Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA. The family business that preceded the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810 in France, manufactured coffee mills and bicycles. On 20 November 1858, Émile Peugeot applied for the lion trademark. Armand Peugeot built the company's first car, an unreliable steam tricycle, in collaboration with Léon Serpollet in 1889. Due to family discord, Armand Peugeot founded the Société des Automobiles Peugeot, in 1896; the Peugeot company and family are from Sochaux, France. Peugeot retains a large manufacturing plant and Peugeot museum there. In February 2014, the shareholders agreed to a recapitalisation plan for Groupe PSA, in which Dongfeng Motors and the French government each bought a 14% stake in the company. Peugeot has received many international awards for its vehicles, including five European Car of the Year awards. In 2013 and 2014, Peugeot ranked the second lowest for average CO2 emissions among generalist brands in Europe, the Renault car maker group being ranked first, with 114.9g CO2/km.
Peugeot is known as a reliable brand, citing how its 1950s and 1960s models are still running in Africa and Cuba in the 2010s, where Peugeot is called "the lion". Peugeot has been involved in motor sport for more than a century. Peugeot Sport won the World Rally Championship five times, the Dakar Rally seven times, the 24 Hours of Le Mans three times, the World Endurance Championship twice, the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup twice surpassing Toyota and Audi and the Intercontinental Rally Challenge Championship three times. During the last year, Peugeot Sport has surpassed the record set in the ascent to Pikes Peak with the Peugeot 208 T16 driven by Sébastien Loeb; the Peugeot family of Valentigney, Montbéliard, Franche-Comté, began in the manufacturing business in the 19th century. In 1842, they added production of coffee and salt grinders; the company's entry into the vehicle market was by means of crinoline dresses, which used steel rods, leading to umbrella frames, saw blades, wire wheels, bicycles.
Armand Peugeot introduced his "Le Grand Bi" penny-farthing in 1882, along with a range of other bicycles. The company's logo a lion walking on an arrow, symbolized the speed and flexibility of the Peugeot saw blades; the car company and bike company parted ways in 1926 but Peugeot bicycles continued to be built until recently. Armand Peugeot became interested in the automobile early on and, after meeting with Gottlieb Daimler and others, was convinced of its viability; the first Peugeot automobile, a three-wheeled, steam-powered car designed by Léon Serpollet, was produced in 1889. Steam power required lengthy warmup times. In 1890, after meeting Daimler and Émile Levassor, steam was abandoned in favour of a four-wheeled car with a petrol-fuelled internal combustion engine built by Panhard under Daimler licence; the car was more sophisticated than many of its contemporaries, with a three-point suspension and a sliding-gear transmission. An example was sold to the young Alberto Santos-Dumont. More cars followed, 29 being built in 1892, 40 in 1894, 72 in 1895, 156 in 1898, 300 in 1899.
These early models were given "type" numbers. Peugeot became the first manufacturer to fit rubber tyres to a petrol-powered car. Peugeot was an early pioneer in motor racing, with Albert Lemaître winning the world's first motor race, the Paris–Rouen, in a 3 hp Peugeot. Five Peugeots qualified for the main event, all finished. Lemaître finished 3 min 30 sec behind the Comte de Dion whose steam-powered car was ineligible for the official competition. Three Peugeots were entered in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris, where they were beaten by Panhard's car (despite an average speed of 20.8 km/h and taking the 31,500 franc prize. This marked the debut of Michelin pneumatic tyres in racing on a Peugeot; the vehicles were still much horseless carriages in appearance and were steered by a tiller. In 1896, the first Peugeot engines were built. Designed by Rigoulot, the first engine was an 8 hp horizontal twin fitted to the back of the Type 15, it served as the basis of a nearly exact copy produced by Rochet-Schneider.
Further improvements followed: the engine moved to the front on the Type 48 and was soon under a bonnet at the front of the car, instead of hidden underneath. In 1896, Armand Peugeot broke away from Les Fils de Peugeot Frères to form his own company, Société Anonyme des Automobiles Peugeot, building a new factory at Audincourt to focus on cars. In 1899, sales hit 300; the same year, Lemaître won the Nice-Castellane-Nice Rally in a special 5,850 cc 20 hp racer. At the 1901 Paris Salon, Peugeot debuted a tiny shaft-driven 652 cc 5 hp one-cylinder, dubbed "Bébé", shed its conservative image, becoming a style leader. After placing 19th in the 1902 Paris-Vienna Rally with a 50 hp 11,322 cc racer, failing to finish with two similar cars, Peugeot quit racing. In 1898, Peugeot Motocycles presents at the Paris Motorshow the first motorcycle equipped with a Dion-Bouton motor. Peugeot Motocycles remains the oldest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. Peugeot adde
The Politics of Lust is a book written by John Ince that argues that irrational sexual fear or “erotophobia” is pervasive in our culture, that it is unrecognized, that it affects our political orientation. The book argues that sexually repressive cultures produce authoritarian political systems; the book explores the three distinct forces that Ince believes fuel erotophobia: "antisexualism," an irrational negative response to harmless sexual expression. Ince argues that, while we are drawn to sex, in our civilisation it secretly disturbs us, he claims that powerful anxieties lurk in our attitudes to every type of erotic expression, that these negative attitudes affect our lives by stunting sexual passion, inhibiting frank and honest talk about sex, generating shame about sexual organs. Ince believes that our attitudes to sex influence the non-sexual parts of our lives, such as political affiliations. Introduction: Ince lays out a definition of'erotophobia' which he goes on to use throughout the book: a culturally conditioned, secret fear of our own sexuality and that of other people.
