Group B was a set of regulations introduced in 1982 for competition vehicles in sportscar racing and rallying regulated by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. The Group B regulations fostered some of the fastest, most powerful, most sophisticated rally cars built and is referred to as the golden era of rallying. However, a series of major accidents, some of them fatal, were blamed on their outright speed and lack of crowd control at events. After the death of Henri Toivonen and his co-driver Sergio Cresto in the 1986 Tour de Corse, the FIA disestablished the class, dropped its previous plans to replace it by Group S, instead replaced it as the top-line formula by Group A; the short-lived Group B era has acquired legendary status among rally fans and automobile enthusiasts in general. Group B was introduced by the FIA in 1982 as a replacement for Group 5 cars. Group A referred to production-derived vehicles limited in terms of power, allowed technology and overall cost; the base model had to have 4 seats.
Group A was aimed at ensuring a large number of owned entries in races. By contrast, Group B had few restrictions on technology and the number of cars required for homologation to compete—200, less than other series. Weight was kept as low as possible, high-tech materials were permitted, there were no restrictions on boost, resulting in the power output of the winning cars increasing from 250 hp in 1981, the year before Group B rules were introduced, to there being at least two cars producing in excess of 500 by 1986, the final year of Group B. In just 5 years, the power output of rally cars had more than doubled; the category was aimed at car manufacturers by promising outright competition victories and the subsequent publicity opportunities without the need for an existing production model. There was a Group C, which had a lax approach to chassis and engine development, but with strict rules on overall weight and maximum fuel load. Group B was a successful group, with many manufacturers joining the premier World Rally Championship, increased spectator numbers.
But the cost of competing rose and the performance of the cars proved too much resulting in a series of fatal crashes. As a consequence Group B was canceled at the end of 1986 and Group A regulations became the standard for all cars until the advent of World Rally Cars in 1997. In the following years Group B found a niche in the European Rallycross Championship, with cars such as the MG Metro 6R4 and the Ford RS200 competing as late as 1992. For 1993, the FIA replaced the Group B models with prototypes that had to be based on existing Group A cars, but still followed the spirit of Group B, with low weight, 4WD, high turbo boost pressure and staggering amounts of power; until 1983 the two main classes of rallying were called Group 2 and Group 4. Major manufacturers competed in Group 4, which required a minimum of 400 examples of a competition car. Notable cars of the era included the Lancia Stratos HF, the Ford Escort RS1800 and the Fiat 131 Abarth. In 1979 the FISA legalized four-wheel drive.
Car companies were not keen on using 4WD as it was felt that the extra weight and complexity of 4WD systems would cancel out any performance benefits. This belief was shattered when Audi launched a competition car in 1980, the Turbocharged and 4WD Quattro; that year a Quattro was used in Portugal's Algarve Rallye. Registered by the Audi Sport Factory Rally Team, IN-NE 3, as an opening car, it was driven by professional driver Hannu Mikkola. Mikkola's Co-Driver was Arne Hertz. IN-NE 3's combined time for all stages on this rally was over 30 minutes quicker than that of the winner. While the new car was indeed heavy and cumbersome, its standing starts on gravel and road grip on Special Stages was staggering; the Quattro was entered in the 1980 Jänner-Rallye in Austria and won. Audi kept on winning throughout the 1980 and 1981 seasons, although lack of consistent results meant that Ford took the driver's title in 1981 with Ari Vatanen driving a rear-wheel-drive Escort; the team's victory at the 1981 Rallye San Remo was notable: Piloted by Michèle Mouton, it was the first time a woman won a World Championship rally.
Mouton placed second in the drivers' championship the next year, behind Opel's Walter Röhrl. The FISA decided to separate the rally cars into three classes: Group N, Group A, Group B; these groups were introduced in 1982. Group N and Group A cars were the same cars with different amounts of race preparation allowed; the cars had to be produced in large numbers. This was 5000 cars/year between 1982 and 1991, it changed to 2500 cars/year if the version being homologated was derived from a mass-market car. Group B was conceived when the FISA found that numerous car manufacturers wanted to compete in rallying. By reducing the homologation minimum from 400 to 200, FIA enabled manufacturers to design specialised RWD or 4WD rally cars without the financial commitment of producing their production counterparts in such large numbers. Group B cars could be two-seaters
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is the distance between the steering axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles; the wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. Therefore, the wheelbase is related to the force on each pair of tires by the following formula: F f = d r L m g F r = d f L m g where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, L is the wheelbase, d r is the distance from the center of mass to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the center of gravity to the front wheels, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the gravity constant. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward and the force on the rear tires increases.
