Sébastien Olivier Bourdais is a French professional racing driver, who resides in St. Petersburg, Florida, he is one of the most successful drivers in the history of American Championship car racing, having won 37 races. He won four successive championships under Champ Car World Series sanction from 2004 to 2007; as of March 2017 he had won 75 races. He drove in Formula One for the Toro Rosso team during 2008, the start of the 2009 season, but was unable to translate his past successes to that competition; as of January 2018, Bourdais drives for Dale Coyne Racing with Vasser Sullivan in the Verizon IndyCar Series, for Ford Chip Ganassi Racing as a third driver in the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship and 24 Hours of Le Mans. Born into a racing family in Le Mans, Bourdais began his racing career at age 10 in karts. During the early 1990s, he competed in a variety of karting championships, winning the Maine Bretagne League in 1991 and the Cadet France championship in 1993. Bourdais was part of the winning Sologne Karting team which won the 1996 24-hour Le Mans kart race at the Circuit Alain Prost on a Merlin chassis with Atomic motors.
Bourdais progressed to single-seater racing in 1995, finishing 9th in the Formula Campus by Renault and Elf Championship. He spent two years in the French Formula Renault Championship finishing second in points in 1997 after winning four races and five pole positions. In 1998, he won five races to become Rookie of the Year in French F3, he won the series with eight wins and three poles. Following his success in the lower formulae, Bourdais joined the Prost Junior Team in the International F3000 Championship, he finished ninth in the series with a best finish of second. In 2001, Bourdais moved to the DAMS team in Formula 3000 and took his first win in the series at Silverstone, he changed teams again for 2002, taking his Super Nova Racing car to three victories and seven pole positions. He beat Giorgio Pantano to the championship by two points after Tomáš Enge, who had scored the most points, was penalised for failing a drug test. Following in the footsteps of recent F3000 graduates such as Juan Pablo Montoya and Bruno Junqueira, Bourdais moved to Champ Car racing in the United States and joined Newman/Haas Racing for the 2003 CART season.
At St. Petersburg, Bourdais became the first rookie since Nigel Mansell to claim pole position for his first race. However, he did not finish higher than 11th until his fourth race, when he led 95 laps en route to his first Champ Car victory at Brands Hatch, he followed this up with another victory at the Lausitzring. By the end of the season, he had earned five more podium finishes, including a win from pole at Cleveland. With a runner-up finish in Mexico City, he clinched the Rookie of the Year title and finished 4th in the overall standings. Staying with Newman-Haas for 2004, Bourdais dominated the Champ Car series with seven wins and eight poles in his McDonald's-sponsored Lola, beating his team mate Junqueira by 28 points, his record included podium finishes in 10 out of 14 events and qualifying results no lower than third all season. Bourdais defended his Champ Car title in 2005 with five wins in six races towards the end of the season, again with the Newman-Haas/Lanigan team; that May, he finished 12th in his first Indianapolis 500.
Bourdais won a third consecutive Champ Car title in 2006. His season began with four consecutive victories at Long Beach, Houston and Milwaukee, although his winning streak was ended by the emergence of A. J. Allmendinger, who won three races in a row through the middle of the season. Bourdais responded with a commanding victory from pole at San Jose, leaving him leading the Champ Car points standings. However, an incident with his arch-rival Paul Tracy that knocked him out on the final lap of the following race in Denver, a subsequent win by Allmendinger narrowed the gap between the two. Bourdais's win in Montreal and Allmendinger's DNF had widened his points lead to 62 points with three races left, Bourdais clinched the championship at the next race in Surfers Paradise despite a weak performance in that race. Bourdais became the first Champ Car driver to win three consecutive titles since Ted Horn achieved the hat trick in 1948. Bourdais won a fourth consecutive Champ Car title in 2007 with victory at Lexmark Indy 300 on 21 October.
In 2002, Bourdais got his first F1 test with the Arrows team and was signed on to drive for the team but the team was on the verge of bankruptcy. In December he tested for Renault at Jerez but fellow Frenchman Franck Montagny secured the test drive instead of Bourdais. Bourdais returned to F1 in 2007 after being given several tests with Scuderia Toro Rosso. On 10 August 2007 it was announced Bourdais would replace Vitantonio Liuzzi at Red Bull's b-team, Toro Rosso, as team-mate to Sebastian Vettel. On 16 March 2008 Bourdais competed in his first Formula One Championship race, the 2008 Australian Grand Prix in Melbourne. After qualifying in 17th position he took advantage of mistakes made by other drivers, in the first Formula One race since the 2001 San Marino Grand Prix without traction control, worked his way up to fourth. However, with three laps remaining an engine problem forced Bourdais to retire, but he was still classified 8th having completed more than 90% of the race distance, he inherited seventh place after the disqualification of Rubens Barrichello.
