell appointed 28 October 1957 William Thomas Cavey appointed 8 October 1963 Brighton amalgamated with East Sussex Constabulary, West Sussex Constabulary and Eastbourne Constabularies to form Sussex Constabulary, 1968Sussex Constabulary1968–??: Thomas Christopher Williams 1973–1983: George Terry 1983–1993: Roger Birch 1993–2001: Paul Chapple Whitehouse 2001–2006: Kenneth Lloyd Jones 2006–2007: Joseph Edwards 2008–2014: Martin Richards 2014–: Giles York Sussex Police is commanded by Chief Constable Giles York.
The remainder of the command team consists of Deputy Chief Constable Bernie O'Reilly, Assistant Chief Constable Steve Barry, Assistant Chief Constable Laurence Taylor. Forming part of the command team are the Assistant Chief Officer, the Director of Finance and Chief Information Officer although these roles are filled by civilian members of staff; the force consists of each being led by a chief superintendent. As at April 2017 West Sussex was led by Chief Superintendent Steve Whitton, East Sussex by Chief Superintendent Di Roskilly and Brighton & Hove by Chief Superintendent Lisa Bell. Divisions are sub-divided into districts, each led by a chief inspector, providing a local identity for policing; these districts are Chichester, Horsham, Adur & Worthing, Crawley, Mid Sussex, Brighton & Hove, Lewes, Eastbourne and Hastings. Sussex Police is responsible for Gatwick Airport under the command of Superintendent Brian Bracher. Districts are further divided into each led by an inspector; the NPTs are responsible for the bulk of the community work undertaken in an area, look to deal with long term local issues including anti-social behaviour.
Their role stems from the traditional view of'bobbies on the beat' with police community support officers providing a high visibility profile on the street, albeit with limited policing powers. Special Constables serve alongside various teams including NRT, Prevention and on specialist teams such as RPU and Dogs units. Sussex police stated they would try to solve less serious crimes online or by phone and focus resources only on offences with the “biggest impact”. Funding cuts are blamed for this. Police response is covered by Neighborhood Response Teams operating from a number of "hub" stations across the area and providing the initial response to most emergency and prompt attendance calls; these teams are led locally by a sergeant and overall they are managed by an inspector. These teams work seven days a week, 365 days a year. Secondary investigation of crime not dealt with by specialist teams - for example CID - is managed by Response Investigation Teams who work with the NRT. Oversight of Sussex Police was provided by Sussex Police Authority until November 2012, when this role was taken over by a police and crime commissioner following the first elections.
Katy Bourne was elected police and crime commissioner for Sussex Police on 15 November 2012, with a majority of 24,426. The police and crime commissioner is scrutinised by the Sussex Police and Crime Panel, made up of elected councillors from the local authorities in the police area. Sussex Police used to operate an MD-902 helicopter, callsign Hotel 900 jointly with the South East Coast Ambulance Service, providing both policing and emergency medical support to Sussex and beyond. Today all police aviation in Wales is conducted by the National Police Air Service; the closest NPAS base to Sussex Police is at Redhill Aerodrome in neighbouring Surrey. The helicopters cal