The vehicle will ride lower. The amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces, like the size of the tires, tire pressure, the spring rate of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively; the equation relating the wheelbase, height above the ground of the CM, the force on each pair of tires becomes: F f = d r L m g − h c m L m a F r = d f L m g + h c m L m a where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, d r is the distance from the CM to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the CM to the front wheels, L is the wheelbase, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the acceleration of gravity, h c m is the height of the CM above the ground, a is the acceleration. So, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension; when braking the front noses down and the rear rises.:Because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering.
For example, a car with a much greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires and therefore the grip from them. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, to distribute the caravan's weight so that down-thrust on the tow-hook is about 100 pounds force. A car may oversteer or "spin out" if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires; when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the tire distances from the CM. Thus, in a car with a short wheelbase, the short lever arm from the CM to the rear wheel will result in a greater lateral force on the rear tire which means greater acceleration and less time for the driver to adjust and prevent a spin out or worse. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems; some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle.
This practice can be found on full-size cars like the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, but ultra-luxury vehicles such as the Rolls-Royce Phantom and large family cars like the Rover 75 came with'limousine' versions. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a long-wheelbase version of the Rover 75 for official use, and some SUVs like the VW Tiguan and Jeep Wrangler come in LWB models In contrast, coupé varieties of some vehicles such as the Honda Accord are built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from. The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, that they are able to perform stoppies and wheelies. In skateboarding the word'wheelbase' is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck; this is different from the distance between the rotational centers
Peugeot Sport is the department of French carmaker Peugeot responsible for motorsport activities. Peugeot Sport was formed in 1981 under the name of Peugeot Talbot Sport, after Jean Todt, a World Rally Championship co-driver for Talbot driver Guy Fréquelin, was asked by Peugeot to create a sporting department for the PSA Peugeot Citroën group; the rally team, established at Bois de Boulogne near Paris, debuted its Group B Peugeot 205 Turbo 16 in 1984, took its first victory in Finland in the hands of Ari Vatanen. In 1985, Peugeot drivers Vatanen and Timo Salonen won seven out of the 12 rounds to give Peugeot the manufacturers' title and Salonen the drivers' title. Vatanen had been injured in an accident in Argentina in 1985, so was replaced by Juha Kankkunen for 1986, who promptly delivered the team a second consecutive title; the FIA banned Group B cars for the 1987 season after the fatal accident of Henri Toivonen. This lead Peugeot to switch to rally raid, using the 205 to win the Dakar Rally for two consecutive years in 1987 to 1988, used the 405 to win in 1989 and 1990.
Peugeot Talbot Sport participated three times at the Pikes Peak Hillclimb Race in 1987, 1988 and 1989, winning the last two years, as well as in 2013 with the 208 T16. In endurance racing Peugeot Talbot Sport established their sportscar team at Vélizy-Villacoublay, France and in 1988 launched the 905 project, to develop a sportscar to begin competing in the World Sportscar Championship in the 1991 season; the 905 was introduced in 1990, finished second in the 1991 World Sportscar Championship season. In 1992, Peugeot Talbot Sport won the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with drivers Derek Warwick, Yannick Dalmas and Mark Blundell, they won the World Sportscar Championship, thanks to Warwick, Philippe Alliot and Mauro Baldi. The championship did not run in 1993, but Peugeot were able to take a 1–2–3 finish at the 1993 24 Hours of Le Mans, with Éric Hélary, Christophe Bouchut and Geoff Brabham driving the winning car. Peugeot Talbot Sport subsequently pulled out of sportscar racing. Jean Todt, left Peugeot for Scuderia Ferrari.