Bourdais qualified ninth for the Belgian Grand Prix. During the race he gained places and held on to fifth place for much of the distance, was on course for a podium position; as the rain fell harder on the last lap he was over
The Peugeot 905 is a Sports-prototype racing car introduced for Sportscar racing. The car was unveiled in February 1990 and was developed throughout 1990 before making its race debut in the final two races of the 1990 World Sportscar Championship season; the car won the 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance race in 1992 with the team of Derek Warwick, Yannick Dalmas, Mark Blundell. This win was followed in 1993 by the team of Geoff Brabham, Christophe Bouchut, Éric Hélary, in the 905B. In addition to that, the car won both a drivers´ and teams´ title at the World Sportscar Championship in 1992; the Peugeot 905 participated in 17 races in its career. In November 1988 Peugeot Talbot Sport, established under the control of Jean Todt at Vélizy-Villacoublay, in the suburbs of Paris, announced the launch of the 905 project to compete in the 1991 championship using the new rules which the 1991 season would introduce. Technically advanced, the 905 used a carbon fiber chassis engineered by Dassault and a light alloy SA35-A1 3499 cc aspirated V10 engine, similar to F1 engines of the time.
The 905 was built at Vélizy-Villacoublay and unveiled on the 4th of July 1990 at the Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours, with Jean-Pierre Jabouille driving. The car made its racing debut in the final few races of the 1990 FIA World Sportscar Championship with Jabouille and Keke Rosberg sharing the wheel. Although the car was slower than the contemporary Group C Sports Prototypes, it was notably quicker than the other 3.5 litre Sports-Prototypes which raced in the 1990 World Sportscar Championship season. The 905's V10 was adjusted for Formula One rules for 1994, was used in the unsuccessful McLaren MP4/9 Formula One car; the 905 began its first full season in Sportscar racing by participating in the 1991 championship. Although the car was now quicker than the 1990 version, indeed the penalised Group C cars that were allowed to race, in the early part of the season the 905 suffered some performance and reliability problems but, more crucially for Peugeot, the car was a lot slower than the standard-setting Jaguar XJR-14 - a car, able to match the lap times of most contemporary F1 cars.
The car was however able to obtain a lucky win at the Suzuka Circuit. At the 1991 24 Hours of Le Mans, both cars entered did not last past the four hour mark. To counter Jaguar in the remaining races of the championship the 905 was revised in aerodynamics. Carrying over only the cockpit of the previous car, the evolutionary 905B was created. With the more notable changes consisting of a two-tier rear wing and an optional full-width front wing, including a more powerful SA35-A2 engine, the 905B made its race debut at the Nürburgring round of the 1991 series; these advancements allowed the team to finish the year winning at Magny-Cours and Mexico with back-to-back 1-2 wins, thus completing the season in second place overall in the 1991 World Sportscar Championship season. In 1992, the 905B became one of only two factory efforts involved in the 1992 World Sportscar Championship season alongside Toyota, who were competing in their first season to the 3.5 litre regulations using the TS010. This meant that only the 1992 24 Hours of Le Mans showed a strong competition among the Group C cars.
The 905B was successful, bringing 2 of the team's 3 cars home in 3rd places. For 1993, the World Sportscar Championship ceased to exist but were permitted to run at LeMans in 1993 and 1994. However, prior to the announcement of its cancellation, Peugeot had begun development of the 905 Evolution 2 to compete in the 1993 season; this car, tested for a few laps in practice at the final race of the 1992 season at Magny-Cours was never finished, leaving Peugeot to concentrate on 1993 24 Hours of Le Mans with the Evo 1B. They were able to make a historic win by sweeping the first three positions. Following this dominance, Peugeot pulled out of sportscar racing. Peugeot decided to switch to Formula One, using the same 3.5L V10 from the 905, adjusted to F1 regulations. In 1994, Peugeot debuted as an engine supplier with the McLaren team, remained in F1 until the end of the 2000 season, after little success, they decided to concentrate on the World Rally Championship, where their factory team had had some success, winning the title on several occasions.