He believes that this condition has deep roots in western English-speaking culture, goes on to cite the Biblical story of Adam and Eve as an example of fears of genital exposure. Ince believes that, while most are unaware of it, erotophobia powerfully affects many aspects of our lives, including how we vote. Chapters 1, 2, 3: The first four chapters examine attitudes toward genitals. Ince says that like Adam and Eve, many people in the modern era are averse to seeing their own genitals, they “fig-leaf” themselves when they are alone. Example: women who fear inspecting their own genitals with a mirror. A specific type of erotophobia, “genital phobia” motivates this compulsive fig-leafing. Ince claims that an unconscious learning process imprints genital phobia and all other types of erotophobia; this chapter examines his ideas on this process, including “fear conditioning” and “rationalizing.”Ince claims that genital phobia inspires the fear of nudity in social situations. He gives the examples of parents who avoid family nudity, people who avoid nude beaches.
Ince states his belief, in strong language, that genital phobia is contagious, describing it as a "virus" and an “infection system”. His own belief is that nudity is harmless and should be encouraged, he compares prohibitions on such activity to the institution of purdah. Ince goes on to discuss, he compares the censorship of pictures to'defacing' images, says this action violates basic journalistic ethics, yet is so routine that it is taken for granted. Ince thinks that the media believe they are acting in the public interest but are harming society by spreading phobic attitudes about normal body parts. Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13: Chapter 5 introduces a new concept, “lust phobia” - irrational fears about the experience of sex, consisting of aversions to erotic sensations, delusions about lustful behavior Each of the next eight chapters illustrate specific types of antisexual action that help cause lust phobia. Ince examines social intolerance towards: non-marital sex, masturbation, oral sex, anal sex.
He uses religious injunctions against “living in sin” and laws that prohibit “fornication” and the sale of vibrators as examples. He goes on to say, he gives the examples of parents who disallow teens the right to have a “sleep-over” with their lover and U. S. federal funding for “abstinence education”. Ince's belief is that society should not stigmatize youthful sexuality, but rather encourage its development through a process of “sexual gradualism,” the same way we encourage our youth to learn to drive, do other risky activities by building up proficiency and confidence. Ince goes on to discuss monogamy, claiming it is too'rigid', that negative attitudes toward non-exclusive sexual conduct breeds various types of erotophobia. Ince claims that most people are sexually tongue-tied, that many couples never have honest conversations about sex, he says'few parents can communicate intelligently to their children about sex'. Though the media discusses sex sometimes, Ince says this does not mean western culture is sexually open enough.
Ince believes. Ince looks at its controversial status in western culture. Though much of the censorship of the past has gone, porn is still segregated outside the social mainstream. Ince claims that society's intolerance toward all porn leads to violent, anti-social porn and such'nasty' material in turn generates negative attitudes toward all explicit imagery. Though most people seek sexual privacy, some wish to behave sexually in public. Ince explores the attitudes of our society towards visible live sex, such as a child masturbating in a living room or a couple having sex in a car, he claims that family and legal prohibitions directed at the visibility of live sex are motivated by erotophobia, that public sex is'harmless'. In Ince's own words, "a professional masseur offends no law or socia
The Football South Australia is the governing body of football in South Australia. The FSA are affiliated to the Football Federation Australia; the FSA run the highest level of football in the state, the semi-professional National Premier Leagues South Australia, below this they run the State League 1 and the State League 2 which are level 2 and 3 on the state's football league pyramid. The FSA run the South Australian Professional Men's Leagues, the Women's and Juniors Leagues, the South Australian Junior Premier League, where teams from under 8s to under 17s play Sundays; the FSA acts as the umbrella organisation for affiliated associations including Junior Associations, Masters' League and Collegiate League. The FSA Men's Competition was sponsored by Devine Limited from 2008-2012. Official website Junior Football