Peugeot switched to Formula One for 1994, using a similar 3.5L V10 engine as found in the 905. This was developed to be used by McLaren in 1994. However, poor reliability led to the relationship ending at the end of 1994 after 8 podiums, zero victories and 17 DNF´s; this led to Peugeot supplying Jordan Grand Prix in 1995 and 1996 and 1997 with 5 podiums as best results, before supplying the new Prost Grand Prix team for the 1998, 1999 and 2000 seasons. After a pointless 2000 season where poor reliability matched with Prost inability to deliver a competitive chassis, plus having scored no wins since their debut, led to the French marque pulling the plug out of F1; the Peugeot engines were bought by an Asian consortium led by former F1 designer Enrique Scalabroni called Asiatech and used for two further years. The Asiatech engines were both reliable and were supplied at zero cost, but its poor driveability led to both teams replacing them in favor of more costly but more capable Cosworth units.
Peugeot entered the British Touring Car Championship in 1992, preparing 405's for former champion Robb Gravett. The team was run in-house from the company's UK factory in Coventry; the 405 never won a race despite promising results in its four seasons of competition, before being replaced in 1996 by the 406. Peugeot UK did not share any technical data with its European contemporaries, the BTCC programme suffered. Peugeot handed the works deal to Motor Sport Developments for 1997 and 98, but wins still eluded the team. With spiralling costs in the series, Peugeot withdrew from the BTCC at the end of 1998. With his Peugeot 406, Laurent Aïello won the 1997 Super Tourenwagen Cup season; the Peugeot 306 GTi won the prestigious Spa 24 hours endurance race in 1999 and 2000. Peugeot won five times the Danish Touringcar Championship, with both the Peugeot 306 -winner in 1999, 2000 and 2001– and the Peugeot 307 winner in 2002 and 2003. Peugeot has been racing in the Asian Touring Car Series, winning the 2000, 2001, 2002 championships with the Peugeot 306 GTi.
In 2001, Peugeot entered three 406 Coupés into the British Touring Car Championship to compete with the dominant Vauxhall Astra Coupés. However, the 406 Coupé was not competitive, despite some promise towards the end of the year, notably when Peugeot's Steve Soper led a race only to suffer engine failure in the last few laps; the 406 Coupés were retired at the end of the following year and replaced with the 307—again, uncompetitively—in 2003. Peugeot has been racing in the Stock Car Brasil series since 2007 and won the 2008, 2009, 2011 championships. In 2013, the Peugeot 208GTi won a one-two-three at the 24 Hours Nürburgring endurance race. In 1999, Peugeot Sport returned to the World Rally Championship with the Peugeot 206 WRC, under the guidance of director Corrado Provera; the car debuted at the Tour de Corse, with François Delecour driving one car and Gilles Panizzi and Marcus Grönholm sharing the second car over the remaining events. Grönholm finished fourth on the car’s third event, Rally Finland, before Panizzi finished second on Rallye Sanremo.
In 2000, Grönholm gave the car its first victory at Rally Sweden, followed this up with wins in New Zealand and Australia on his way to the Drivers’ championship. Panizzi won in Sanremo, giving Peugeot the Manufacturers' championship. In 2001, Didier Auriol joined the team. Panizzi and Harri Rovanperä drove additional cars for the team on selected events. Rovanperä won round two in Sweden, as Grönholm struggled with retirements during the first half of the ye
Richard Alexander Burns was a British rally driver who won the 2001 World Rally Championship, having finished runner-up in the series in 1999 and 2000. Born in Reading, Berkshire, he helped Mitsubishi to the world manufacturers' title in 1998, Peugeot in 2002, his co-driver in his whole career was Robert Reid. Burns was known by his smooth, methodical driving style, unusual for such a young driver of his generation, he was the patron for the Under 17 Car Club. He started driving in a field near his house at the age of eight, in his father's old Triumph 2000. At eleven Burns joined the Under 17 Car Club, where he became driver of the year in 1984. Just two years his father arranged a trip to Jan Churchill's Welsh Forest Rally School near Newtown, Powys where Burns drove a Ford Escort for the day, from that moment on he knew what he wanted to do, he badgered his father into letting him join the Craven Motor Club in his home town Reading where his talent was spotted by rally enthusiast David Williams.