However, Peugeot withdrew its works WRC operation at the end of the 2005 season, returned to Le Mans for the 2007 24 Hours, with the new 908 HDi FAP prototype entry. Manufacturer Peugeot First race 1990 Category Group C1 Engine 80° 3,499 cc V10, 40 valves Output 650 PS @ 12,500 rpm Chassis Carbon fiber Monocoque Length 4.80 metres Width 1.96 metres Height 1.04 metres Weight 780 kg Tires Michelin 32x63x17 & 34x70x18 1991 #5 Baldi - Alliot - Jabouille - Did Not Finish #6 Dalmas - Rosberg - Raphanel - Did Not Finish 1992 #1 Dalmas - Warwick - Blundell - 1st #2 Baldi - Alliot - Jabouille - 3rd #31 Ferté - Van de Poele - Wendlinger - Did Not Finish 1993 #3 Bouchut - Hélary - Brabham - 1st #1 Dalmas - Boutsen - Fabi - 2nd #2 Baldi - Alliot - Jabouille - 3rd Suzuka 1991 Baldi - Alliot - 1st Magny Cours 1991 Rosberg - Dalmas - 1st Baldi - Alliot - 2nd Mexico 1991 Rosberg - Dalmas - 1st' Baldi - Alliot - 2nd Silverstone 1992 Warwick - Dalmas - 1st Donington 1992 Baldi - Alliot - 1st Warwick - Dalmas - 2nd
Stéphane Jean-Marc Sarrazin is a French professional racing driver. He has won races across a number of single-seater and rallying disciplines and competitions, was French Formula Renault champion in 1994, Le Mans Series champion in both 2007 and 2010, he has finished on the podium six times at the 24 Hours of Le Mans race, including four outright second positions, although he has never won. He participated in one Formula One Grand Prix, the 1999 Brazilian Grand Prix, for Minardi as a replacement for Luca Badoer, who had injured his wrist, he suffered a big spin in the race coming up to the start-finish straight on lap 31 and scored no championship points. He carried out testing duties for the Prost Grand Prix team during the 1999–2001 Formula One seasons and for Toyota Racing in their first season in 2002. During the 1999 season, Sarrazin raced in International Formula 3000, winning one race at the Hungaroring. In 2003, he raced in the Superfund World Series. In 2004, Sarrazin converted to rallying and competed in two World Rally Championship events, posting a best result of 4th.
He was signed to drive Subaru's second car along with young Australian Chris Atkinson as a teammate to defending world champion Petter Solberg. He competed at the 2004 Race of Champions. Sarrazin drove an Aston Martin DBR9 in the GT1 class of the 2006 American Le Mans Series, but was announced on January 10, 2007 as an official works driver for Peugeot Sport in the Le Mans Series, driving the new 908 HDi FAP diesel Le Mans Prototype, he won the 2007 Le Mans Series by winning three races. Sarrazin took pole position at the 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans and finished second in the race with Lamy and Sébastien Bourdais, he finished third in the 2009 Monte Carlo rally. Sarrazin finished second again in the 2009 24 Hours of Le Mans, he finished fourth overall on the Monte Carlo round of the 2010 Intercontinental Rally Challenge. Following Peugeot's withdrawal from endurance racing, Sarrazin signed with Starworks Motorsport for the 2012 FIA World Endurance Championship. Sarrazin signed a temporary deal to drive the Toyota TS030 Hybrid at Le Mans due to the withdrawal of Hiroaki Ishiura on medical grounds.
In 2013, Sarrazin joined Toyota Racing full-time as a driver of the Toyota TS030. Sarrazin helped the team scored his first win with the team in Bahrain. Sarrazin continued with Toyota Racing in 2014, signed for Venturi Grand Prix to race in Formula E, he finished the first race of the series, the 2014 Beijing ePrix in 9th place. Two months in November 2014 he took his first international rally victory in the Tour de Corse, the last rally of the 2014 European Rally Championship. * Season still in progress. * Season still in progress. † Not Eligible for points Stéphane Sarrazin Official website Stéphane Sarrazin career summary at DriverDB.com
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
Total S. A. is a French multinational integrated oil and gas company founded in 1924 and one of the seven "Supermajor" oil companies in the world. Its businesses cover the entire oil and gas chain, from crude oil and natural gas exploration and production to power generation, refining, petroleum product marketing, international crude oil and product trading. Total is a large scale chemicals manufacturer. Total has its head office in the Tour Total in La Défense district in west of Paris; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. The company was founded after World War I, when French President Raymond Poincaré rejected the idea of forming a partnership with Royal Dutch Shell in favour of creating an French oil company. At Poincaré's behest, Col. Ernest Mercier with the support of ninety banks and companies founded Total on 28 March 1924, as the Compagnie française des pétroles the "French Petroleum Company". Petroleum was seen as vital in the case of a new war with Germany.