In 1988 he entered his first rallies in his own Talbot Sunbeam. The car was too basic to make much impression and in 1989 he had to borrow other competitors cars to progress. To this end he rallied the stages of Panaround, Mid-Wales, Severn Valley, Kayel Graphics and the Cambrian Rally as these were all rallies which included stages used on more prestigious events. In 1990 he joined the Peugeot Challenge after David Williams bought Burns a Peugeot 205 GTI, he got his first taste of a World Rally Championship event in Great Britain as a prize for winning the Peugeot Challenge that year. In 1991 Burns met Robert Reid, the man, to become his co-driver for the next 12 years. For 1992 Williams bought Burns a Group N Subaru Legacy and with the support of Prodrive won the National Championship; this year saw Burns help out Colin McRae with his gravel notes as Prodrive saw him as a promising driver for the future. In 1993 he joined the Subaru Rally Team for the British Rally Championship alongside Alister McRae, driving a Subaru Legacy.
He won four rounds, the Vauxhall Sport, Pirelli and Manx International, became the youngest British Champion. He finished seventh on that year's snowy RAC Rally. In the wake of his 1993 success, Burns remained with Subaru for the 1994 and 1995 seasons, contesting the Asia Pacific Rally Championship, which included the New Zealand and Australia Rallies, his home WRC round, his best result was third on the 1995 RAC Rally, behind team mates Carlos Sainz and winner and world champion Colin McRae. 1996 saw an opening with Mitsubishi Ralliart at international level, seized upon with sufficient vigour to guide Burns to victory on that year's Rally New Zealand – albeit only a fixture within the Asia-Pacific Rally Championship and the FIA 2-Litre World Rally Cup. So, the fending off of such calibre competition as works-backed Subaru heavyweights Kenneth Eriksson and Piero Liatti only added gloss to an fervoured reputation. In 1997 he was driving a same car as his team-mate Tommi Makinen had, Group A Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution VI, however it was re-badged as Carisma GT.
His results are improving, from 8 rallies he had participated he finished five 4th place, 2nd at Safari Rally, putting him seventh in the championship. Come 1998, he had won his maiden World Rally Championship event on the Safari, known as the most challenging and difficult rally he added a second career victory on his swansong outing for Mitsubishi on that year's Rally GB, the event where the dramatic late retirement from fourth of Toyota's Carlos Sainz secured the drivers' title for his team-mate and first leg super special stage retiree on a patch of oil, Tommi Makinen, as well as confirming the constructors' accolade for Mitsubishi. Burns returned to the Prodrive-run Subaru World Rally Team under David Richards for the 1999 season, joining Juha Kankkunen and Bruno Thiry as part of the factory team driving Subaru Impreza WRCs, replacing Ford-bound fellow Briton, Colin McRae. Burns worked his way to a career high of second place in the drivers' standings, adding to his win tally, he led Subaru to second in the constructors' series behind the Formula One departing Toyota Team Europe.
On that year's Rally Argentina, he was upstaged for victory by virtue of a team order mix-up by veteran team-mate Kankkunen. He was a long-time contender for the title in 2000, but crashed out on the Rally Finland in mid-season handing the momentum to eventual champion, future team-mate, the Peugeot driver Marcus Grönholm, competing in his first year as a full-time factory driver. So, a stirling comeback from the lower reaches of the top thirty to win on the season-ending Rally of Great Britain kept the Burns name well entrenched within public consciousness; the 2001 rally season began inauspiciously for Burns – neither of the season curtain raisers, the Monte Carlo Rally or the Swedish Rally, yielded points scores, placing in peril before it had begun, the Englishman's title bid. Fourth place in a rain-drenched Portugal kicked his campaign into action prior to second-place finishes on the gravel rallies of Argentina and Cyprus, on both occasions to Ford's Colin McRae. Nonetheless, both the Scotsman and Monte Carlo victor Tommi Mäkinen were to hit upon snags of their own, while Burns' own consistent points scoring culminated in a first and only individual rally victory of the season in New Zealand, with McRae beaten into second.
Burns finished second on the Rally Australia to close within two points of new standalone series leader McRae, although the Scotsman and Mäkinen were to struggle to fifth and sixth on this event (and the last of the drivers' points-scoring positi
World Rally Championship
The World Rally Championship is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver, co-driver and manufacturer. The driver's world championship and manufacturer's world championship are separate championships, but based on the same point system; the series consists of 14 three-day events driven on surfaces ranging from gravel and tarmac to snow and ice. Each rally is split into 15 -- 25 special stages; the WRC was formed from well-known and popular international rallies, most of, part of the European Rally Championship or the International Championship for Manufacturers, the series was first contested in 1973. The World Rally Car is the current car specification in the series, it evolved from Group A cars. World Rally Cars are built on production 1.6-litre four-cylinder cars, but feature turbochargers, anti-lag systems, four-wheel-drive, sequential gearboxes, aerodynamic parts and other enhancements bringing the price of a WRC car to around US$1 million. The WRC features three support championships, the Junior World Rally Championship, the World Rally Championship-2, the World Rally Championship-3 which are contested on the same events and stages as the WRC, but with different regulations.
The WRC-2, WRC-3 and junior entrants race through the stages after the WRC drivers. The World Rally Championship was formed from well-known international rallies, nine of which were part of the International Championship for Manufacturers, contested from 1970 to 1972; the 1973 World Rally Championship was the inaugural season of the WRC and began with the Monte Carlo Rally on January 19. Alpine-Renault won the first manufacturer's world championship with its Alpine A110, after which Lancia took the title three years in a row with the Ferrari V6-powered Lancia Stratos HF, the first car designed and manufactured for rallying; the first drivers' world championship was not awarded until 1979, although 1977 and 1978 seasons included an FIA Cup for Drivers, won by Italy's Sandro Munari and Finland's Markku Alén respectively. Sweden's Björn Waldegård became the first official world champion, edging out Finland's Hannu Mikkola by one point. Fiat took the manufacturers' title with the Fiat 131 Abarth in 1977, 1978 and 1980, Ford with its Escort RS1800 in 1979 and Talbot with its Sunbeam Lotus in 1981.
Waldegård was followed by Finn Ari Vatanen as drivers' world champions. The 1980s saw the rear-wheel-drive Group 2 and the more popular Group 4 cars be replaced by more powerful four-wheel-drive Group B cars. FISA legalized all-wheel-drive in 1979, but most manufacturers believed it was too complex to be successful. However, after Audi started entering Mikkola and the new four-wheel-drive Quattro in rallies for testing purposes with immediate success, other manufacturers started their all-wheel-drive projects. Group B regulations were introduced in the 1982, with only a few restrictions allowed unlimited power. Audi took the constructors' title in 1982 and 1984 and drivers' title in 1983 and 1984. Audi's French female driver Michèle Mouton came close to winning the title in 1982, but had to settle for second place after Opel rival Röhrl. 1985 title seemed set to go to Vatanen and his Peugeot 205 T16 but a bad accident at the Rally Argentina left him to watch compatriot and teammate Timo Salonen take the title instead.
Italian Attilio Bettega had a more severe crash with his Lancia 037 at the Tour de Corse and died instantly. The 1986 started with impressive performances by Finns Henri Toivonen and Alén in Lancia's new turbo- and supercharged Delta S4, which could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 2.3 seconds, on a gravel road. However, the season soon took a dramatic turn. At the Rally Portugal, three spectators were killed and over 30 injured after Joaquim Santos lost control of his Ford RS200. At the Tour de Corse, championship favourite Toivonen and his co-driver Sergio Cresto died in a fireball accident after plunging down a cliff. Only hours after the crash, Jean-Marie Balestre and the FISA decided to freeze the development of the Group B cars and ban them from competing in 1987. More controversy followed when Peugeot's Juha Kankkunen won the title after FIA annulled the results of the San Remo Rally, taking the title from fellow Finn Markku Alén; as the planned Group S was cancelled, Group A regulations became the standard in the WRC until 1997.