As per the agreement reached during the San Remo conference of 1920, the French state received the 25% share held by Deutsche Bank in the Turkish Petroleum Company as part of the compensation for war damages caused by Germany during World War I. The French government's stake in TPC was transferred to CFP, the Red Line agreement in 1928 rearranged the shareholding of CFP in TPC to 23.75%. The company from the start was regarded as a private sector company in view of its listing on the Paris Stock Exchange in 1929; the company during the 1930s was engaged in exploration and production from the Middle East. Its first refinery began operating in Normandy in 1933. After World War II, CFP engaged in oil exploration in Venezuela and Africa while pursuing energy sources within France. Exploration in Algeria a French colony, began in 1946, with Algeria becoming a leading source of oil in the 1950s. In 1954, CFP introduced its downstream product – Total brand of gasoline in the African continent and Europe.
In 1980, Total Petroleum Ltd. a company controlled 50% by CFP, bought the American refining and marketing assets of Vickers Petroleum as part of a sell-off by Esmark of its energy holdings. This purchase gave Total refining capacity, a network of 350 service stations in 20 states; the company renamed to build on the popularity of its gasoline brand. In 1991, the name was changed to Total, when it became a public company listed on the New York Stock Exchange; the French government, who used to control more than 30 percent of the company's stock in 1991, reduced its stake in the firm to less than 1 percent by 1996. In the time period between 1990 and 1994, foreign ownership of the firm increased from 23 per cent to 44 per cent. Meanwhile, Total continued to expand its retail presence in North America under several brand names. In 1989, Colorado, based Total Petroleum, Total CFP's North American unit, purchased 125 Road Runner retail locations from Texarkana, Texas-based Truman Arnold Companies.
By 1993, Total Petroleum was operating 2,600 retail stores under the Vickers, Road Runner, Total brands. That year, the company began remodeling and rebranding all of its North American gasoline and convenience stores to use the Total name. Only four years Total sold its North American refining and retail operations to Ultramar Diamond Shamrock for $400 million in stock and $414 million in assumed debt. After Total's takeover of Petrofina of Belgium in 1999, it became known as Total Fina. Afterwards it acquired Elf Aquitaine. First named TotalFinaElf after the merger in 2000, it was renamed back to Total on 6 May 2003. During that rebranding, the current globe logo was unveiled. In 2003, Total signed for a 30% stake in the gas exploration venture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – South Rub' al-Khali joint venture along with Royal Dutch Shell and Saudi Aramco; the stake was bought out by its partners. In May 2006, Saudi Aramco and TOTAL signed a MOU to develop the Jubail Refinery and Petrochemical project in Saudi Arabia which targeted 400,000 barrels per day.
On 21 September 2008, the two companies established a joint venture called SAUDI ARAMCO TOTAL Refining and Petrochemical Company - in which a 62.5% stake was held by Saudi Aramco and the balance 37.5% held by TOTAL. During the 2009-2010 Iraqi oil services contracts tender, a consortium led by CNPC, which included TOTAL and Petronas was awarded a production contract for the "Halfaya field" in the south of Iraq, which contains an estimated 4.1 billion barrels of oil. As of 2010, Total operated in more than 130 countries. In September 2010, Total announced plans to pull out of the forecourt market in the United Kingdom. In November 2012, Total announced it was selling its 20% stake and operating mandate in its Nigerian offshore project to a unit of China Petrochemical Corp for $2.5 billion. In 2013, Total started the operation at Kashagan with North Caspian Operating Company, it is the biggest discovery of oil reserves since 1968. In 2013, Total increased its stake in Novatek to 16.96%. In September 2013, Total and its joint venture partner agreed to buy Chevron Corporation’s retail distribution business in Pakistan for an undisclosed amount.
In January 2014, Total became the first major oil and gas firm to acquire exploration rights for shale gas in the UK after it bought a 40 percent interest in two licences in the Gainsborough Trough area of northern England for $48 million. In July 2014, the company disclosed it was in exclusive talks to sell its LP
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Peugeot Sport is the department of French carmaker Peugeot responsible for motorsport activities. Peugeot Sport was formed in 1981 under the name of Peugeot Talbot Sport, after Jean Todt, a World Rally Championship co-driver for Talbot driver Guy Fréquelin, was asked by Peugeot to create a sporting department for the PSA Peugeot Citroën group; the rally team, established at Bois de Boulogne near Paris, debuted its Group B Peugeot 205 Turbo 16 in 1984, took its first victory in Finland in the hands of Ari Vatanen. In 1985, Peugeot drivers Vatanen and Timo Salonen won seven out of the 12 rounds to give Peugeot the manufacturers' title and Salonen the drivers' title. Vatanen had been injured in an accident in Argentina in 1985, so was replaced by Juha Kankkunen for 1986, who promptly delivered the team a second consecutive title; the FIA banned Group B cars for the 1987 season after the fatal accident of Henri Toivonen. This lead Peugeot to switch to rally raid, using the 205 to win the Dakar Rally for two consecutive years in 1987 to 1988, used the 405 to win in 1989 and 1990.
Peugeot Talbot Sport participated three times at the Pikes Peak Hillclimb Race in 1987, 1988 and 1989, winning the last two years, as well as in 2013 with the 208 T16. In endurance racing Peugeot Talbot Sport established their sportscar team at Vélizy-Villacoublay, France and in 1988 launched the 905 project, to develop a sportscar to begin competing in the World Sportscar Championship in the 1991 season; the 905 was introduced in 1990, finished second in the 1991 World Sportscar Championship season. In 1992, Peugeot Talbot Sport won the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with drivers Derek Warwick, Yannick Dalmas and Mark Blundell, they won the World Sportscar Championship, thanks to Warwick, Philippe Alliot and Mauro Baldi. The championship did not run in 1993, but Peugeot were able to take a 1–2–3 finish at the 1993 24 Hours of Le Mans, with Éric Hélary, Christophe Bouchut and Geoff Brabham driving the winning car. Peugeot Talbot Sport subsequently pulled out of sportscar racing. Jean Todt, left Peugeot for Scuderia Ferrari.
Peugeot switched to Formula One for 1994, using a similar 3.5L V10 engine as found in the 905. This was developed to be used by McLaren in 1994. However, poor reliability led to the relationship ending at the end of 1994 after 8 podiums, zero victories and 17 DNF´s; this led to Peugeot supplying Jordan Grand Prix in 1995 and 1996 and 1997 with 5 podiums as best results, before supplying the new Prost Grand Prix team for the 1998, 1999 and 2000 seasons. After a pointless 2000 season where poor reliability matched with Prost inability to deliver a competitive chassis, plus having scored no wins since their debut, led to the French marque pulling the plug out of F1; the Peugeot engines were bought by an Asian consortium led by former F1 designer Enrique Scalabroni called Asiatech and used for two further years. The Asiatech engines were both reliable and were supplied at zero cost, but its poor driveability led to both teams replacing them in favor of more costly but more capable Cosworth units.
Peugeot entered the British Touring Car Championship in 1992, preparing 405's for former champion Robb Gravett. The team was run in-house from the company's UK factory in Coventry; the 405 never won a race despite promising results in its four seasons of competition, before being replaced in 1996 by the 406. Peugeot UK did not share any technical data with its European contemporaries, the BTCC programme suffered. Peugeot handed the works deal to Motor Sport Developments for 1997 and 98, but wins still eluded the team. With spiralling costs in the series, Peugeot withdrew from the BTCC at the end of 1998. With his Peugeot 406, Laurent Aïello won the 1997 Super Tourenwagen Cup season; the Peugeot 306 GTi won the prestigious Spa 24 hours endurance race in 1999 and 2000. Peugeot won five times the Danish Touringcar Championship, with both the Peugeot 306 -winner in 1999, 2000 and 2001– and the Peugeot 307 winner in 2002 and 2003. Peugeot has been racing in the Asian Touring Car Series, winning the 2000, 2001, 2002 championships with the Peugeot 306 GTi.
In 2001, Peugeot entered three 406 Coupés into the British Touring Car Championship to compete with the dominant Vauxhall Astra Coupés. However, the 406 Coupé was not competitive, despite some promise towards the end of the year, notably when Peugeot's Steve Soper led a race only to suffer engine failure in the last few laps; the 406 Coupés were retired at the end of the following year and replaced with the 307—again, uncompetitively—in 2003. Peugeot has been racing in the Stock Car Brasil series since 2007 and won the 2008, 2009, 2011 championships. In 2013, the Peugeot 208GTi won a one-two-three at the 24 Hours Nürburgring endurance race. In 1999, Peugeot Sport returned to the World Rally Championship with the Peugeot 206 WRC, under the guidance of director Corrado Provera; the car debuted at the Tour de Corse, with François Delecour driving one car and Gilles Panizzi and Marcus Grönholm sharing the second car over the remaining events. Grönholm finished fourth on the car’s third event, Rally Finland, before Panizzi finished second on Rallye Sanremo.
In 2000, Grönholm gave the car its first victory at Rally Sweden, followed this up with wins in New Zealand and Australia on his way to the Drivers’ championship. Panizzi won in Sanremo, giving Peugeot the Manufacturers' championship. In 2001, Didier Auriol joined the team. Panizzi and Harri Rovanperä drove additional cars for the team on selected events. Rovanperä won round two in Sweden, as Grönholm struggled with retirements during the first half of the ye