A separate Group A championship had been organized as part of the WRC in 1986, with Sweden's Kenneth Eriksson taking the title with a Volkswagen Golf GTI 16V. Lancia was quickest in adapting to the new regulations and controlled the world rally scene with Lancia Delta HF, winning the constructors' title six years in a row from 1987 to 1992 and remains the most successful marque in the history of the WRC. Kankkunen and Miki Biasion both took two drivers' titles with the Lancia Delta HF; the 1990s saw the Japanese manufacturers, Toyota and Mitsubishi, become title favourites. Spain's Carlos Sainz driving for Toyota Team Europe took the 1990 and 1992 titles with a Toyota Celica GT-Four. Kankkunen moved to Toyota for the 1993 season and won his record fourth title, with Toyota taking its first manufacturers' crown. Frenchman Didier Auriol brought the team further success in 1994, soon Subaru and Mitsubishi continued the success of the Japanese constructors. Subaru's Scotsman Colin McRae won the drivers' world championship in 1995 and Subaru took the manufacturers' title three years in a row.
World Rally Car
World Rally Car is a racing automobile built to the specification set by the FIA, the international motorsports governing body and compete in the outright class of the World Rally Championship. The WRC specifications were introduced by the FIA in 1997. Between 1997 and 2010, the regulations mandated that World Rally Cars must have been built upon a production car with a minimum production run of 2500 units. A number of modifications could be made including increasing the engine displacement up to 2.0L, forced induction, addition of four wheel drive, fitment of a sequential gearbox, modified suspension layout and attachment points, aerodynamic body modifications, weight reduction to a minimum of 1230 kg and chassis strengthening for greater rigidity. The maximum width was set at 1770 mm while rear tracks shouldn't exceed 1550 mm. Unlike the requirements for the preceding Group A cars, manufacturers were no longer required to build "homologation specials" in order to meet approval; the base model did not need to have all the characteristics of the WRC car, as evidenced from cars such the Peugeot 206, 307, Citroën Xsara and Škoda Fabia, which during this period had no road car variant with a turbocharged petrol engine or four wheel drive.
One of the requirements was a minimum length of 4000 mm. To limit power, all forced induction cars were fitted with a 34 mm diameter air restrictor before the turbocharger inlet, limiting the air flow to about 10 cubic meters per minute; the restriction was intended to limit power output to 300 hp although some WRC engines were believed to produce around 330–340 hp. Engine development did not focus on peak power output but towards producing a wide powerband. Power output in excess of 300 hp was available from 3000 rpm to the 7500 rpm maximum, with a peak of 330–340 hp at around 5500 rpm. At 2000 rpm power output was above 200 hp. By 2004, the best cars had ABS, electronic clutch control, paddle shift, traction control, three active differentials, ride height control with GPS, electronic dampers and active suspension. For 2005 the maximum width of the WRC cars was increased from 1770 mm to 1800 mm. In an attempt to cut costs, since 2006 new regulations required mechanical front and rear differentials, while the central differential remained active.
Active suspension and water injections were prohibited. Cars entered by a manufacturer had to be equipped with the same engine for two rallies. Starting in 2011, rules for WRC cars changed to be more restrictive. Now regulations were derived from Super 2000 cars with a different aerodynamic kit; the cars were smaller models, with a 1600 cm3 direct injection turbo-charged engine with a 33 mm diameter air restrictor and a maximum pressure of 2.5 bar absolute. Exotic materials were forbidden except when present in the base model. Carbon fibre and aramid fibre were restricted, except for bodywork's side protections where multiple layers of aramid fibre are allowed; the gear changes must be made with a mechanical system, so the paddle shifters were not allowed. However the system was re-allowed in 2015. There was no center differential, but the new regulation allows only front and rear axle differential, they must be mechanical, without electronic control or hydraulic or viscous systems. Minimum weight is 1200 kg empty and 1350 kg with co-driver.
The 1.6 L turbo-charged engine was retained in the 2017 World Rally Car regulations, but the turbo restrictor diameter was increased from 33 mm to 36 mm, increasing the engine's power output from 310 bhp to 380 bhp. Minimum vehicle weight was decreased by 25 kg. Manufacturers are given more freedom to maximise aerodynamic performance, large brake cooling ducts in fairings forming enlarged wheel arches, are allowed to use electronically-controlled active centre differentials, while the front and rear differentials remain mechanical. While 2011 specification World Rally Cars will be allowed to compete in 2017, the new World Rally Cars are allowed for use by manufacturers' teams only; the cars at WRC.com
The Peugeot 205 is a supermini car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot from 1983-1998. It was declared "car of the decade" by CAR Magazine in 1990, it won What Car?'s Car of the Year for 1984. The styling of the 205 is thought to be a Pininfarina design, although Gerard Welter claims it as an in-house design, it is credited as the car that turned Peugeot's fortunes around. Before the 205, Peugeot was considered the most conservative of France's "big three" car manufacturers, producing large saloons such as the 504 and 505, although it had entered the modern supermini market in 1973 with the Peugeot 104; the genesis of the 205 lay within Peugeot's takeover in 1978 of Chrysler's European divisions Simca and the former Rootes Group, which had the necessary expertise in making small cars including the Simca 1100 in France and Hillman Imp in Britain. It was around this time that Peugeot began to work on the development of a new supermini for the 1980s. Early 205s used the X engine from the older Peugeot 104, although these were replaced with the newer XU and TU-series engines, which were of PSA design.
Engines ranged from 954 cc to 1905 cc engine displacement, in carburettor or fuel injected petrol and diesel versions. Its use of the now standard PSA Peugeot Citroën suspension layout of MacPherson struts at the front, with torsion bar suspension rear suspension, that debuted in the Peugeot 305 estate, was a key ingredient of the success of the 205; this is independent using torsion bars and trailing arms. It is compact and was designed to minimise suspension intrusion into the boot, giving a wide flat loadspace, while providing excellent ride and handling, it was launched on 24 February 1983, was launched in right-hand drive form for the UK market in September that year. Shortly after its launch, it was narrowly pipped to the European Car of the Year award by the similar sized Fiat Uno, but it would enjoy a better image and a longer high market demand than its Italian competitor, it was one of five important small cars to be launched onto the European market within a year of each other - the other three models being the Uno, the second generation Ford Fiesta, the original Opel Corsa and the original Nissan Micra.
Its launch closely followed that of the Austin Metro and Volkswagen Polo MK2. The diesel models employed the XUD PSA Diesel inline-four engine, lifted from the Citroën BX, introduced in September 1982; these XUD engines had a capacity of 1769 cc and 1905 cc and are related to the XU5 and XU9 petrol engines in the BX16 and BX19 of the time as well as the engines used in the 205 GTI 1.6 and Automatic and GTI 1.9 respectively. The XUD7 Diesel Engines were world-beating and so petrol-like that many buyers were won over by petrol car performance combined with diesel economy; the 205 GRD, for instance, was as fast yet smoother than the 205 GR, due to the engine developing peak torque at much lower rpm, while using much less fuel. There were various versions intended for commercial use, such as the two-seater XA-series. There was the "205 Multi", a tall-bodied special version on XA or XE-basis built by independent coachbuilders like Gruau and Durisotti. Gruau called their XA-based two-seater version the "VU", while the five-seat XE-based version was called the "VP".
Durisotti began building the 205 Multi in 1986. The 205 was an instant hit, its styling was echoed in every Peugeot model, to follow; the exterior styling was never facelifted or altered in its 15-year production run. There was a dashboard redesign for the 1988 model year, in late 1990 the 205 received new door design and cards, clear front indicators, new'smoked' rear light clusters, single point petrol injection and catalytic converters were introduced, to meet the new 1992 pollution limits; these updates came at a crucial time, as 1990 saw the arrival of a new French competitor, the Renault Clio, while the Rover Metro and Volkswagen Polo were heavily updated, Ford had replaced its Fiesta with a third generation model. Still, the 205 was still regarded in the motoring press as the benchmark car in this sector by 1990. At the beginning of 1993, Peugeot launched the 306, which replaced the 309; the engines were continuously updated, with the new "TU" engines introduced in 1988. In 1991, the 205 dTurbo was launched with a powerful, turbocharged version of the 1,769 cc xud diesel engine.
After several years of declining sales, the Peugeot 205 was discontinued in the United Kingdom in 1996. The Peugeot 205 was still offered in the "Sacré Numéro" and "Génération" models until the end of the production in 1998, the last models were GLD 1.7 configuration and were sold in Argentina. Most of the European versions were only sold in France. Due to the pressure from the market, with buyers wanting a Peugeot supermini in the mould of the 205 again, the company built a direct replacement in the 206, launched in 1998. 5